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Full text of "The Survey April-September 1917"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/surveyaprsep1917surv 



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THE SURVEY 



Vol. XXXVIII 
April, 19 17 — September, 19 17 



WITH INDEX 



mi, n 9 

6-/6 // 



New York 
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

1 12 East 19 street 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, I 



NC. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. DE FOREST, Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL.... Washington 

RICHARD C. CABOT Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK Boston 

LTVINGSTON FARRAND Boulder 

SAMUEL S. FELS Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKEL New York 

JOHN M. GLENN New York 

C. M. GOETHE Sacramento 

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York 

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 
FRANK TUCKER, Treas New York 



MORRIS KNOWLES Pittsburgh 

ALBERT D. LASKER Chicago 

JOSEPH LEE Boston 

JULIAN W. MACK Chicago 

V. EVERIT MACY New York 

CHARLES D. NORTON New York 

SIMON N. PATTEN Philadelphia 

JULIUS ROSENWALD Chicago 

NATHAN A. SMYTH New York 

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago 

ELIOT WADSWORTH Washington 

LILLIAN D. WALD New York 

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec. .New York 



THE STAFF 

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 
ASSOCIATE EDITORS 



Hi/ 

v. 3ff 



EDWARD T. DEVINE GRAHAM TAYLOR 

JANE ADDAMS 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

PHILIP P. JACOBS 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY 

JOHN IHLDER 

PORTER R. LEE 

ALICE HAMILTON 

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN 

I. M. RUBINOW 



HEADQUARTERS STAFF 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG 

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR* 

JOHN A. FITCH 

DAVID C. DAVIS 

WINTHROP D. LANE 

MARY CHAMBERLAIN 

GERTRUDE SEYMOUR 

BRUNO LASKER 

ELWOOD STREET 



*On leave of absence attached to the American Embassy, Petrograd. 



A JOURNAL of SOCIAL EXPLORATION 



Index 



volume xxxvni 
April, 1917 — September, 1917 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a 
few cases under titles, except poems and book reviews, which are listed only 
under those headings. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under 
their subjects. The precise wording of titles has not been retained where ab- 
breviation or paraphrase has seemed more desirable. 



Abbott, Grace, 184, 857. 

Child labor law director (with portrait), 
484, 485. 
Abelson, Alter. 

A light (verse), 455. 
Accidents, industrial. 

Green hands and. 556. 

Training of persons injured, 78. 
Adamson law, letters from Powell and Fitch, 

46. 
Addams, Jane. Paul Elmer More on, 337. 
Adler, H. M., 563. 
Adolescence, 21. 
Advertising, The Survey as a medium (letter), 

510. 
African wages, 536. 
Agriculture. 

British women and, 526. 

St. Louis rally, 67. 
Ahlers, Dr. O. C, 47. 
Alabama. 

Jails, 262. 

School buildings, 66. 
Albany, N. Y., court psychopathic clinic, 536. 
Alcohol. 

Bread or beer (letters of Mr. Fox and Mrs. 
Tilton), 178. 

Breweries vs. bakeries (Mrs Tilton's re- 
joinder to Mr. Fox), 65. 

Cartoons, 166, 168, 169. 

Child labor in making, 195. 

Cost of (letters), 179. 

Dry look ahead, 524. 

Fox, H. L., reply to Mrs. Tilton, 62. 

Little Adventures with John Burleycorn : 
extract, 273. 

O'Ryan, Gen. J. F., on, 459. 

Poster Campaign, latest poster, 68. 

Vice and. 343. 

War work and, 537. 

Wets and the West, 351. 

See also Prohibition. 
Alexander-Simmons bill. 504, 520, 541, 555, 

570. 
"Alice in Wonderland" (cartoon), 275. 
Aliens. 

Farm work, 295. 

New York city. 527. 

Patriotism and. 529. 

St. Louis, 248. 
All America Helps, 79. 
Allowances to Soldiers' families, 291. 

See also Insurance ; Soldiers. 
Almy, Frank, 537. 
Almy, Frederic, 177, 258, 537. 

Portrait, 254. 
America. 

Newer sons (verse), 404. 

Protecting ideals of, 31. 
American Academy of Political and Social 

Science, world food conference, 555. 
American Alliance for Labor and Democracy, 

meeting at Minneapolis, 558. 
American Association of Workers for the Blind, 

341. 
American Committee on War Finance, 20. 
American Federation of Labor, government con- 
tracts during the war, 299. 
American Hospital Association, 579. 
American Institute of Social Service, 298. 
American Legal Defense League, formation and 

board, 144. 
American Library Association, 496. 
American Medical Association, prohibition and 

convention, 266. 
American Prisoners' Central Committee, Berne, 

463. 
American Union Against Militarism, and Indi- 
vidual conscientious objectors, 296. 
Americanization. 

Banners, 511. 

Jewish immigrants, 103. 
Anderson, Mary, ni.me omitted (letter), 279. 
Angell, Norman, 578. 

Animals, wounded. Red Star corps, 43. 
Anti-injunction bill in California, 380. 
Anti-injunction law, 281. 
Anti-Saloon League, 351. 
Appeals. 

Profit in (letter), 280. 

War funds, registering, 375. 

War relief, need of system, 297. 
Apprenticeship in Wisconsin, 464. 
Arborvitae trees, dwarf, 116. 
Archibald, R. M„ 427. 
Argentina. 

Tuberculosis, 463. 
Arizona. 



Labor troubles, 429. 

Minimum wage, 149. 
Arkansas. 

Legislation, 42, 177. 

Women's wages, 377. 
Armenia, missionary relief expedition, 405. 
Armenian and Syrian relief, 202. 
Army, U. S. 

Compensation, insm-anee, etc., 435. 

Separate allowances, 167. 

Unfit candidates, 224. 

Venereal disease and, 145. 

See also Soldiers. 
Army chaplains, 147. 

Armv Committee on Training Camp Activi- 
ties, 577. 
Armv families, pay and ; San Francisco plan, 

95. 
Army uniforms, sweat shops and, 519, cover 

of Sept. 15 issue. 
Arnstein, Leo, 48-49. 
Arsenals, survey, 297. 
Asia (journal), 47. 

Australia, reducing the high cost of living, 544. 
Austria, public health, 462. 
Autocracy, Russia (cartoon), 41. 
Avery, John M.. Vermont government, 148. 
Ayres, P. W., 364. 



B 

Babies. See Infant mortality ; Infants ; Chil- 
dren. 
Baby-saving, 508. 
Baby Week, 508. 

Drawing by Emma Clark, cover of April 28 
issue. 

Plans for, 41. 
"Back to the Sea," 443. 
Bacon, Mrs. A. F., 98. 
Baker, N. D. Circular to governors and others 

on camps, 273. 
Balch, Emily G. Reviews of several books on 

world relations, 549, 550, 552. 
Baldwin, Frank. San Francisco exposition (let- 
ter), 199. 
Baldwin. Roger N„ 48, 510. 

East St. Louis — Why? (letter), 447. 

Review of De Witt's The Man in Court, 361. 

Review of Perry's Community Center Activi- 
ties, 175. 
Balfour, A. J., 182. 
Balmer, Thomas. 281. 
Banners, Americanization, 511. 
Barnard, Geo. Grey, 21. 
Barnes, J, H., 491. 
Barrow, Mrs. G. B. Letter, 199. 
Barrows E. M., 48. 
Barton. Dante, 72. 

Death, 463. 
Batchelor, J. M. From an elevated train 

(verse), 141. 
Baths in Milan, Italy, 464. 
Baxter, Dr. Donald. Poliomyelitis, 426. 
Bayley, James, 503. 
Bedell, Gertrude. Women's wages (letter), 

448. 
Beer, 64, 65. 

Congress and. 326. 

Fight against, last week, 292. 

Fox, H. L. (letter), 178. 

See also Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Belgian Red Cross poster, 121. 
Belgian reservists in America, 302. 
Belgian scholars, 463. 
Belgium. 

Deportations, 320. 

Prvse poster, 398. 

Relief, 202. 
Bell. Wm. M. Speakers wanted for Los An- 
geles (letter), 46. 
Bellamy, Geo. A., 251. 
Bellport, L. I., 578. 
Bellville, O.. 463. 
Beniamin, P. L. 

Challenge. The (verse), 119. 

Comrades (verse), 437. 

Review of Pollock's Our Minnesota, 370. 
Bennett. R. B., 56. 

Portrait, 56. 
Berlin children, 277. 
Berne, 463. 

Bernstein, Dr. Chas., 263. 
Berres. A. J.. 488. 
Bible Film Co., 79. 
Bicknell, E. P., 235. 
Big Brothers and Big Sisters, 298. 
Biggs, Dr. H. M. 

Plan to control tuberculosis in war, 198. 



Tuberculosis In France, 112. 
Billings, W. K., 305. 

Portrait, 308. 
Birth control. 
Chicago, 126. 
Clinic families, 98. 
Illinois, 250. 

Mitchell case (letter), 200. 
Pennsylvania, 462. 
Birth-rate, 530. 

Bisbee, Ariz., deportations, 353, 429. 
Blackwell, Alice S., 528. 

Mme. Breshkovsky's address (letter), 536. 
Blindness : one system of raised letters for all 

blind in future, 341. 
Bloomfield, Daniel. Letter on Daylight Sav- 
ing, 176. 
Blue Ridge conference, 443. 
Bolduan, C. F., 495. 
Bomb cases in San Francisco, 305. 
Book reviews. 

Administration of Industrial Enterprises, 

The (Jones), 441. 
Advent Songs (Patten), 361. 
Agriculture After the War (Hall), 441. 
Alsace-Lorraine (Jordan), 551. 
American Red Cross Text Book on Home 

Dietetics (Fish), 75. 
Armenian Poems (Blackwell, trans.), 368. 
Bases d'une Paix Durable, Les (Schvan), 553. 
Basis of Durable Peace, The (Cosmos), 553. 
Belgians Under the German Eagle (Massart), 

550. 
Budget, The (Stourm), 574. 
Building of Cities, The (James), 372. 
Call of the Republic, The (Wise), 532. 
Central Europe (Naumann), 359. 
Chartist Movement, 3 books on, 288. 
China Inside Out (Miller), 360. 
Christian Ministry, The (Williams), 531. 
Church and the Hour, The (Scudder), 370. 
City Residential Land Development (Yeo- 

mans), 289. 
City Worker's World, The (Simkhovitch), 367. 
Community Center Activities (Perry), 175. 
Conditions of Labor in American Industries 

(Lauck and Sydenstricker), 441. 
Confusion of Tongues, A (Frothingham). 574. 
Cooperative Credit for the United States 

(Wolff), 574. 
Criminality and Economic Conditions (Bon- 

ger), 76. 
Critique, A, of the Theory of Evolution (Mor- 
gan), 422. 
Declining Birth-rate. The, 530. 
Development of China, The (Latourette), 360. 
Dietetics or Food in Health and Disease 

(Tibbies), 575. 
Drama of the Spiritual Life, The (Sears), 174. 
Education of Women, The (Talbot), 175. 
Elizabeth Fry (Richards), 76. 
English-Speaking Peoples, The (Beer), 549. 
Essays in War Time (Ellis), 288. 
European Anarchy, The (Dickinson), 73, 75. 
Faith, War. and Policy (Murray), 573. 
Financial Administration of Great Britain, 

The (Willoughby and others), 442. 
Fire Prevention and Protection (Hutson>, 

574. 
Flogging Craze, The (Salt), 174. 
Food and Health (Kinne and Coolev), 76. 
Food for the Worker (Stern and Spitz), 373. 
French books on France after the war, 173. 
Freud's Theories of the Neuroses (Hitsch- 

mann), 361. 
Frontiers of Language and Nationality in 

Europe, The (Dominian), 553. 
Function, The, of Socialization in Social Evo- 
lution (Burgess), 573. 
Girlhood and Character (Moxcey), 289. 
Henry Ford's Own Story (Lane). 372. 
How to Become a Citizen of the United States 

(Kallmeyer), 533. 
Hygiene in Mexico (Pani), 551. 
Hvmns of the United Church (Morrison and 

Willett, Eds.), 46. 
Immigrant and the Community, The (Ab- 
bott), 372. 
Inside the British Isles (Gleason), 548. 
International Crisis, The : The Theory of 

the State (Mackenzie and others), 552. 
Internationalism — several works on (by 
Grant, Greenwood, Muir, Withers, Dick- 
inson, etc.), 73. 
Introduction, An, to the Study of Organized 

Labor in America (Groat). 532. 
Is Christianity Practicable? (Brown), 574. 
Jewish Philanthropy (Bogen), 532. 
Judgment of the Orient, The (K'ung Yuan 
Ku'suh), 174. 



IV 



Index 



Layman's Handbook of Medicine, A (Cabot), 

45. 
"Mademoiselle Miss," 372. 
Man in Court, Tbe (De Witt), 361. 
Measurement of Intelligence (Terman), 423. 
Mechanisms of Character Foundation 

(White), 361. 
Mental Conflicts and Misconduct (Healy), 

421. 
Mentality of the Criminal Woman, The 

(Weidensall), 367. 
Mexican Problem, The (Barron), 551. 
Minimum Cost of Living, The (Gibbs), 531. 
Modern Mother's Experience, A (Mosko- 

witz), 372. 
Motherhood (Hartley), 371. 
Murder (Greenberg), 76. 
National Being, Tbe — Seme Thoughts on 

an Irish Polity (A. E.), 548. 
Nationalism and War in the Near East (Lord 

Courtney), 552. 
Nationalism, War and Society (Krehbiel), 

552. 
Natural Painless Childbirth and the Deter- 
mination of Sex (Sylvan), 575. 
Nature of Peace, The (Ueblen), 554. 
Neurotic Constitution, The (Adler), 361. 
New Citizenship, The (Mackaye), 76. 
New Country Church Building, The (Brun- 

ner), 574. 
Notes on the Causation of Cancer (Russell), 

534. 
Obstacles to Peace (McClure), 554. 
Offender, The, and His Relation to Law and 

Society (Lewis), 531. 
Origin, The ... of Toxic Jaundice . . . 

in Munition Workers (Legge and others), 

533. 
Our Minnesota (Pollock), 370. 
Outline of Applied Sociology (Fairchild), 

573. 
Personal Health (Brady), 175. 
Physical Basis of Society, The (Kelsey), 573. 
Prison Reform (Bacon), 46. 
Prost and Wages (Kleene), 289. 
Promise of Country Life, The Bowman), 175. 
Psychology of Special Abilities and Disabili- 
ties (Bronner), 372. 
Public Defender, The (Goldman), 361. 
Readings in Social Problems (Wolfe), 46. 
Rebirth of Russia, The (Marcosson), 549. 
Recent Progress in the Study of Variation, 

Heredity and Evolution (Lock), 422. 
Reconstruction of Poland and the Near East, 

The (Gibbons), 550. 
Restoration of Trade Union Conditions 

(Webb), 440. 
Rise, The, of Ecclesiastical Control in Que- 
bec (Riddell), 575. 
Rural Sociology (Vogt), 533. 
Russia in 1916 (Graham), 76. 
Russians, The (Wright), 359. 
Schoolmaster, A. of the Great City (Patri), 

422. 
Seasonal Industry. A (Van Kleeck), 370. 
Second Folk Dance Book, The (Crampton), 

175. 
Second Wind (Tilden), 533. 
Selected Articles on Capital Punishment 

(Fanning), 361. 
Selected Articles on Military Training, etc. 

(Van Valkenburgh), 372. 
Selected Articles on Minimum Wage (Reely), 

371. 
Selected Articles on National Defense, In- 
cluding Compulsory Military Service (Van 

Valkenburgh), 370. 
Sexes in Science and nistory, The (Gamble), 

368. 
Short Rations (Doty), 174. 
Sins of the Children. The (Hamilton), 175. 
Slaves of the War Zone, The (Baily), 549. 
Social Insurance (Woodbury), 533. 
Social Rule (Parsons), 369. 
Society Misfits (Doty), 77. 
Soul of Ulster, The (Hamilton), 548. 
Story of My Life (Keller), school edition, 

289. 
Studies in Forensic Psychiatry (Glueck), 

76. 
Study and Behavior of an Individual Child, 

The (McManis). 423. 
Teaching of History in the High School, The 

(Hartwell), 174. 
Training of Men for the World's Future, The 

(Thwing), 360. 
Training the Children (Hughes), 575. 
Truancy and Non-Attendant e in the Chicago 

Schools (Abbott and Breckinridge), 369. 
Ultimate Democracy and Its Making (Sims), 

441. 
Unfair Competition (Stevens), 442. 
Vitalized School, The (Pearson), 422. 
War After the War, The (Marcosson), 360. 
Way Life Begins, The (Cady), 423. 
When the Prussians Came to Poland 

(Turczynowicz), 550. 
Why Men Fight (Russell), 45. 
Witte Arrives (Tobenkin), 574. 
Women in Modern Industry (Hutchins), 371. 
Women in War (GribbleL 553. 
Women Workers and Society (McLean), 371. 
Workers and Education. Tbe (Gillman), 440. 
World at War, The (Brandes), 360. 
World Peace — A Spectacle Drama in Three 

Acts (O'Hare), 175. 



Books. 

For soldiers, 496. 

On world relations, 548. 
Booze (cartoons), 166, 168, 169. 

Grain cartoon, 223. 
Boss. See Employers. 
Boston. 

School system investigation, 44. 

War prohibition, 250. 
Boston City Hospital, social service [347]. 
Boston Legal Aid Society, 495. 
Bourne, Randolph. Review of Patri's A School- 
master of the Great City, 422. 
Bowen, A. L, 563. 
Bowen, Albert, 344. 

Health insurance (letter), 279. 
"Boxer" students, [499]. 
Boy Scouts, parade on Patriots' Day, 97. 
Boyd, Judge, federal child labor law, 507. 
Boys. 

Enlistment for farms, 195. 

Farmers and, 142. 

Farms and, 386. 

Pioneers of America, 180. 

Sinning, 421. 
Boys' Club, industrial plant, 250. 
Boys' Working Reserve, 195. 
Brace Memorial Newsboys' House, 375. 
Brace up, 482, 483. 
Braille alphabet, 341. 
Brandeis, L. D., 33. 

Branzwyn, Frank, war posters, 395-397. 
Bread or beer (letter: Fox), 178. 
Breckenridge, Mrs. Desha, 513. 
Brenner, V. D. 

Bas-relief of F. B. Sanborn, cover of June 
16 issue. 

Natal day of the now Russia (sculpture), 
cover of July 21 issue. 
Breshkovsky, Mme. 

Address, 536. 

Word from, 20. 
Bressler, David M., 48. 
Breweries vs. bakeries. 65. 
Brewers Association, 62. 65. 

Fox, H. L. (letter), 178. 
Bridgeport, social forces cooperating, 374. 
Bronner, Augusta F. 

Review of McManis' The Study and Behav- 
ior of an Individual Child, 423. 

Review of Weidensall's The Mentality of the 
Criminal Woman, 307. 
Brooklyn, housing reform, 99. 
Brown. Elon, 225. 

Brown, Margaret H., Maine prisons, 150. 
Brown bill, 225. 

Veto, 241. 
Brundage, E. J., 126. 
Brunson, C. M., 183. 
Buffalo. 

Almy brothers, 537. 

Physicians, 374. 
Bureau of Engraving and Printing, hours of 

work, 357. 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. See U. S. Bureau 

of Labor Statistics. 
Burgess. J. S. 

China's social challenge, 501 

Portrait in group 1499]. 
Burke, M. C. Wages (letter), 344. 
Burns, A. T. Tax exemption (letter), 344. 
Byington, Margaret F. Within our own gates, 

299. 



California. 

Anti-iniunction bill, 380. 

Child labor law, 28. 

Land settlement, 408. 

Oriental labor, 325. 

School term (letter), 534. 

Social insurance, 297. 

State superintendent of playgrounds, 581. 

Women's wages, 377. 
Camp cities. 

Cleaning up, 273. 

San Diego, 281. 
Campbell, J. C, 428. 
Camps. 

Los Angeles, 22. 

Making safe for soldiers, 376. 

New Rochelle emergency hospital, cover of 
June 2 issue. 

Soldiers in cities, 433. 
Canada. 

City (Montreal) in war time, 1, 56. 

Grey, Earl, as a social reformer, 508. 

Insurance for soldiers, 379. 

Labor exchanges, 493. 
Canadian city in war time. See Canada. 
Canadian National Service Board, 56. 
Canadian Patriotic Fund, 201. 
Cancer. 534. 
Cape Cod, war on, 547. 
Capital punishment, People's Campaign League, 

47. 
Carlton. F. T. War eco..->mics (letter), 448. 
Carter, Gen. W. H., 143. 
Carver, T. N., 144. 
Castberg law, 460. 509. 
Catholic Social Year Book [347]. 
Censorship. 

As enacted, 245. 

Irresponsible, 358. 
Census. 



Farm census in 5 days, 155. 

Permanent national registry, 438. 
Central councils and community planning, 216. 
Chain letter for war relief, 463. 
Chamberlain, J. P. Insurance for soldiers 

and sailors, 504. 
Chamberlain, Mary. Women and war work, 

153. 
Chaplains, army, 147. 
Character, educating in schools, 536. 
Charities. 

Lexington, Ky., 513. 

St. Louis list, 250. 

War, control in, 456. 

See also New York (State). 
Charities Bulletin, 180. 
Charity. See Gifts ; Societies for Organizing 

Charity. 
Charity federation, 557, and cover of Sept. 22 

issue. 
Charity Organization in Salt Lake City, 252. 
Charleston, S. C, social problem and soldiers, 

433. 
Chase, Pearl, 183. 
Chautauqua, Los Angeles, speakers wanted 

(letter), 46. 
Chelsea Neighborhood Association, 79. 

Cartoon by Hy Mayer, 95. 
Chicago. 

Family limitation, 126. 

Forest preserve, 325. 

Judge's treatment of insane, 464. 

Public school tangle, 259. 

Sachs' name cleared. 99. 

Vice war, 249. 

See also Illinois. 
Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy, 

studentships, 79. 
Chicago University medical school, 281. 
Child labor. 

Alcohol manufacture by, 195. 

California, 28. 

Enforcement of the federal law, 357. 

Federal law, 484. 

Federal law held unconstitutional in North 
Carolina, 507. 

Flag and emblem making, 224. 

Massachusetts standards, 78. 

National committee plan, 86. 

Oklahoma farms, 576. 

Our Prussian (cartoon), 226. 

Safeguarding children in farm work, 86. 

Schooling and, 383. 

Senate and, 201. 

War and, 44. 
Child welfare. 

Iowa, 197. 

Montevideo congress, notice, 512. 

Montevideo congress officially recognized, 581. 
Children. 

Conscription and patriotism (poster), 167. 

Farmers' opinions of boy labor, 142. 

Fresh air for Berlin. 277. 

Health crusade (ill.), 41. 

Making the war safe for, 381, 418, 451. 

Movies for (letter), 199. 

Rights, 460. 509. 

Rights (letter), 460. 

Slums and nature's dwarf trees, 116. 

War and (letter), 580. 

War and crime. 24. 

War-time service, 155. 
Children's Bureau. . 

Growing staff, 494. 

Norway code for children, 509. 
Children's Court, New York, 581. 
Children's Home Society. See National Chil- 
dren's Home and Welfare Association. 
China. 

Getting rich quick, 556. 

Opium and morphin, 556. 

Opportunity for American social workers, 501. 

Public health campaign (sketch), 73. 

Shanghai Y. W. C. A.. 527. 
Choate, Joseph H., life and portrait, 172. 
Chocano, J. S., 528. 

Christman, Elizabeth. Omission (letter), 279. 
Churches. 

Offers to nation for war work, 70-71. 

Social workers recruited from, 278. 

War and, 228. 
Cigarettes in Kansas law, 47. 
Cincinnati. 

Negro Civic Welfare Committee, 511. 

Social service, 374. 

Social unit plan, 355. 
Cities, soldiers encamped in, 433. 
City planning. 

California conference, 298. 

Cleveland, 512. 

Ontario, 363. 

St. Louis, 47. 

Texas, 47. 

Textbook, 537. 
Civic reformer, vindication. 26. 
Civics : studentships in Chicago School, 79. 
Civil Liberties Bureau, 346. 
Civil service. 

Merit route. 318. 

State, efficiency. 40. 
Civil Service Commission, government appoint- 
ments, 202. 
Civil war. General Orders No. 100, 315. 
Civilian Relief. Sec Red Cross. 
Claghorn, Kate H. Review of Dominian's The 

Frontiers of Language and Nationality in 



n 



e x 



Europe, 553. 
Clark, Annie II. (Mrs. J. P.) Deafened sol- 
diers (letter), 510. 
Clark, B. Preston, 281. 
Clark, VV. E., 581. 

Review of Timing's The Training of Men for 
the World's Future, 360. 
Cleveland. 

City planning, 512. 

Civilian relief training, 512. 

Mental conscription (letter), 77. 

Negro prisoners, 511. 

Protest against military training in school, 
24. 
Clifton Springs, N. Y., 80. 
Clinton, G. W., 428. 
Clock, testimony of, 306. 
Clogs. 298-299. 

Club girls, inter-settlement, 201. 
Coal Production Committee, miners repre- 
sented, 279. 
Cockran, W. Bourke, portrait, 308. 
Cod, Cape. See Cape Cod. 
Coffin, Howard E., 123. 
Cohen, Barney, 564. 
College girls' social work, 363, 426. 
College Settlement, 201. 
College Settlements Association, rebaptism, 

219. 
College Socialists, 578. 
Colleges and nursing, 294. 
Collier, John, 131. 
Colorado. 

Coal strike (of 1913) end, 298. 

Lawson a free man, 72. 

Unions in coal mines, 40. 
Columbia, S. C, social problem and soldiers, 

433. 
Columbia University, government training 

courses, 201. 
Columbus, O., cooperation in social service, 

374-375. 
Commercial lyceum bureaus, 80, 82. 
Commonwealth Hall, 449. 

Community Center Conference, National, of- 
ficers, 183. 
Community centers : Chicago conference, 131. 
Community planning, central councils and, 216. 
Compensation. 

Soldiers, 435. 

Soldiers, all alike, 555. 

See also Workmen's compensation. 
Comrades (verse), 437. 
Conference on Mob Violence, 443. 
Conferences, calendar, 101, 184, 185, 465. 
Congress. 

Prohibition bills, 274, 326. 

Public health measures delayed, 457. 
Connecticut. 

Department of health, 282. 

Hours of work (letter), 178. 

Smallpox, 124. 

War labor for children and women, 250. 
Conscientious objectors. 

Devine, E. T.. on. 438. 

Individual exemption, 296. 

Letters from pacifists, 535. 

Neumann, H. (letter), 447. 

Plea for, 391. 

Quaker plans to aid war, 70. 

Quakers and, 146. 

Universal service and, 352. 
Conscription. 

Adoption by Congress, 120. 

Human experience, 404. 

Mental, Cleveland (letter), 77. 
Conservation of human life, 79. 
Conservation of minds (letter), 362. 
Constitutions : Massachusetts convention, 281- 

282. 
Consumers' League. 

Industrial standards, 346. 

Labor laws in war, 37. 
Contract labor and farmers, 295. 
Contributions. See Gifts. 
Coolie labor, 325. 
Co operation. 

Central States Society, 511. 

England, 230. 
Cost of living. 

"Alice in Wonderland" (cartoon), 275. 

Australia, 544. 

Dallas, Texas, 248. 

Protocol and, 249. 
Costello, Dr. C. E., 224, 225. 
Council of National Defense, 31. 

Labor standards in wartime, 37. 

Medical branch, plans, 87. 

Plans ; eight labor committees, 94. 
Councils. See Central councils. 
Counsel for defendants, 79. 
Country. See Rural life. 
Courts and Negroes, 509. 
Craze, Geo. H., 48. 
Crime, juvenile, and war, 24. 
Cripples. 

Boys instructing soldier, England, cover of 
June 30 issue. 

Iowa curing. 312. 

Preparation for war cripples, 291. 

War, 566. 

War : New York city institution, 297. 

See also Wounded soldiers. 
Crow, bagging (cartoon), 524. 
Currick, Rabbi M. C, 47. 
Curtis, Wm. G. Insurance facts (letter), 179. 



D 

Dagenhart, R. H., 485, 507. 
Dairy, typhoid traced to, 356. 
Dallas, Texas. 

City-planning textbook, 537. 

Cost of living, 248. 
Dallas Survey, 449. 
Danbury hatters' case. 

Homes placed on sale, 262. 

Homes to be kept, 363. 
Davenport, Eugene, 39, 69. 
Davis, Otto W.. 41. 
Davison, H. P., 162, 235, [348], 508. 
Dawson, Darner, 490. 
Daylight saving. 

Congress and, 125. 

Letter on the article, 176. 
Deafened soldiers, 375, 510. 
Dean, Arthur D. Tools as well as guns, 35. 
Debar, Joseph, telegram, 343. 
Detectives. 

Self help, 79. 

See also Mental defectives. 
Defenders of poor criminals, 79. 
Defense. 

First line of (cartoou by Kopsco), 39. 

Bee also Preparedness. 
Delineator, The, 508. 
Delinquency in war time, 451. 
Democracy, 30, 31. 

America to Russia (Root's speech), 272. 

Call to conference on, 180. 

Trench-digging and (cartoon by Kopsco), 71. 

War and, 321 

Wilson's address, April 2, 16-17. 
Democracy and Terms of Peace, conference at 

New York, 246. 
Denmark, trade union, 536. 
Dentistry, cooperative, 248. 
Dependents, soldiers', 167. 
Deportations, 320. 
Derrick, Calvin. Self-government (lone), 473, 

577. 
Detroit : Negroes' greeting, 333. 
Devine, E. T. 

Letters criticizing his article "First Obliga- 
tion,'' 535. 

Social forces in war time, 290, 314, 336, 352, 
374, 400, 424, 438, 546, 456, 566. 

Social problems of the war, 253. 

Summer course, 297. 

Wartime assistance ou The Survey, 318. 
Dewey, John. Extracts from an address on 

education, 19. 
Dillard, J. H. Negro migration, 340. 
Disabled soldiers, Inter-Allied Conference on, 

566. 
Dock labor, 320. 
Dodd, Alvin E., 48. 
Dogs in Constantinople, 471. 
Draft. 

Letter on opposing, 534. 

See also Conscription. 
Drake, C. St. Clair, 564. 
Draper, Dr. George, 206. 
Dublin. 

Plans for a new, 227. 

Soldiers and Sailors' Help Society, 196 and 
cover of May 26 issue. 
Du Bois. W. E. B.. 226. 
Dudley, E. C, 564. 
Dunes, Lake Michigan, 287. 
Dwarfs, Nature's, 116. 



E 

East Africa, wages, 536. 
East St. Louis. 

Fauset, Jessie, on (letter). 448. 

Negro riot, 331. 

Why? (letter), 447. 
Economics, war (letter), 448. 
Economy, hysterical demands for, 123. 
Edens, B. M. Negro emigration to the North 

(letter), 511. 
Edgerton, Alice. War relief (letter), 199. 
Edgerton, C. E. Our aim in the war (letter), 

535. 
Education. 

Books on. 421. 

Character-building, 536. 

For earning or for life?, 18. 

Germans (letter), 580. 

Negroes, 267. 

War program, 425. 

See also Vocational, etc. 
Efficiency and posture, 482, 483. 
Eight-hour Day in the Bureau of Engraving 

and Printing, 357. 
Eliot, C. W. Vice in France behind the lines, 

509. 
Eliot, Thos. D. San Francisco vice crusade (let- 
ter). 77. 
Elkus, A. I. Turkey's condition, 376. 
Elliot, John L., 21. 
El Paso, 71, 273, 349. 

Saloon and prostitutes, 245. 
Embroidery : Swiss minimum wage, 201. 
Emergency Peace Federation, conference, 246. 
Emerson, Dr. Haven, 295. 

Alcohol and vice, 343. 
Employers and Employed, National Alliance, 80. 
Employers' efficiency (Fitch), 211. 
Employment. 



New York Bureau, 262. 
New York Bureau and women, 298. 
Encampment towns, soldiers and social vice In, 

Engineers for France, 166. 
England. 

Cooperative movement, 230. 

Experience in output and hours during the 
war, 51. 

Housing munition workers, 460. 

Minimum wage for farm labor, 377. 

Registry of appeals for war charity, 375. 

Women police, 490. 

See also Great Britain. 
English Union of Democratic Control, peace 

terms, 406. 
Enlisting workmen for France, 166. 
Espionage bill, 245. 
Everett, Wash., 160. 
Evidence, social, nature and uses (Richmond), 

108. 
Exemption, 167, 394. 

Contributions, 314. 

Letter on, 534. 
Exercise, physical faults corrected by, 482, 483. 
Exiles, Russians in America, 327. 
Eyes, defective. 224. 



F 

Factory experience in Switzerland, 299. 

Failure, reasons for, 335. 

Families, limitation of, 126. 

Family budget, 180. 

Farm census, 155. 

Farm labor league, Quaker, 70. 

Farm work. 

Boys and, 386. 

Boys' enlistment for, 195. 

Boys from city and, farmers' opinions, 142. 

Children, 86. 

Children in Oklahoma, 576. 

Contract labor for, 295. 

Maryland, 159. 

Minimum wage in England, 377. 

Negroes, 267. 

School attendance vs., 68. 

Shortage of help, 39. 

Summer vacations and, 69. 

Wages, 325. 

Women and, 262. 
Farmers. 

National Non-Partisan League, 564. 

St. Louis rally, 67. 
Farrand, Livingston, [348], 353. 

Portrait, [348]. 
Fashion, faults of, 482. 
Fatherless (poster), 396. 
Fatigue, war results, 170. 
Faulkner, C. E. Letter opposing change of 

name of National conference, 177. 
Fauset, Jessie, 510. 

East St. Louis (letter), 448. 
Feagin, Wm. F. School buildings in Alabama, 

66. 
Federal Council for Allied War Charities and 

the Red Cross, 340. 
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ, 

offers for war work, 70-71. 
Federal probation, 281. 
Federation, charity, 557 and cover of Sept. 

22 issue. 
Feeblemindedness, 177, 178. 

Immigrants, 528. 

Johnson, Alex., on (letter), 580. 

Merging of New York Committee, 297. 

New York State, 130. 

Pennsylvania, 23. 

Unemployment and. on Pacific coast, 250. 

Wartime "bit," 263. 
Fellowship of Reconciliation, 198. 
Fernau, Hermann, pamphlet, 324. 
Fincke, Wm. M., 228, 298. 
Finlay, K. G., 428. 

Finley, J. H. On military training law, 36. 
Finnegan, Mrs. Annie, 91. 

Fisher, Irving. Prohibiiton in wartime (let- 
ter), 279. 
Fisk University, 278. 
Fitch, John A. Hours and output, 138. 

Letter in reply to Mr. Powell, 47. 

Making the boss efficient, 211. 

Peace at home. 189. 

Review of Groat's An Introduction to the 
Study of Organized Labor in America, 532. 

Review of Lauck and Sydenstricker's Con- 
ditions of Labor in American Industries, 
441. 

San Francisco bomb cases. 305. 
Flag : family making flag emblems, 224. 
Flexner, Hortense. Gifts (verse), 165. 
Flies. 

Baby deaths and (diagram), 40. 

Food In Turkey, cover of Sept. 1 Issue. 

Fresh-killed wanted. 77. 

Shanghai playlet, 527. 
Flower mission, 15. 
Folks, Homer, [348], 353. 

Portrait, [348]. 
Food. 

Beer, etc., and, 65. 

Flies in Turkey, cover of Sept. 1 Issue. 

Importance of supply, 67. 

Liquor prohibition to scve (post card), 68. 

National mobilization, 39. 



VI 



Index 



Plunkett, Sir Horace on American plans, 69. 

Price fluctuations, 480. 

Regulation, 291. 

St. Louis, conservation, 249-250. 

Storage and marketing, 579. 

War and, 234. 

Wisconsin plans, 249. 

W. C. X. U. on glowing, 201-202. 

World and supply, 96. 

World inventory, 555. 

See also Grain. 
Food bill. 

Congress and. 326. 

Prohibition and, 351. 

Sailor's risks on ships, 166. 

Status, 339. 
Food control. 

Beginning, 491. 

Bill, 142. 

Enactment of bill, 445. 

New York State, 512. 

Proposed federal, 38. 
Ford, G. B., 328. 
Ford, James. 297. 
Foreign relations, 319. 
Foreign students in America, C. D. Hurrey, 

on, 114. 
Forests : Chicago preserve, 325. 
Forum in Oshkosh, Wis., 180. 
Forward, 249. 
Fosdick, Raymond, 577. 
Fourth of July. See Independence Day. 
Fox, Hugh F. 

Bread or beer (letter), 178. 

Reply to Mrs. Tilton's Turning off the 
spigot, 62. 
Framingham, Mass., 82. 
France. 

Cripples, 11. 

First men to go to, 166. 

Health of soldiers behind the lines, 577. 

Losses at home, 512. 

Reconstruction and restocking, 380. 

Red Cross Commission to, 235. 

Saving from tuberculosis, 223. 

Tuberculosis (Briggs), 112. 

Tuberculosis commission, [348], 353. 

Tuberculosis poster, cover of May 12 issue. 

University life of Grenoble, 547. 

Vice among the soldiers, 509. 

Women workers, 363. 
"Free nations," union of, 195. 
Free pamphlets, 280. 
Free speech, 144. 

French soldiers' families in America, 299. 
French-Belgian Alliance (poster), 300. 
French Jewish Legion (poster), 301. 
French language, soldiers' instruction, 346. 
Fresh air for children in Berlin, 277. 
Friedlaender, Israel, 176. 

Americanization of Jewish immigrants, 103. 
Friends. See Quakers. 
Frissell, H. B., portrait and note, cover of 

August 18 issue. 
Friihlings Erwachen, 21. 
Fuchs, Emil E., 184. 
Fuel in New England, 364. 



G. A. D.. 318. 
Gannett, L. S. 

International Reconstruction Corps (letter), 
363. 

Review of Brandes' The World at War, 360. 
Gardiner, Evelyn G., 183. 

Garibaldi, Giuseppe : Staten Island candle fac- 
tory, 293. 
Garment workers, dentistry for, 248. 
Garvin, T. W., 463. 
Gary plan as campaign issue in New York 

city, 576. 
Gavit, J. P. Review of Cady's The Way Life 

Begins, 423. 
General Orders No. 100 (April 24, 1863), 315. 
George, Wm. R., 155. 473. 
Georgia, labor and Negroes (letter), 511. 
German republic, 324. 
Germans, educating (letter), 580. 
Germany. 

Fresh air for children, 277. 

Juvenile crime, 24. 

Minimum peace plans, 338. 

Punishment for (letter), 462. 

Reichstag and peace, 378. 

Revolutionary sentiments, 324. 

Wilson on, 16-17. 
Gibbs, Winifred S. 

Food prices, 480. 

Review of Stern and Spitz's Food for the 
Worker, 373. 
Gibson, C. D., 526. 
Gibson, Harvey D., [348]. 
Gifts. 

Exemption from taxation, 274, 275, 314, 344, 
362. 

Income tax and, 525. 
Girls, war dangers, 256, 362. 
Glasgow Charity Organization Society, 183. 
Gleason, Arthur. Industrial peace in Great 

Britain, 156. 
Glenn, Helen, 380. 
Glison, Geo. L., 145. 
Gloucester, Mass., thrift, 403. 
"God bless him," cover of July 14 issue. 
Goddard, H. H., 528. 
Goethe, C. M., 526. 



Java playground (letter), 580. 
Goldberger, H. H., 527. 
Gompers, Samuel, 31, 299, 428, 429, 488, 558. 

Stockholm conference, 446. 
Government clinical work, 202. 
Gowin, E. B. Review of Jones's The Adminis- 
tration of Industrial Enterprises, 441. 
Grady, H. F. 

Review of Stevens's Unfair Competition, 442. 

Review of Wolff's Cooperative Credit for the 
United States, 574. 
Grain. 

Booze cartoon, 223. 

Wasting (cartoon), 122. 
Granich, Irwin. Mother Goose rhyme (verse), 

487. 
Great Britain. 

Discharged soldiers and sailors, settlement 
plan, 171. 

Industrial peace (Gleason), 156. 

Industrial peace, reconstructing, 168. 

Plans for peace during war time, 354. 

Printed matter, 182. 

Wartime prohibition, 282. 

See also England. 
Green, Mrs. Robert, 449. 
Greenwich Presbyterian Church, New York 

city, 228. 298. 
Gregory, T. W., 145. 
Grenoble, 547. 
Grey, Earl, 508. 
Grey nuns, Montreal, 1. 
Griffin, Judge F. A., 309. 

Portrait, 309. 
Gunn, Selskar M., [348], 353. 

Portrait, [348]. 



Haines, G. E.. 428. 
Halbert, L. A.. 346. 
Hall, Bolton. 

Review of Tilden's Second Wind, 533. 

Thrift (letter), 344. 
Hall, Henry M. Letter on Dr. Friedlaender's 

article, 176. 
Hamilton, Dr. Alice, 283. 

Review of Cabot's A Layman's Handbook 
of Medicine, 45. 

Review of Legge's Toxic Jaundice in Muni- 
tion Workers, 533. 
Hamilton, Dr. Alice, and Gertrude Seymour. 

New public health, 59. 
Hamilton, Mrs. A. Reason for war (letter), 

579. 
Hannah, Ian C. 

Review of books on China, 360. 

Review of Riddell's The Rise of Ecclesiastical 
Control in Quebec, 575. 

Review of three books on the Chartist Move- 
ment, 288. 
Hansen, A. A. Nature's dwarfs (trees and 

children of the slums), 116. 
Harding, G. L„ 501. 
Harris, Louis I., 41, 295. 
Hart, H. H., 528. 
Hart, Horneil, 183. 
Hatred, children and war, 24. 
Haywood, W. D., quoted on 1. W. W., 429. 
Headline, a delinquent (letter), 580. 
Health. 

Applicants for the army, 224. 

Children's crusade (cartoon), 41. 

Street-cleaners, 42. 

Trade unions and, 41. 

See also Public health. 
Health insurance. 

Bowen, Albert, on (letter), 279. 

See also Insurance. 
Health mission, French, to Macedonia, 281. 
Health officers' conference, 172. 
Health surveys, Metropolitan Life Insurance 

Co.. 201. 
Healy, Wm. Review of Glueck's Studies in Fo- 
rensic Psychiatry, 76. 
Heaton, James P., 297. 
Hellwig, Albert, 24. 
Henderson, C. R., 501. 
Henry, Alice, 509. 

Ideal patriot (letter), 46. 

Rights of children (letter), 460. 
Henshaw, R. G. 

Conscientious objectors (letter), 535. 
Herring, Arthur r. Farm or fight, 159. 
Hetherington, Clark, 581. 
Higgins, Henry B., 201. 
Higginson, Major, 321. 
Hiiderbrant, Edith L. Posture and efficiency, 

482, 483. 
Hillquit, Morris, and the Stockholm Confer- 
ence, 446. 
Hodges, L. M. Swat the fly (letter), 77. 
Hodson, W. W. Minnesota children, 147. 
Hoffman, F. L., 251. 

Review of The Declining Birth-rate, 530. 
Hollis, Senator, 525. 

On I. W. W., 457, 458. 
Home Defense League, 24. 
Home service. See Red Cross. 
Home Service Manual, 486, 487. 
Homeless (poster), 397. 
Hooker, Edith H., 180. 

Hooker, Elizabeth Robbins. Lock and key, 14. 
Hoover, A. R. Turkey's appeal for American 

sanitary and medical aid, 467. 



Hoover, Herbert C, 38. 96, 142, 143, 491, 524. 

Food administrator, 445. 
Horses, care of wounded, 43. 
Horta, Victor, 463. 
Hospitals. 

American Hospital Association, 579. 

Boston City, [347]. 

Children's, Randall's Island, 581. 

Hit by war. 579. 

London, orthopedic, 297. 

Nervous invalids, 14. 

New Rochelle, 210 and cover of June 2 issue. 

New York State Hospital Development Com- 
mission, 130. 

Presbyterian, 294. 

Sailors, 261. 

Tuberculosis, New York State, 294. 

War shock, 121. 

Wounded soldiers, Canada, 1. 

Zone drawing of Red Cross, 322. 
Hours of work. 

Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 357. 

Connecticut (letter), 178. 

Oregon ten-hour law sustained, 33. 

Output and, 170. 

Output and, war-time testimony, 138. 

Switzerland factory, 299. 

War time ; English experience, 51. 

Wisconsin (letter), 510. 

Women in the West. 459. 
Hourwich, L. A. The Survey and its danger- 
ous news (letter), 510. 
Housefly. See Files. 
Housing. 

Brooklyn, 99. 

English munition workers, 460. 

Minneapolis code, 41. 

Toronto, 225. 
Howes, Edith M. A word to social workers 

(letter), 77. 
Hoyt, F. C. 581. 
Hubbell, Mich, 200. 
Hull, W. H. 

Federal storage and marketing (letter), 579. 
Hull, W. I. International humanitarian com- 
mission, 454. 
Humanitarian commission, international, 454 
Humanitarianism. 

Letter, 460. 

More's (P. E.) attack on, 337. 
Hunt, Jean L. Review of Hughes' Training 

the Children, 575. 
Hunter W. C. Letter by a drafted man, 534. 
Hurrey, Chas. D. Foreign students in America, 

114. 
Hygiene, industrial, 295. 
Hylan, J. F., 576, 577. 



Ideals, American, 31. 
Illinois. 

Birth control, 250. 

Cooperation with Woman's Division of Com- 
mittee of National Defense, 201. 

Efficiency in state service, 40. 

Legislation, 342. 

Regulation of war charities, 456. 
"I'm in charge now" (cartoon), 274. 
Immigrants. 

Educating in New York city, 527. 

Feebleminded, 528. 

Jewish, Americanization of, 103. 

Russian, and their conceptions of America, 
439. 
Immigration. 

Farm work, 295. 

State burdens. 246. 
Income tax. 

Exemptions, 274, 275. 

Gifts and. 525. 

See also Gifts. 
Indentured labor, 198. 

Portuguese, 233. 
Independence Day. 

Russia and, 318. 

Taylor, Graham, on, 319. 
India. 

Indentured labor from, 198. 

Practical training, 299. 
Indiana. 

Health legislation, 148. 

Institutional production, 403. 

Jails, 262. 

New social legislation, 98. 

Vocational survey, 18. 
Industrial accidents. See Accidents. 
Industrial democracy and war, 321. 
Industrial hygiene, 295. 
Industrial poisons in munition plants, 283. 
Industrial standards and the Consumers' League, 

346. 
Industrial tribunal, 458. 
I. W. W. 

Bills drafted to curb, 457. 

Bisbee, Ariz., 353. 

Everett verdict, 160. 

Haywood, W. D., on, 429. 

Southwest troubles, 428. 

Western opinion, 522. 
Industry. 

Boys' clubs in industrial plants, 250. 

Great Britain, 168. 

Great Britain (Gleason), 156. 

Hours and output, 170. 

New regime (Fitch), 211. 






I n d e 



Vll 



Seven day week, 449. 
Infant mortality, flies and (diagram), 40. 
Infants and war, 418. 
Injunctions, 

Labor unions, 363. 

Minnesota law, 281. 
Insanity. 

Chicago judge, 464. 

Ten year program, 130. 
Insurance. 

Canadian soldiers, 379. 

Facts (Curtis and Kubinow letters), 179. 

Life insurance in America (letter), 510. 

Planned for soldiers, 341. 

Sailors, 72. 

Sailors on food ships, 166. 

Soldiers, 435. 

Soldiers and sailors, 504, 507. 

Soldiers and their families, 379. 

War, 541. 

War ; equality in compensation, 555. 

See also War insurance. 
Integration, national, 290. 
Intemperance. See Alcohol, Prohibition. 
Inter-Allied Conference, 566. 
Inter- America, 180. 
Intercollegiate Socialist Society, 578. 
International Humanitarian Commission, 454. 
Internationa! Reconstruction Corps, 363. 
Internationalism. 

Books reviewed, 73. 

English opinion on peace terms, 406. 
Invalid soldiers, compensation, 541. 
lone Reformatory, 473, 577. 
Iowa. 

Child welfare, 197. 

Cripples, 312. 

Legislation, 150. 

Legislation, correction, 201. 
Iowa City, 312. 
Ireland. 

Appeal to America (cartoon), cover of May 
26 issue. 

Help for the disabled, 196. 
Irish convention, 412. 
Italian Commission, 293. 
Italian reservists in America, 303. 



Jager, Henry, 145. 

Jails : contrast in two states (Alabama and 
Indiana), 262. 

James, Harlean, 537. 

Java, playground, 580. 

Jewish Social Workers. See National Associa- 
tion of Jewish Social Workers. 

Jewish war relief fund, 294. 

Jews. 

Americanization of immigrant, 103. 
Nationality, progress, 354. 

Johnson, Alex. Delinquent headline on feeble- 
mindedness (letter), 580. 

Johnson, Bertha F. Review of Hartley's 
Motherhood, 371. 

Johnson, C. H., 546. 

Johnson, P. B., 428. 

Jones, T. J. Negro education, 267. 

Juvenile Court. See Children's Court. 



Kahn, Dr. Morris H., 9S. 

Kallikak, Martin, 177. 

Kallikak families, 23. 

Kansas. 

Cigarette law, 47. 
Legislation, 183. 
Prohibition, 63. 

Kansas City. 

Board of Public Welfare, 346. 
Pool halls, 378. 

Karekin, Y. M. Review of Blackwell's trans- 
lation of Armenian Poems, 368. 

Kelley, Florence, 122. 

Federal Child Labor Law, 484. 

Kellogg, Arthur P. National Conference of 
Social Work, 253. 

Kellogg, Paul U. 

Canadian city (Montreal), in war time, 1,56. 
Long Beach Conference, 236. 
Swords and plough shares, 406. 

Kelly, Elizabeth, 536. 

Kentucky, tuberculosis in, 511. 

Kerr, Stephen, 144, 145. 

Kindergarten, 449. 

Kingsbury, John A., acquittal on charge of 
wiretapping, 228. 

Kingsbuiy, Susan M., 220. 

Kingston, Countess of, 196. 

Kirby, Sally. Advertising in The Survey (let- 
ter). 510. 

Klein, Philip. Review of Bacon's Prison Re- 
form, 46. 

Krehbiel, Edward. Review of Mackenzie's In- 
ternational Crisis, 552. 



Labor. 

Africa, 536. 

American Ideals and, 31. 
California, 325. 

Danger of strikes and coercion in t' war 
(Fitch), 189. 



Draft law administration and, 299. 

Employers and employed, alliance, 80. 

Exchanges for Canada, 493. 

Federal war economies and, 260. 

Indentured from India, 198. 

Market demand and supply, 262. 

Mediation, federal committees on, 241. 

Pan-American Federation, 426. 

Portuguese indentured, 233. 

Rival war-time bodies, 410. 

Shipyard agreement, 488. 

Standards, Wilson and, 194. 

Standards board needed, 190. 

Standards in wartime, 37. 

Unrest in the Southwest, 428. 

Wisconsin, agricultural, 249. 
Labor and Democracy. See American Alliance 

for Labor and Democracy. 
Labor laws. 

Brown bill veto, 241. 

Consumers' League against modifying for 
war, 122. 

Efficiency and, move to break down laws, 96. 

New York state, 462. 

Opposition to suspension during war, 225. 

Standard here and in England, 194. 

Wartime, 250. 
Labor sanitation conference, 295. 
Labor statistics. See U. S. Bureau of Labor 

Statistics. 
Lake Linden, Mich.. 200. 
Lambert, Dr. Alex., 266. 

Lamoreaux, L. A. Educate the Germans (let- 
ter), 580. 
Land in California, 408. 
Land settlement in Scotland, 252. 
Lane, Winthrop D. 

Delinquency in wartime, 451. 

Learning for earning or for life, 18. 

Making the war safe for childhood, 381, 418. 

Reorganizing the State Board of Charities in 
New York, 92. 

Review of Goldman's The Public Defender, 
361. 

Review of Lewis's The Offender, etc., 531. 

Review of Talbot's The Education of Women, 
175. 

Standardizing war relief, 34. 
Lasker, Bruno. 

French war cripples, 11. 

Recreation of soldiers in training, 137. 

Review of Ellis's Essays in War Time, 288. 

Review of French books on France after the 
war, 173. 

Review of Murray's Faith, War and Policy, 
573. 

Review of Naumann's Central Europe, 359. 

Review of Russell's Why Men Fight, 45. 

Reviews of several books on internationalism, 
73. 

Reviews of several books on world relations, 
548-549, 550, 551, 554. 
Lathrop, Julia C. Castberg law, 509. 
Lattimore, Alida, 463. 

Lauman, G. N. Cost of liquor (letter), 179. 
Lawson, J. R., 298. 

Free man again, 72. 
Lawson bill, 99. 

League for Democratic Control, 249. 
League of Nations Society, 195. 
Learning for earning or for life, 18. 
Lee, Porter R., 53, 90, 117, 140, 164, 191, 221, 

285. 

Separation allowances for army and navy 
men, 520. 
Leeds, Eng., meeting (letter), 362. 
Legal aid : war and civil liberty, 346. 
Legal Aid Society's pamphlet for drafted and 

enlisted men, 495. 
Legal First Aid Bureau, 144. 
Legislation. 

Arizona, minimum wage, 149. 

Arkansas, 42. 

Illinois, 342. 

Indiana, 98. 

Indiana health measures, 148. 

Iowa, 150. 

Iowa, correction, 201. 

Kansas, 183. 

Maine, 150. 

Massachusetts, 250-251. 

Michigan, 149. 

Minnesota children, 147. 

Montana, 200. 

New Hampshire, 150. 

New Jersey prisons, 147. 

New York, 200. 

Ohio, 97. 

Ohio health, 148. 

Pennsylvania, 342. 

Tennessee, 183. 

Utah, 200. 

Vermont government, 148. 

Washington, 182. 

Wyoming, 182. 
Le Lacheur, Bessie S. Civilian war relief, 270. 
Lend a hand (cartoon), 377. 
Leonard, Leah W., 521. 
Leonard, Oscar. 

East St. Louis pogrom, 331. 

Review of Bogen's Jewish Philanthropy, 532. 
Lever, Representative, 142, 143. 
Lexington, Ky. 

Charities and Salvation Army, 513. 

Tuberculosis, 511. 



Liberty in Russia (cartoon), 227. 

Lies, Eugene T.. :i4. 

Life. 

Conservation of, 79. 

Waste (letter;. 344. 
Life insurance. See Insurance. 
Life's Clinic, 180. 
Lincoln, A., statue lor Petrograd (with 111.), 

Lindsay, S. M., 274. 

Income socially employed (letter), 302. 

Social aspects of war taxes, 365. 
Liquor. See Alcohol ; Prohibition. 
Liquor Dealers Association's telegram of pro- 
test, 343. 
Literary test and Mexicans, 71. 
Little, Frank. 429, 430. 
Lloyd George, quoted on diink, 169. 
Loan Associations, annual meeting, 25(1. 
Loans and war. 250. 
Lock and key, 14. 
Lodge, Senator, 201, :',2i,. 
Long Beach Conference. 

Significance, 319. 

Social approach to foreign relations, 236. 
Long, Lamoreaux & Long, 580. 
Longshoremen, 320, 509. 

Strike, New York, 578. 
Los Angeles' playground summer camp, 22. 
Lougheed. Sir J. A., 4. 

Portrait, 7. 
Lovejoy, Owen R., 21. 
Lovett, Dr. R. W., 207. 
Lowden, Governor, 40. 
Lyceum bureaus, 80, 82. 
Lynching, 443, 444. 
Lynde, G. D. B., 183. 



M 

McAdoo, Sec'y, and soldiers' insurance, 341. 

Macarthur, Mary, 249. 

McDonald, Phyllis. California's school term 

(letter), 534. 
Macedonia, French "anti-malaria mission", 281. 
McGill University, 201. 
Mack, Judge, 505, 507, 520, 521, 541. 

Appointment on allowances, 323. 

Bill for soldiers' insurance compensation and 
allowances, 435. 
McLaughlin, J. P., 325. 
MacLean, Annie M. Review of Tobenkin's 

Witte Arrives, 574. 
McLean, Francis H. Central councils and com- 
munity planning, 216. 
McMurtrie, Mary. Sex study in school (letter ). 

46. 
Macy, V. Everit, 241, 281, 488. 
Madison Square Garden, Conference for Democ- 
racy and Terms of Peace, 246. 
Magruder, J. W., 48. 
Mails, use of, 358. 
Maine. 

Prison reorganization, 150. 

Woman suffrage, 530. 
Malaria, 281. 

Manual training in New Zealand, 536. 
Marketing and storage of food, 579. 
Marriage in the Kallikak families, 23. 
Martin, Anna C. Letter to social workers, 344. 
Martin, W. A. P.. 503. 
Maryland farm work, 159. 
Massachusetts. 

Board of Education and training for the 
injured, 145. 

Child labor in the war, 78. 

Constitutional convention, 281-282. 

Industrial accidents, training of the injured, 
78. 

Legislation, 250-251. 

Old age pension survey, 44. 

Provision for soldiers' dependents, 202. 

Typhoid death-rate, 252. 

War prohibition, 201. 
.Mather, S. T., 183. 
Mathes, Mrs. G. M., 278. 
Matz, Rudolph, 49. 
Mayhew, Abby, 527. 
Mayo, Dr. C. H., 266. 

Mead, Geo. H. Review of Abbott and Breckin- 
ridge's Truancy and Non-Attendance in the 

Chicago Schools, 369. 
Mead, Lucia A. Reviews of several books on 

war and peace, 553. 
.Medical aid in Turkey, 467. 
Medical preparedness, coordination of societies 

for, 281. 
Medical Review of Reviews, 21. 
Medicine, mobilization of, 87. 
Meigs, Grace L. Children and war, 419. 
Mendel, L. B. Review of Gibbs's The Minimum 

Cost of Living, 531. 

Review of Tibbies' Dietetics or Food In 

Health and Disease, 575. 
Mendenhall, Dorothy It. Review of Moskowitz's 

A Modern Mother's Experience, 372. 
Mental defectives. 

California. 79. 

Self help, 79. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.'s health sur- 
veys, 201. 
Mexicans : immigration and disease, 71. 
Mexico. 

Redivivus, 415. 

Snap shots, [414]. 



Vlll 



Index 



Meyer, Adolph. 

Review of Bronner's Psychology of Special 
Abilities and Disabilities, 372. 

Review of Healy's mental Conflicts and Mis- 
conduct, 421. 
Michigan, legislative gains and losses, 149. 
Michigan, Lake : pageant, 287. 
Milan, 464. 

Milbank, Jeremiah, 297. 

Military Hospitals Commission, Canadian, 1. 
Military service. See Universal military ser- 
vice. 
Military training. 

Cleveland, protest, 24. 

Quakers and, 70. 
School (letter), 77. 

School ; resolution against, etc., 47. 

Vocational education and, 35. 
Milk and typhoid, 356. 

Mill, Mine and Smelter Workers' Union, 429. 
Miller, James A., [348], 353. 

Portrait, [348]. 
Millis, H. A. 

Review of Stourm's The Budget, 574. 

Review of Willoughby and Lindsay's The 
Financial Administration of Great Britain, 
442. 
Mills, W. P., portrait in group, [499]. 
Mills-Coffey bill : letter from H. R. Seager, 46. 
Mine, the (cartoon), 166. 
Mine-rescue cars, 298. 
Miners. 

Colorado, 40. 

Wages raised, 100. 
Minimum wage. 

Arizona, 149. 

English farm labor, 317. 

Oregon law and Supreme Court, 33. 

Swiss, embroidery, 201. 

Women in Arkansas and California, 377. 
Minister of Social Welfare, 276. 
Ministers and war, 228. 
Minneapolis. 

Housing law, 41. 

Labor and Democracy meetings, 558. 

Parks and saloons, 374. 
Minnesota. 

Anti-injunction law, 281. 

Children's legislation, 147. 
Minnesota, University of : resolutions of stu- 
dents, 324. 
Mitchel, J. P., 576, 581. 
Mitchell, Mrs. R. D., 200. 
Mob Violence Conference, 443. 
Montana legislation, 200. 
Montevideo, 512, 581. 
Montreal. 

Recruiting, etc., 56. 

Wounded men, 1. 
Mooney, T. J., 124, 355. 

Appeal, 556. 

Case, 305. 

Portrait, 308. 
Mooney, Mrs. T. J., 305, 355, 356. 

Freed, 460. 

Portrait, 309. 
More, Paul Elmer, on Jane Addams, .''37. 
Mormons and Charities, 252. 
Morquio, Luis, 512. 
Moscow, social activities, 129. 
Mothercraft Manual (letter), 177. 
Mothers, unmarried, 256. 
Motion pictures. 

Children's (letter), 199. 

Religious, 79. 

Soldiers' tastes, 513. 

Tendencies, 80. 
Mt. Ivy, 219, 220. 
Municipal camp at Los Angeles, 22. 
Municipal research, Toronto, 557 and cover of 

Sept. 22 issue. 
Munition plants and poisons, 283. 
Murphy, J. Prentice, 256. 



N 

National Alliance of Employers and Employed, 
80. 

National Association of Jewish Social Workers, 
265. 

National Associations for study and research, 
opportunity in war time. 546. 

National Children's Home and Welfare Asso- 
ciation, 266. 

National Conference of Charities and Correc- 
tion (letters), 177. 
Proceedings at Pittsburgh (A. P. Kellogg), 

253. 
Program for Pittsburgh, 234. 
See also National Conference of Social Work. 

National Conference of Social Work. 
Looking forward (Woods), 269. 
Name, 253, 257. 
Organization, 257. 
Resolutions on prohibition and war service, 

276. 
Sign of growth, 318. 

National Conference on Foreign Relations of 
the United States. See Long Beach Con- 
ference. 

National Federation of Settlements, meeting and 
war resolutions, 265. 

National League for Women's Service, 292. 

National Non-Partisan League, 564. 

National Park service, 183. 



National Probation Association, ninth annual 

conference, 264. 
National Safety Council, 297. 

Annual congress, 556. 
National Social Workers' Exchange, 449. 
National Wholesale Liquor Dealers' Associa- 
tion's telegram of protest, 343. 
National Women's Trade Union League, sixth 

convention, 249, 277. 
Nationalism, See Internationalism. 
Nations, small, See Small nations. 
Navy yard survey, 297. 

Nearing, Guy. To Simon N. Patten (verse), 55. 
Nearing, Scott, 180. 

Toledo, 72. 
Negroes. 

Cleveland, 511. 

Courts and, 509. 

Detroit greeting, 333. 

East St. Louis riot, 331. 

East St. Louis — Why? (letter), 447. 

Education, government report, 207. 

Emigration to the North (letter), 511. 

Helping Negroes to help themselves, 278. 

Law and order for, 443. 

Lure of the North, 27. 

Migration (letter), 344. 

Migration as the South sees it, 428. 

Migration from the South in 1916-17 (dia- 
gram), 226. 

More testimony on migration, 340. 

Negro on East St. Louis (letter), 448. 

New York procession, 40o. 

Philadelphia, 27. 

Reasons why they go North, 226. 
Neighborhood House in Harlem, 529. 
Nervous invalids, 14. 
Nesbitt, Florence, 180. 
Neumann, Henry. 

Review of Sims's Ultimate Democracy and 
Its Making, 441. 

War heretics (letter), 447. 
New Hampshire. 

Centralized control, 150. 

Forestry, 364. 
New Jersey. 

Conference of Charities, officers, 183. 

Prison progress, 147. 
New Mexico, labor unrest, 428. 
Xew Republic, The, 512. 
New Rochelle emergency hospital, 210 and 

cover of June 2 issue. 
New York (city). 

Americanizing it, 527. 

Board of Education. 48-49. 

Children's Court, first report, 581. 

Citizen police, 24. 

Gary plan as campaign issue, 576. 

Industrial hygiene, 41, 295. 

Mayor's Committee on National Defense, 247. 

Patent medicine vendors, 495. 

Poliomyelitis history, 278. 

Street-cleaners' diseases, 42. 

Women's Committee and war work, 202. 
New York (state). 

Board of Charities reorganization, 92. 

Carpenters' unions, 363. 

Food control bill, 512. 

Legislation, 200. 

Tuberculosis hospitals, 294. 

Woman suffrage, 511. 
New York Charity Organization Society and 

college girls, 426. 
New York State Board of Charities. 

Appointments, 536. 

Work and accomplishment, 546. 
New Zealand manual training, 536. 
Newark, N. J., food conservation ; children's 

agencies, 375. 
Newgate letter, 178. 
Newsboys, 28. 

Recruiting, 375. 
Newspapers and Post Office case, 358. 
Newton, Elsie E. Ant and grasshopper (I. W. 

W), 522. 
Nolan, Edward D., 305. 

Portrait, 308. 
Non-Partisan League, 564. 
North Carolina and the Child Labor Law, 485, 

507. 
North Dakota, Non-Partisan League, 564. 
North Dakota Public Health Service, 462. 
North Truro, 547. 
Norton, W. J., 251. 
Norway. 

Children's code, 460, 509. 

Socialists, 79-80. 
Notz, Wm. High cost of living in Australia, 

how reduced, 544. 
Nursing. 

College recruits, 294. 

Courses in academic institutions, 346. 

Home defense plans, 247. 

National organizations, 459. 

Nurses wanted at home, 224. 



Oakland, Cal. : industrial amity aims, 282. 
Objectors. See Conscientious objectors. 
Occupational diseases, trade unions organizing 

against, 41. 
Occupational therapy, 363. 

Society formed, 80. 
Ogburn, Wm. F.. 197. 



Ohio. 

Health administration, 148. 

Public welfare action, 97. 
Ohsol, J. G., 43. 

Oklahoma children in farm work, 576. 
Old age, war results, 170. 
Old age pensions in Massachusetts, 45. 
Ontario city planning act, 363. 
Oregon. 

College and voters, 197. 

Minimum wage for women and ten-hour law 
for men sustained, 33. 
Organized Charity. See Charities ; Charity 

Organization ; Societies for Organizing Char- 
ity. 
Orphans' homes, 528. 
Orr, Dr. H. D., 224. 
O'Ryan, Gen, J. F. Alcohol letter to his men, 

459. 
Osborne, T. M., navy prison at Portsmouth, 444. 
Oshkosh, Wis.. 180. 
Oxman, F. C, 124, 308, 556. 

Portrait, 309. 
Oxman letters, 310. 



Page, Edwin L. New Hampshire legislation, 

150. 
Pageants. 

Dunes Under Four Flags, 287. 

Neighborhood House in Harlem, 529. 
Palisades, summer camp in Interstate Park, 

247. 
Palmer, G. T., 564. 
Pamphlets, free, 280. 

Pan-American Federation of Labor, 426. 
Panin, Countess Sophie, 276. 
Panken, Mrs. Jacob, 564. 
Paris. 

Social progress and war conditions, 464. 

See also France. 
Patent Medicines, 495. 

Patriotic Fund poster, cover of April 7 issue. 
Patriotism. 

Aliens, 529. 

Ideal patriot (letter), 46. 

Poster of colored orphanage, 167. 
Patriots Day. Parade in New York, 97. 
Patten, S. N. 

Retirement reconsideration, 172. 

Sonnet to (G. Nearing), 55. 

At home (Fitch). 189. 

English internationalists on terms, 406. 

English plans for reconstruction, 354. 

German minimum plans, 338, 

Lasting, 132. 

Reichstag and, 378. 

Union of free nations, 195. 
Peaceable assembly, 144. 

Pearn, V. A. Children and war (letter), 580. 
Peking. 

Lecture halls, 503. 

Social service club, group, [499]. 

Temple of Heaven, cover of Sept. 8 issue. 
Pennsylvania. 

Birth control, 462. 

Feeblemindedness, 23. 

Legislative inaction, 342. 

Tuberculosis, 23. 

War labor of women and children, 250. 

Widows' pensions, 464. 
Pensions. 

Insurance rather, 456. 

See also Old age pensions ; Widows' pensions. 
People's Campaign League, 47. 
People's Council of America, notice of assembly, 

410. 
Peoria (111.) War Relief Association, 463. 
"Perkins' Children", 312. 
Permanent Blind Relief War Fund poster, cover 

of July 7 issue. 
Persons, W. F., 235, 486. 

Portrait, 235. 
Petavel, J. W., 299. 
Peter, W. W.. 73. 
Peterson, C. W., 57. 

Portrait, 56. 
Petrograd. 

Lincoln statue for, 21. 

See also Russia. 
Pettit, Walter. Review of Wright's The Rus- 
sians, 359. 
Peyser, Nathan, 581. 
Philadelphia. 

Babies Welfare census, 374. 

Monday Conference, women's, [347]. 

Negroes, 27. 

Social resources pooled, 197. 

Travelers' Aid Society, 537. 

Weeds, 299. 
Phinney, S. H. 

Birth control (letter), 200. 

Challenge, A (letter), 460. 

Mental conscription (letter), 77. 
Physical defects, 224. 
Physicians. 

Number killed in war, 380. 

Plans for mobilization, 87. 

Proportion in England and France, 281. 

Provisions for those gone to the war, 465. 

War service, 406. 
Physique, 482, 483. 
Pinchot, Amos, 21. 



Index 



IX 



PInkham, H. W. Conscientious objectors (let- 
ter), 535. 
Pioneers of America, 180. 

Pittsburgh, Equal Franchise Federation, 463. 
Plattsburg, clean-up of saloons, 465. 
Playgrounds. 

Exporting the American, 526. 

Java (letter), 580. 

Los Angeles camp, 22. 

Prizes for home, 346. 
Plunkett, Sir Horace, 412. 

On American food plans, 69. 
Poems and poetry. See Verse. 
Polak, J. O. Review of Sylvan's Natural Pain- 
less Child-Birth, 575. 
Poland, flight out of (poster) cover of Aug. 4 

issue. 
Police. 

New York's citizen, 24. 

Women in England, 490. 

Women in United States and Canada, 298. 
Poliomyelitis. 

History in 1916, 278. 

Slogan, 426. 

Winter's work and study, 205. 
Political and Social Science. American Acad- 
emy of, twenty -first meeting, 132. 
Political Science, Academy of, 201. 
Poor relief, George Washington's letter in 1775. 

319. 
Pope, President Wilson's reply to (text), 506. 
Popular Government, 464. 
Population registration, 438. 
Porter. H. F. J„ 180, 182. 

Review of Hutson's Fire Prevention and Pro- 
tection, 574. 
Portland convention of workers for the blind, 

341. 
Portuguese on Cape Cod, 547. 
Portuguese Southwest Africa, 233. 
Post Office Department, banning periodicals, 

358. 
Posters. 

Anti-alcohol, 68. 

Belgian Red Cross, 121. 

Flight out of Poland, cover of August 4 
issue. 

France, social needs, 169. 

France, tuberculosis campaign, cover of May 
12 issue. 

French-Belgian Alliance, 300. 

French Jewish Legion, 301. 

Howard Orphanage. 167. 

Permanent Blind Relief War Fund, cover of 
July 7 issue. 

Red Cross, cover of June 23 issue. 

Rooster, 168. 

War loan and relief, 395. 
Posture. 

Hilderbrant, Edith L., on, 482, 483. 
Pound, Roscoe, 485, 507. 
Poverty. 

Almv, F., on, 258. 

War and the end of, 234. 
Powell, T. R. Letter on Adamson law, 46. 
Preparedness. 

International organization (letter), 78. 

Prohibition and, 38. 
Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing, 294. 
Press. See Newspapers. 

Preston, Eleanor. Gulliver wakes (verse), 193. 
Preston School of Industry. See lone Refor- 
matory. 
Trice, the (verse), [364]. 
Price-fixing for food, 491. 
Prisons. 

Fellowships for students. 281. 

Maine reorganization, 150. 

New Jersey progress, 147. 

See also Reformatories. 
Probation. 

Federal, 281. 

National Association, ninth annual confer- 
ence, 264. 
Proctor, H. H., 428. 
Prohibition. 

American Medical Association and, 266. 

Bills before Congrpss, 274. 

Congress and, 326. 

Food bill and, 351. 

Food saving by, 68. 

National, 336. 

National, urging, 95. 

Preparedness and. 38. 

"Spotted," fight on, 223. 

Tammany and, 95. 

War ; Boston and Massachusetts, 250. 

War, committee on, 121. 

War, economics of, 143. 

War, Massachusetts and, 201. 

War : Senate fight, 292. 

Wartime (letter), 279. 

Wartime in Great Britain, 2S2. 

See also Alcohol. 
Property rights and public health, 495. 
Proportional representation. 

British House of Commons, 364. 

Growth, 263. 
Prostitutes, treatment of, 449. 
Prostitution. 

Army and, 145. 

Chicago, war on, 249. 

El Paso. 245. 

French soldiers, 509. 

Soldiers and, 433. 

Texas cities, 349. 
Protocol and cost of living, 249. 



Prussianlsm : Our Prussian (cartoon), 226. 
Pryse, G. S., 121. 

Belgian poster, 398. 
Psychopathic clinic, Albany, N. Y., 536. 
Public health. 

Connecticut. 282. 

Delayed measures, 457. 

Hamilton, Dr. Alice, and G. Seymour on, 
59. 

Indiana 148. 

Nationalizing, 172. 

Ohio. 148. 

"Property rights in," 495. 
Public Health Service, 172, 324. 
Publicity (Pittsburgh), 463. 
Punishment for Germany (letter), 462. 
Putnam, Mrs. W. L., 512. 



Quakers. 

Plans for patriotism, 70. 

Social service in war, 146. 

War relief, English, 328. 
Quarantine, federal, 72. 
Queen, Stuart A., 183, 536. 
Quinine, 281. 



R 

Radin, Herman T., 300. 

Art of war posters, 395. 
Raemaekers, Louis. Refugees (cartoon), 399. 
Rainforth, Dr. S. I., 42. 

Raisin, Abraham. Close quarters (verse), 521. 
Rand School of Social Science, 449. 
Randall's Island, 581. 
Rankin, Jeannette. 

Bill for soldiers' families, 380. 

Women's hours in Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing, 357. 
Ransdell, Senator, 324. 
Ratshesky, A. C, 281. 

Read, Mary L. Letter on Mothercraft Man- 
ual, 177. 
Reading matter for soldiers, 496. 
Reconciliation, Fellowship of, 198. 
Reconstruction, International Corps, 363. 
Recreation for soldiers in training, 137. 
Recruiting in Canada, 56. 
Red Cross. 

Base hospitals, 201. 

Campaign for funds, 196. 

Cartoons, 322. 

Civilian relief course, 261. 

Civilian relief organization ; director of fam- 
ily relief. 94. 

Civilian relief plan, 162. 

Civilian war relief, 53, 90. 

Cleveland, 512. 

Commission to France, 235. 

Commission to Russia, 327. 

Cooperation with federal council in war 
relief, 340. 

Expenditures report, 580. 

Hints to volunteers, 261. 

Home service by, 486. 

Lend a hand (cartoon), 377. 

Monopoly of work for France and Belgium, 
512. 

Nation's mandate, 314. 

New business executives. [348]. 

Opening the hundred million campaign, 261. 

Patriotic Fund, 297. 

Patriotic Fund, givers, 340. 

Patriotic Fund and local chapters, 336. 

Plans for standardizing war relief, 34. 

Policy, 424. 

Poster "What are you doing to help?", cover 
of June 23 issue. 

Rumania relief commission, 377. 

Soldiers' families, instructions, 20. 

Training in home service, 525. 
Red Cross Bulletin, 180. 

Red Cross Bureau of Information of Cas- 
ualties. 282. 
Red Cross Magazine, cartoon for, 526. 
Red Cross War Council. 162, 297. 
Red Star Animal Relief. 43. 
Reed College, 197. 
Reeves, W. H., 132. 
Reformatories : lone, Cal., 473, 577. 
Refugees (cartoon), 399. 
"Regal. John", 309. 
Registration, 363. 
Registry, permanent national, 438. 
Relief. 

Wages, and, 251. 

Washington's (G.) letter in 1775, 319. 
Relief unit, costs. 403. 
Renfrew, Ont., 201. 
Research studentships, 79. 
Retail Research Association, 48. 
Revolution in Germany, 324. 
Richards, Laura E. Newgate letter (letter), 

178. 
Richmond, Mary E. Social evidence, 108. 
Richmond School of Social Economy 512. 
Rigall, F. E., 124. 310. 

Portrait, 309. 
Roberts, Richard. Review of Beer's The Eng- 
lish-Speaking Peoples. 549. 
Robins. Harry D. In Little Syria of Manhat- 
tan (verse), 373. 
Robins, Raymond, 536. 
Robins, Mrs. Raymond, 277. 



Robinson, W. J., 512. 

Rochester, course of study In relief, 374. 

Rockefeller Foundation, 4(;:t. 

Commission for Prevention of Tuberculosis 

■ in France, [348], 353. 

Report on Turkey by A. B. Hoover, 467. 
Rogers, Allen, 143. 

Roloff B. C. Profit in appeals (letter), 280. 
Rome State Custodial Asylum, 263. 
Rooster poster, 168. 
Root, Ellhu. Petrograd speech on June 16, 

272. 
Rose, Marie L., 508. 
Rosebank, Staten Island, 293. 
Rosenzweig, C. L. Negro migration (letter), 

344. 
Ross, Betsy, In modern times, 224. 
Ross, Edw. A., 251. 
Routzahn, E. G. Suggesltons wanted for 

woman's club work (letter), 279. 
Rowland, S. D., 281. 
Rubinow, I. M. 

Compensation for invalids of the war, 541. 

Insurance facts (letter in reply to W. G. 
Curtis), 179. 

Review of Woodbury's Social Insurance, 533. 
Rumania, American aid for, 377. 
Rumbold. Charlotte, 48. 
Rural life, conferences, 78-79. 
Rural sanitation in Texas, 363. 
Russia. 

Alien enemies and refugees, 168. 

American influences, queer, 439. 

Friday evening in a Ghetto (ill.), cover of 
May 5 issue 

Light of liberty (cartoon), 227. 

Lincoln statue for (with ill.), 21. 

Natal day (sculpture by Brenner), cover of 
July 21 issue. 

Red Cross commission to, 327. 

Revolution and our Fourth of July, 318. 

Root's speech in Petrograd on June 16, 272. 

Shackles broken (cartoon), 41. 

Suffrage, 43. 
Russian exiles held in America. 327. 
Russian war commission, tumultuous welcome, 

338. 
Russians. 

Immigrants returning to Russia and their 
reports of America, 510. 

In America, 439. 
Rvan, Edw. W., 82. 
Ryan, John D., [348]. 



S 



Sabinsky Dune, 287. 

Sachs, Dr. Theodore B., name cleared, 99. 

Safety. 

Zones of. 349. 

See also National Safety Council. 
Sagamore Sociological Conference, 410. 
Sailors. 

Hospital care, 261. 

Insurance for, 166, 504, 507. 

Insurance for American, 72. 

Need, 443. 

Separation allowances, 520. 

Wages, 443. 

See also Soldiers. 
St. Louis. 

Alien survey, 248. 

Charities, list, 250. 

Farmers' rally, 67. 

Food conservation, 249-250. 

Self-survey, 217. 

Social Service Council, 427. 

Solicitation for funds, 281. 

Suggestions asked on zoning and height regu- 
lations, 47. 

Typhoid, 356. 

See also East St. Louis. 
St. Paul, Non-Partisan League convention, 564. 
Salomon, Wm., 297. 
Salt Lake City, Charity Organization Society, 

252. 
Salvation Army, Lexington, Ky., 513. 
Sampson, O. F. Enemy in camp (letter), 362. 
San Antonio, 273, 349, 440. 
Sanatoriums for nervous invalids, 14. 
Sanborn, Frank B., bas-relief by V. D. Bren- 
ner, cover of June 16 issue. 
San Diego, camp recommendations, 281. 
San Francisco. 

Army families, plan, 95. 

Bomb cases, 305. 

Church vice crusade (letter), 77. 

Exposition administration (letter), 199. 

Mooney case, 124. 

See also Mooney, T. J. 
Sanitary reserve, civilian, 324. 
Sanitation, Turkey's need, 467. 
"Save the seventh baby" campaign, 508. 
Saving and thrift, 400. 
Sawmills, 364. 

Schneider, Franz, Jr.. 82, 508. 
Schools. 

Alabama buildings, 66. 

Boston system, tansrle, 44. 

Character education, 536. 

Chicago tangle, 269. 

Child labor and, 388. 

Discarding books for farming. 68. 

Federal aid, 229. 

Italian In war zone, [450]. 



V 



/ 



Index 



Italian schoolhouse shattered by artillery 
fire, cover of August 25 issue. 

Shut-up, 385. 
Schweinitz, Karl de. Civilian war relief, 53, 

90, 117, 140, 164, 191, 221. 239, 270, 285. 
Scotland, land settlement, 252. 
Scudder. Vida D. Old friend with a new name 

(Mt. Ivy), 219. 
Sea life, 443. 

Seager, H. R. Letter on Mills-Coffey bill, 46. 
Seamen. See Sailors. 
Searchlight on Congress, 143. 
Sears, Amelia, 180. 

Selekman, B. M. Review of Webb's The Restor- 
ation of Trade Union Conditions, 440. 
Self-government, 473, 577. 
Separation allowances for army and navy men, 

520. 
Settlements. 

College, 219. 

War and, 29-30. 

War program a (Simkhovitch), 111. 

See also National Federation of Settlements. 
Seven-day week, 449. 
Sex. 

German play, 21. 

School study (letter), 46. 
Sex hygiene, 336. 
Sexton, F. H., 6. 

Portrait, 7. 
Seymour, E. G. Punishment for Germany (let- 
ter), 462. 
Seymour, Gertrude. 

Industrial poisons in munition plants, 283. 

Medicine mobilized, 87. 

Poliomyelitis : a winter's work and study, 
205. 

See also Hamilton, Dr. Alice. 
Shamrock Fund, 196. 
Shanghai Y. W. C. A., 527. 
Shipping. 

Board of adjustment, 488. 
Ships and seafaring, 443. 
Shipyards. 

Longshoremen, 320, 578. 

San Francisco strike, 578. 

Trade agreement, 488. 
Shoe factory hours and production. 138. 

See also Alexander-Simmons bill. 
Shoes, wooden, 298-299. 

Siberian exiles (cartoon by B. Robinson), 96. 
Simkhovitch, Mary K. 

Settlement war program, ill. 

Settlements and the war, 29-30. 
Simmons bill, 166. 
Singer, H. D., 563. 
Sitting posture, 482. 
Sleeping posture, 482. 
Slingerland, W. H., 183. 
Small nations, league formed, 120. 
Smallpox, from a single case, 124. 
Smith, Barry C, 297. 

Danger in war relief, 215. 
Smith, C. F., 6. 

Portrait, 7. 
Smith, Winford H.. 579. 
Smith, Zilpha D., 183. 
Smith-Hughes act, 229. 
Snapshot, alibi proved by, 307, 308. 
Snedden, David. 536. 
Social agencies. 

Co-ordination : information desired, 374. 

Patriotic service for, 336. 
Social evidence. See Evidence. 
Social forces in war time (Devine), 290, 314, 

336. 352, 374, 400, 424, 438, 546, 456, 566. 
Social hygiene in wartime, 332. 
Social insurance. 

American medicine and, 266. 

California, 297. 
Social organization, war needs, 316. 
Social service. 

Community resources in war time, 298. 

Quakers in war time, 146. 

War service and (resolution of National Con- 
ference), 276. 

Wartime, 146. 

Wartime needs in France (poster), 169. 
Social unit plan, 355. 
Social welfare. 

New York City College courses. 581. 

Winnipeg, 378. 

Woman minister (Countess Panin), 276. 
Social work. 

College girls, 363. 

Sign of growth, 318. 

Undergraduates introduced to, 426. 

War and (letter), 375. 

War and organized, 170. 

See also National Conference of Spcial Work. 
Social workers. 

China an opening for American. 501. 

Class consciousness (letter), 199. 

Evidence, 108. 

National exchange opened. 449. 

Radical ideas, 265. 

Recruiting from the church, 278. 

Waste of human life (letter), 344. 

Word to (letter), 77. 
Socialist press, 358. 
Socialists. 

College, and the war, 578. 

Norway, 79-80. 

Petrograd and San Francisco. 124. 

Stockholm Conference, 338, 446. 
Societies for Organizing Charity, 264. 
Sociological conferences. 



Sagamore, 410. 

Southern, 427, 428. 
Soldiers. 

Allowances, compensation, etc., 323. 

Bill for insurance, dependents, etc., 435. 

Books and magazines for, 496. 

British, discharged, settlement plan, 171. 

Camps ; Baker's circular, 273. 

Camps, moral safety in, 376. 

Compensation alike for all, 555. 

Deafened (letter), 510. 

Dependents and allowances, 167. 

Disabled, care, 566. 

Families, care of, 20. 

French language, 346. 

Insurance, 504, 507. 

Insurance in Canada, 379. 

Insurance planned for, 341. 

Invalid, compensation, 541. 

Legal Aid Society and, 495. 

Motion picture tastes, 513. 

Pay, California Council of Defense, 120. 

Recreation in training, plans, 137. 

Separation allowances, 520. 

Social hygiene abroad, 577. 

Social problem in camp cities, 433. 

State action for their families, 570. 

Texas cantonment cities and, 349. 

War insurance, 379. 

See also Cripples ; Wounded soldiers. 
Southern Sociological Conference, sixth annual 

meeting, 427, 428. 
Southern Summer School of Social Science, 463. 
Southwest, labor unrest, 428. 
Spain, strikes in, 489. 
Spanish-America, 180. 

Spanish-American poet and his verses, 528. 
Spartanburg, S. C., social problem and sol- 
diers, 433. 
Speer, R. E., 512. 

Spencer, Anna G. The price (verse), [364]. 
Spigot. See Turning off the spigot. 
Springer, D. W., 251. 
State action for soldiers' families, 570. 
Statistics, national service, 251. 
Stelzle, Chas., 79, 449. 
Stephenson, Gilbert, 428, 509. 
Stewart, Ethelbert. Free pamphlets (letter), 

280. 
Stockholm, women in office. 346. 

Socialist conference, 338. 446. 
Storage and marketing of food, 579. 
Strang, .1. T., 183. 
Street, Elwood. When the soldiers come to 

town, 433. 
Street railways. Washington, D. C, 296. 
Street trades, 28, 29. 

Street-cleaning, morbidity percentage, 42. 
Strikes. 

Danger (Fitch), 189. 

Longshoremen, 509. < 

Shipping trades, 578. 

Spain, 489. 

Wilson's (Labor Sec'y) plan to prevent, 244. 
Strong, Anna L. Verdict at Everett, 160. 
Strong, Chas. H., 92. 
Strong, Dr. R. P., 89. 
Students. 

Resolution at University of Minnesota, 324. 

See also Foreign students. 
Success, rules for, 335. 

Supreme Court, Oregon laws sustained (?), 33. 
ScitVEY, The. 

As advertising medium (letter), 510. 

Commendation, 512. 

Dangerous news and reports (letter), 510. 
Surveys. 

Navy vards, arsenals, etc., 297. 

St. Louis aliens, 248. 
Suspended sentences, 281. 
Swanson, Martin, 355. 
Sweatshops, army uniforms in, 519, cover of 

Sept. 15 issue. 
Swedish women in Stockholm elections, 346. 
Switzerland factory experience, 299. 
Swords and ploughshares. 406. 
Syracuse social agencies, 47. 



Tag day, 281. 

Talbert. E. L.. 512. 

Talbot, Miss, 526. 

Tammany and prohibition, 95. 

Taxation. 

Exemption of gifts, 274, 314, 344, 362, 525. 

Social aspects of war taxes, 365. 

War finance, 21. 
Tavlor, Eleanor. Farmer and factory-hand, 

564. 
Taylor, Graham. 

Appointments under Illinois' new civil code, 
563. 

Draft, the, 404. 

Review of Brown's Is Christianity Practi- 
cable? 574. 

Review of Scudder's The Church and the 
Hour, 370. 

Review of three books on Sociology, 573. 

Review of Williams's The Christian Min- 
istry, 531. 

Review of Yeomans's City Residential Land 
Development, 289. 
Tavlor. G. R., 536. 
Taylor, Minnie V., 251. 
Teachers College, emergency courses, 201. 



Teeth, defective, 225. 

Telkes, Magda. Letter on Martin's Kallikak's 

family, 177. 
Tenements. See Housing. 
Tennessee legislation, 183. 
Tenney, Charles, 503. 
Terry, C. E., 508. 
Texas. 

Cantonment cities made safe, 349. 

Civilian relief work, 183. 

Rural sanitation, 363. 
Texas Town and City Planning Association, 47. 
Thinking. 

War a time for (letter), 362. 

War and, 171. 
Thomas, Jas. H., 194. 
Thomas, Norman M., 578. 

War's heretics, 391. 
Thompson, C. B., Conservation of minds (let- 
ter), 362. 
Thorne, Chas H., 40, 563. 
Thrift. 

American life insurance (letter), 510. 

Gloucester, 403. 

Hall, Bolton, on (letter), 344. 

Saving and, 400. 
Thwing, E. W., 503. 
Tilton, Elizabeth, 178. 

Breweries vs. bakeries — rejoinder to Mr. 

Fox, 65. 

Dry look ahead, 524. 

Letter in reply to H. F. Fox, 179. 

Letter in reply to G. N. Lauman, 179. 

Manifesto to social workers on war prohi- 
bition, 292. 

Prohibition for preparedness, 38. 

Rooster poster, 168. 

Spotted prohibition, 223. 

Wets — and the West, 351. 
Tippy, W. M., 70. 71, 427. 
Todd, A. J., Review of Parsons' Social Rule, 

369. 
Todd, Constance L. Letter on new name for 

National Conference, 177. 
Toledo University, 180. 

Nearing and, 72. 
Tool making, hours and output, 170. 
Toronto Bureau of Municipal Research, 557 and 

cover of September 22 issue. 
Toronto Housing Company, 225. 
Town improvement (letter), 200. 
Town planning. See City planning. 
Townley, A. C, 564. 
Trade unions. 

Government contracts during the war, 299. 

Hygiene, 295. 

Injunctions against, 363. 

International conference, 380. 

Organizing against occupational diseases, 41. 

Shipyard agreement, 488. 

See also National Women's Trade Union 
League. 
Trade training for the injured in Massachu- 
setts, 145. 
Trades and trade schools for wounded and crip- 
pled. 

Canada, 1. 

France, 11. 
Travelers' aid, 463. 
Travelers' Aid Conference, 172. 
Travelers' Aid Society, 537. 
Trench fighting, old age from, 170. 
Tuberculosis. 

Argentina, 463. 

Canada, war time, 5. 

Commission for Prevention in France, [348], 
353. 

Fayette county, Ky., 511. 

France (Biggs), 112. 

France campaign poster, cover of May 12 
issue. 

National Association, plans, 89. 

New York state hospitals, 294. 

Officers of National Association, 201. 

Prevention, 337. 

Prisoners' exchange, 380. 

Saving France. 223. 

War conditions. 123. 

War control, 198. 

Wisconsin, 464. 

Wisconsin soldiers, 536. 
Turkey. 

Dirt and disease and appeal to America, 467. 

Staving off starvation, 376. 
"Turning off the spigot." Reply to Mrs. Til- 
ton (Fox), 62. 

See also Tilton, E. 
Typhoid. 

Cities' rank in, 196. 

Dairy and, 356. 

Death-rate in Massachusetts, 252. 

Employes in Wisconsin. 363. 
Typhus and Mexican immigration, 71. 
Typical town, 200. 
Typographical Union No. 6, 41. 
Tyson, F. D., 380. 



Dlrik, F. F., 280. 

Unemplovment and feeblemindedness on Pacific 
coast, '250. 

Uniforms in sweatshops, 519, cover September 
15 issue. 

United Committee on War Temperance Activi- 
ties, 537. 

United Hospital Fund, two in one (ill.), 37. 



Index 



XI 



United Mine Workers, 40, 428. 

Coal Production Committee and, 279. 
Protest, 241. 

United States. 

War with Germany, Wilson's address of 

April 2, 16-17. 
See also America. 

U. S. Brewers' Association, 62, 65. 

U. S. Bureau of Education 
Negroes, report, 267. 
War program, 425. 

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, free pamph- 
lets. 280. 

United States Public Service Reserve, 375. 

U. S. Shipping Board Emergency Fleet Corpor- 
ation, 488. 

Universal miiltary service and conscientious ob- 
jectors, 352. 

University extension, 80, 82. 

Utah legislation, 200. 



Vaccination. 

Free, 463. 

Waterbury, Conn., 124. 
Vagrancy laws, 464. 
Valente, John. Newer sons of America (verse), 

404. 
Van Kleeck, Mary. Review of books on women 

in industry, 371. 
Van Sickle. J. H., 44. 
Venereal diseases. 

Army and, 145. 

Soldiers in France, 577. 
Vermont, state government, 148. 
Verse. 

Challenge, the, 119. 

Close quarters (Raisin), 521. 

Comrades (Benjamin), 437. 

Elevated train, from an (Batchelor), 141. 

Gifts (Flexner), 165. 

Gulliver wakes (Preston), 193. 

In Little Syria of Manhattan (Robins), 373. 

Light, A (Abelson), 455. 

Lightning (Chocano), 528. 

Mother Goose rhyme (Garrich), 487. 

Newer sons of America (Valente), 404. 

Price, the (Spencer), [364]. 

To S. N. Patten (G. Nearing), 55. 
Vice and alcohol, 343. 
Victor-American Fuel Company, 40. 
Vineland, N. J., 528. 
Virginia registration laws, 363. 
Vocational education. 

Federal help welcomed, 229. 

Military training and, 35. 
Vocational survey in Indiana, 18. 
Voice in the Wilderness, A, 512. 
Volta Bureau, 510. 
Voluntary Defenders' Committee, 79. 
Volunteer Aid Association, Massachusetts, 202. 
Volunteering, selective, Canada, 58. 
Voters, college service for, 197. 



W 

Wages. 

Miners' raised, 100. 

Relief and, 251. 

Remedy for (letter), 344. 

Women (letter), 448. 
Wald, Lillian D., 144. 
Walsh, F. P., 558. 
Walter, Henriette R. 

Output and hours, 51. 
Walters, Henrietta. 

Review of Lane's Henry Ford's Own Story, 
372. 

Review of Reely's Selected Articles on 
Minimum Wage, 371. 
War. 

Aims. 406. 

Artistic posters, 395. 

"At home," 320. 

Bill for insurance, etc., and families, 435. 

Canadian wounded men, 1. 

Cartoons, 225, 227. 

Charity regulation — Illinois, 456. 

Childhood and, 44, 381, 418, 451. 

Children and (letter), 580. 

Children take census, 155. 

Civil liberties and, 346. 

College Socialists and, 578. 

Common welfare and, 314. 

Declaration asked by President, 16-17. 

Drawings and posters for loans and relief, 
395. 

Economics (letter), 448. 

Federal economics and labor, 260. 

First obligation, 438. 

Food and, 234. 

Heretics, 391. 

Hours of work and output ; English ex- 
perience, 51. 

Industrial democracy and, 321. 

Laws of safety and health and. 37. 

Ministers and churches and, 228, 298. 



National Conference and, 253. 

Prostitution and, 232. 

Reason for (letter), 579. 

Settlements and, 29-30. 

Social forces in (Devine). See Devine, E. T. 

Social needs, French poster, 169. 

Social organization for needs, 316. 

Social work, organized, and, 170. 

Thinking and, 171. 

Time for thinking (letter), 362. 

Tragedies in America of lonely women of 
the Allied nations, 299. 

Winning first (letter), 375. 

Women's work and, 153. 
War Council and Red Cross, 424. 
War cripples. See Cripples. 
War Department circular as to camps, 273. 
War finance. See American Committee on War 

Finance. 
War insurance. 

Bill drawn by Judge Mack, 435. 

Equality in compensation, 555. 

Rather than pensions, 456. 

See also Alexander-Simmons bill ; Soldiers. 
War orphans' homes, 528. 
War prohibition, 143. 

See also Prohibition. 
War relief. 

Chain letter, 463. 

Danger in (Smith), 215. 

Edgerton, Alice, on (letter), 199. 

English Quakers, 328. 

Government aid, 79. 

Harvard summer course, 297. 

Jewish fund, 294. 

Keeping competition out, 340. 

Red Cross plans, 34. 

Resolutions of the societies for organizing 
charity, 264. 
War relief, civilian. 

Classes in various cities, 202. 

Red Cross course, 261. 

Red Cross plan, 162. 

Task of ; article based on lectures of Emma 
A. Winslow, 239. 

Task of : article based on lectures of B. S. 
LeLacheur, 270. 

Task of ; articles based on lectures of P. R. 
Lee, 53, 90, 117, 140, 164, 191, 221, 285. 

Training courses and programs, 146. 
War Relief Clearing House for France and 

Her Allies, 512. 
War relief solicitation, need of system, 297. 
War shock, hospitals for, 121. 
War taxation, social aspects, 365. 
War work for women, 292. 
Washington, D. C, street railways, 296. 
Washington, F. B. Detroit newcomers, greet- 
ing, 333. 
Washington, George. "Let no one go hungry 

away," 319. 
Washington legislation, 182. 
Waterbury, Conn., smallpox, 124. 
Watson, Amey E. Review of works on evoIu> 

tion, 422. 
Wealth, taxing, 20. 
Weatherford, W. D., 428, 443. 
Wedekind, Frank, 21. 
Weeds as nuisances, 299. 

Weidensall, Jean G. Review of Terman's Meas- 
urement of Intelligence, 423. 
Weil. A. Leo, vindication, 26. 
Weinberg, Israel, 305. 

Portrait, 308. 
Weinberger, Harry, 145. 
Welles, Mary C. Connecticut hours of labor 

(letter), 178. 
Wells, Katherine Z. State action for soldiers' 

families, 570. 
Welsh-Slater bill, 35. 
West Virginia. 

Social resources, 463. 

Weil indictments, 26. 
Westchester County, N. Y. 

Penitentiary fellowships, 281. 

Preparedness, 201. 
Western Federation of Miners, 429. 
Western opinions of the I. W. W., 522. 
Wheat corporation, 491. 
Whiff, F. D., 563. 

Whipple, Durand. Arkansas sloth (letter), 177. 
Whiskey cartoon, 524. 

Whitcomb, Mildred E. Iowa cripples, 312. 
White, Alex. M., 24. 
White, John P., 100, 241. 
Whitman, C. S., Brown bill veto, 241. 
Whitman, J. L., 563. 
Widows' pensions in Pennsylvania, 464. 
Wileman, Etta B„ 494. 
Williams, John M. Tool output, 170. 
Wilson, President. 

Address to Congress, April 2, 16-17. 

Free speech, 144. 

Labor standards, 194. , 

National Conference of Social Work s un- 
official memorial, 256. 

Reply to Pope's proposal (text), 506. 
Wilson, Sec'y of Labor, plan to prevent strikes, 

244. 



Wilson, W. H. Review of Vogt's Rural Sociol- 
ogy, 533. 

Wing, Frank E., 100. 

Winnipeg, relief administration, 378. 

Winslow, Emma A., civilian war relief, 239. 

Winslow, Ewing. Conscientious objector (let- 
ter), 535. 

Winston-Salem, N. C, local court record as to 
Negroes, 509. 

Wlnton G. B. 

Mexico redlvivus, 415. 

Review of Barron's The Mexican Problem, 

Wire tapping, 228. 
Wisconsin. 

Agricultural labor, 249. 

Apprenticeship, 464. 

Night law (letter), 510. 

Tuberculosis, 464, 536. 

Typhoid of employe, 363. 

Women's night work, 459. 
Wisconsin, University of, wartime social serv- 
ice, 249. 
Witte, E. E. Wisconsin's night law (letter), 

510. 
Wolfe, J. H., 200. 
Woman suffrage. 

Maine, 536. 

New York, 511. 

Russia, 43. 

War-time gains, 97. 
W. C. T. U., 201-202. 
Woman's Church Federation, 278. 
Women. 

Agriculture in England, 526. 

Allied lonely, in America, 299. 

Books by, 367. 

China, 502. 

Employment bureau and, 298. 

Farm work and, 262. 

French working women, 363. 

Hours of work in Bureau of Engraving and 
Printing, 357. 

Minimum wage law, 33. 

Philadelphia Monday Conference, [347]. 

Police in England, 490. 

Shorter hours in the West, 459. 

Swedish, 346. 

Wages (letter), 448. 

Wages in Arkansas and California, 377. 

War work, supervision, 292. 

War work and. 153. 

Wisconsin's night law (letter), 510. 
Women's clubs, international work, suggestions 

wanted (letter), 279. 
Women's Trade Union League. See National 

Women's Trade Union League. 
Wood, F. C. Review of Russell's Notes on 

the Causation of Cancer, 534. 
Woodward, Adele F. Children's movies (let- 
ter) 199. 
Wooden shoes, 298-299. 
Woodlock, T. F. Yucatan (letter), 536. 
Woods, E. A. 

Doctors killed (letter), 380. 

Thrift (letter), 510. 
Woods, Robt. A. 

National Conference, looking forward, 269. 

Portrait, 255. 

Review of Slmkhovitch's The City Worker's 
World, 367. 
Woodworth, R. S. Review of books on neuroses, 

361. 
Worcester, Mass., relief cost, 463. 
Workmen's compensation. 

Enemy aliens, 281. 

State laws reviewed, 259. 
Workmen's Council, 411. 
World organization, 201. 

World politics, fellowship at Stanford Univer- 
sity, 363. 
World relations, books on, 548. 
Wounded soldiers. 

French, 11. 

Montreal, 1. 

Re-education, etc., 566. 

Trade training for, 14."i. 
Wright, Lucy, 183. 
Wu Lien Teh, 556. 
Wyer, J. I.. Jr.. 496. 
Wyoming legislation, 182. 



Yom Kippur (111.), 105. 

Young, Nannie. Review of Marcosson's The 

War After the War, 360. 
Y. W. C. A. 

China, 527. 

Plattsburg camp house, 297. 
Yucatan : dissenters' letter, 536. 



Zancanelll, Louis. 298. 

Zeitler, Lauretta M. Be prepared (letter), 78. 

Zionism, 354. 

Zones of Safety, 349. 




S UVWG& 



,- — ■>> 

APR 1 1917 




The Battle-ground for Wounded Men 

By Paul U. Kellogg 

Trades and Courage for French War Cripples 

By Bruno Lasker 

Price 25 Cents 




April 7, 1917 



CONTENTS for APRIL 7, 1917 The GIST of IT 



Volume XXXVIII, No. 1 
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

A Canadian City in War Time — IV. The Battle-ground for Wounded 
Men 

PAUL U. KELLOGG 1 

Rebuilt Men. New Trades and Fresh Courage for French War Cripples 

BRUNO LASKER 11 

Lock and Key 

ELIZABETH ROBB1NS HOOKER 14 

"Safe for Democracy." The President's Address to Congress on April 2-16 
Learning for Earning or for Life? - - 

W1NTHROP D. LANE 18 

COMMON WELFARE 

Plans for the Care of Soldiers' Families --------- 20 

Word from Madame Breshkovsky ----- 20 

Taxing Wealth to Pay for War ---------- 20 

Youth and Spring on the Stage - - - - -21 

A Lincoln Statue for Petrograd - - - - - - - - - -21 

A City Playground in the Mountains --------- 22 

When the Kallikaks Moved to Harrisburg 23 

New York's New Citizen Police ---------- 24 

Protest by Cleveland Settlements - - - 24 

Juvenile Crime the Nemesis of Hate - - 24 

Vindication for a Civic Reformer - 26 

The Lure of the North for Negroes --------- 27 

One Point Where California Lags Behind -------- 28 

Social Settlements and the War - 29 

To Protect American Ideals - 31 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, President 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Secretary FRANK TUCKER, Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFlCJt 

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NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, Chairman 



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EDWARD T. DEVINE, New York. 
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LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo. 
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LEE K. FRANKEL, New York. 
JOHN M. GLENN, New York. 
C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 
WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York. 
WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego. 

ALFRED T. 



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of March 3, 1879. 



TO ADJUST the discards of war to civil 
life again, physically, vocationally, spiritu- 
ally, the Canadian Military Hospitals Com- 
mission makes use of volunteer service as 
the Patriotic Fund does in the care of sol- 
diers' families. Doctors and nurses, teachers 
and vocational counselors, shoemakers and 
employment agents all play a part. The 
greatest wounds come not from bullets but 
from tuberculosis. Page 1. 



EXPERIENCE from the field of workmen's 
compensation following industrial accidents 
has been of prime service in replacing French 
war cripples among the self-supporting. 
These cripples are themselves contributing 
to the understanding of organic habituation 
to mutilations. The schools for the handi- 
capped are full of soldiers and their work 
is a success. Page 11. 



AMONG some of the cripples of peace, tr 
— the nervous invalids and the convalescents 
from sickness or strain — there is need of 
occupation not only useful but inspiring — 
something to put a poor, fidgety soul back 
on his feet again. Growing flowers, to be 
sold cheap to the flower-hungry in the 
rities, suggested as the ideal combination. 
Page 14. 



PRESIDENT WILSON went the whole way 
in his address to Congress Monday night — 
war, alliance, universal service. He recites 
the invasion of our sea rights, but it is 
toward the overthrow of the German gov- 
ernment, for the sake of the people of all 
Europe, that he calls on the American dem- 
ocracy to throw its full strength into the 
struggle. The text of the address. Page 16. 



INDIANA'S school survey was an elaborate 
study not only of vocational education, but 
of its application to a given industry in a 
given city of specified size. Page 18. 



PRACTICAL training for volunteers in the 
care of soldiers' families is to be given by 
the New York School of Philanthropy, with 
field work in the large relief agencies. 
Page 20. 



THE proposal of a pay-as-you-enter war, 
financed by taxes laid on this generation, 
has met with such a response as almost to 
bury under approving letters the three social 
workers who invented it. Page 20. 



SAN FRANCISCO newspapers are uphold- 
ing their newsboys in opposing an extension 
of the child-labor law in street trades, fol- 
lowing thereby the discarded practice of 
eastern papers a decade ago. Page 28. 



GERMANY has had a great increase of 
juvenile crime since the war began, due, it 
is believed, to the bitterness and hate of 
newspapers and general public feeling. 
Page 24. 



SIX years ago Los Angeles moved a munici- 
pal recreation center out into the neighboring 
mountains. Not only rest and recreation, but 
civic pride and community spirit have re- 
sulted. Page 22. 



CIVIC reformers in Pittsburgh are rejoicing 
over the vindication of A. Leo Weil. A 
mountain vendetta,- applied through the 
West Virginia courts, was employed to 
"get" him because of his prosecutions for 
the Voters' League. Page 26. 



WHOLE church congregations — even train- 
loads — of southern Negroes have moved up 
to the high wages of Philadelphia. ^ A joint 
committee is at work on the resulting prob- 
lems of health, housing and schools. Page 27. 



^K***fa, 




sm vv 




A Canadian City in War Time 

IV. The Battle-ground for Wounded Men 
By Paul U. Kellogg 



THE GREY NUNNERY they call it— and the name 
seems to fit the great half-quadrangle of that weath- 
ered limestone which gives to warehouse and church 
alike in Montreal the quality of etchings. But the 
name has to do with more than walls, for this is the mother 
house of Les Soeurs Grises, whose branches in the United 
States and western Canada have made the work of the 
order known throughout the continent. 

In Montreal, that work reaches back to the French and 
Indian war, when the Grey nuns nursed wounded English 
soldiers who had been taken captive. Today, row after row 
of beds, floor after floor, one entire wing of the nunnery has 
been stripped of its customary furnishings and insignia and has 
been given over to wounded men, French-speaking, English- 
speaking, convalescents from the battlefields of another great 
European struggle in which, this time, France and England are 
making common cause, and in which stand together the de- 
scendants of the men who fought in the eighteenth century 
for control of the valley of the St. Lawrence. 

The ground floor had been thrown into a recreation room, 
and patients lined the benches the morning of my visit, or 
hung about the piano where local talent was doing the honors 
of visiting day. At the billiard table, a one-legged man with 
his crutch laid aside and a cue in its place was meeting all 
comers on unequal terms — and in a sense personifying the 
genius of the place. For in the adjoining rooms were invalided 
men at work at the shoe-makers' and carpenters' benches and 
school desks that made up the simple equipment of the first 
of the vocational classes which are gradually turning the con- 
valescent homes of the Military Hospitals Commission into 
training schools. 

Here was an Irishman, an ex-stage driver from out Van- 
couver way ; and next him Joe Desrosiers, a quiet-spoken young 
French-Canadian from the rural districts of Quebec. Two 
months before, just back from the war, Joe could neither read 
nor write, but he had made such rapid progress that he was 
now addressing daily notes to his instructor and multiplying in 
four figures. He showed me his copy-book with its proud label, 
For Canada and Empire; and inside, beginning on the first 
page with crudely formed letters, were the exercises which 



stood for nothing less, step after step, than the opening up of 
civilization to a starved intelligence. There in the half-formed 
handwriting of this soldier of the expeditionary force, who was 
wounded in the side in the first battle of Ypres, were such 
painfully engrossed practice sheets as "Dickey bird, dickey bird, 
whither away?" When Joe Desrosiers can read, he is to 
take up motor mechanics ; and when the doctors discharge him, 
he will face the world with some compensation for his life- 
long physical handicap. 

The spirit of humane care in all medical service reaches 
back to the hospices of the Middle Ages. But the work in 
these convalescent homes draws its inspiration from some of 
the newest sources, not only in medicine but in industry and 
education. It draws on the latest developments in the schools 
for the blind and hospitals for crippled children, on psychiatric 
ward and tuberculosis sanatoria, operating room and research 
laboratory, on the technical colleges and the work shops of 
scientific managers and efficiency engineers. 

And this convalescent home in the Grey Nunnery is but 
one of the way-stations on the return road which begins at the 
ports of debarkation, Halifax, St. Johns and Quebec, and 
reaches back to every cross-way and city neighborhood of the 
dominion from which men have set out for the front, whole 
and vigorous. 

Perhaps there is no better way to visualize it than to tell 
at the start the story of one group of Jamaicans whose partici- 
pation in the fortunes of war ran the whole gamut of bitter 
personal loss and partial reparation. Of these, nine had to have 
both legs amputated below the knee, eight lost one foot or 
most of one foot. In the West Indies, they had been cul- 
tivators, earning from ten to fourteen shillings per week. 
Their case was taken up by the Canadian Military Hospitals 
Commission with the government of Jamaica, which reported 
that if the crippled men could get training as shoemakers or 
garment makers they could earn a livelihood on the island. In 
less than five months, eight of the men were trained to the 
point where they could do ordinary shoe-repairing as well as 
the average journeyman; two showed such aptitude for cob- 
bling that they could make custom-made shoes ; three showed 
60 per cent efficiency as garment makers; one, in tinsmithing, 

1 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 




CLASS IN WOODWORKING AT TH1) GREY NUNS CONVALESCENT HOME, MONTREAL 



could make an ordinary utensil if given the pattern, although 
he was of such a primitive type, that he could not distinguish 
differences smaller than a quarter of an inch. One was trained 
to be a chauffeur (he had had some experience before) ; and 
one completed two-thirds of a course in stenography and type- 
writing. 

All this process of re-education was carried on during the 
period of convalescence in Halifax, where W. J. Clayton, a 
clothing manufacturer, gave up his house, which the Red Cross 
furnished as a military hospital. The men were supplied with 
artificial limbs made in the government factory at Toronto, 
established and run by the Military Hospitals Commission. 
One month after they were fitted to these limbs and just before 
they left for Jamaica, they had a dance on their Canadian 
legs. But while this festivity appealed most to the popular 
imagination, it was less of a miracle than their transformation 
industrially. Jamaica paid the cost of maintaining, equipping 
and training the men. Instead of the unskilled farm hands 
who had left the island, instead of helpless war-cripples, pro- 
spective dependents for unnumbered days, seventeen producers, 
with enough artisanship to earn for themselves more than they 
had ever earned before, sailed south from Halifax to take up 
life hopefully in spite of their desperate maiming. 

Quebec is the clearing-house for invalided men, but with 
the St. Lawrence frozen fast, Halifax and St. Johns are the 
ports of entry in winter. Hospital ships for all the sick or 
wounded, a debarkation hospital at the water-front, and special 
hospital cars for helpless patients, are links recently forged in 
the chain of care which mark great advances over the earlier 
provisions. Ordinary troop and passenger ships have been 
much used to bring back men from the English hospitals, but 
these often have proved to be crowded, the accommodations 
inadequate, and classification difficult. 

More and more invalided men are being brought in English 
hospital ships, 500 at a time. In these ships with their four 
red crosses, port and starboard, forward and stern, and a large 
electric red cross at night, there has been less danger from 
submarines. Yet, in March, such a ship was attacked in 
English waters regardless of its markings and freightage. A 



doctor is in high command and outside of the officers and crew 
there are none aboard the ship save wounded men, orderlies 
and nurses. Moreover, the ships are divided into wards, which 
facilitates classification. Each man has a separate cot. If he 
is helpless and might roll out, he sleeps in something like an 
old-fashioned baby's crib, which can swing with the motion of 
the ship or can be made fast. 

At Halifax the immigration building on Pier 2 has been 
transformed into a large clearing hospital. It can take care of 
425 patients, so that a ship can be emptied practically at once 
and a man carried on a level from his cot aboard the boat to 
a cot on shore. One frequently told story of the port is of a 
chap who came down the gang-plank, hobbling along on crutch 
and cane with one leg off. A friend in front carried for him 
his kit-bag and his artificial leg, which he had not yet learned 
to manipulate, at least down a gang-plank. The friend, ex- 
cited on getting back, rushed ahead onto Canadian soil until 
he was hailed by a howl from the rear, "How in hell do yez 
think this left leg can catch up wid that right one? For God's 
sake wait." 

But it is the paralytics, especially those who must be carried 




CLASS IN MECHANICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING, KHAKI 
LEAGUE CONVALESCENT HOME, MONTREAL 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 




INVALIDED SOLDIERS AND INVALIDED SHOES 



on water beds, that have caused greatest concern. In one 
shipload were nine men, paralyzed from the waist down, who 
had to be swung off in hammocks. Some had been blown up, 
others hit by shrapnel, one sniped and one kicked by a horse. 

It was through experience in handling this group of bed- 
ridden cases that the third advance in equipment, the hospital 
cars, came about. Until these cars were provided, with their 
big side doors, it was excruciating business to transfer such 
cases from the ships to the train. The hospital cars are ar- 
ranged in units of two cars each. In the first, cots are put in 
place of the lower berths ; the upper berths being left for the 
use of orderlies at night. The companion car has a smaller 
number of cots, doctors' and nurses' quarters, and a side en- 
trance. The Canadian government railway has provided five 
such units, and the Canadian Pacific, three — or sixteen cars 
in all. 

Human Cargoes 

A hospital ship's list is made up somewhat like a manifest, 
with the man's name, company, regiment, residence and dis- 
ability — a human cargo, if you will, of invalided and conva- 




ONE OF THE CLASSES IN MOTOR MECHANICS OF THE MILITARY 
HOSPITALS COMMISSION 



lescent men, and more recently, of active cases. For with 
roughly fifteen thousand sick and wounded Canadians under 
treatment in England, and prospect of immense additions to 
their number after the spring campaign, the cross-seas trans- 
port of patients at an earlier stage of treatment was entered 
upon in mid-winter to relieve the English hospitals. Not a 
few of the men have open wounds still. 

One fellow came through with sixty-nine wounds. He had 
been reconnoitering with five others. As a mortar shell burst, 
he dove head first into a trench and all sixty-nine wounds were 
from his hips to the soles of his feet. Even so, he was more 
fortunate than his companions. A second man of the party 
died of his wounds; a third was killed outright; a fourth had 
to have a leg amputated ; and a fifth was found dead against 
a post, whole, but killed by the concussion. Another wounded 
man brought twenty-eight pieces of shrapnel down the gang- 
plank with him — still in his body. He had three stiff joints, 
but the metal had reached him in no vital part. The home- 
comers range from cases such as these, to men in apparent good 
health, whose injuries merely incapacitate them for further 
active military service. 

First the men of the maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, 
Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick — are taken to the 
discharge depot and go before a medical board. This has on 
hand the documents from the corresponding English medical 
board, but it is on the basis of re-examination in Canada that 
the men are divided into three classes: 

I. Men for immediate discharge without pension — those unfit for 
over?eas service, but capable of taking up their previous civilian 
occupation, or those whose disability was neither the result of service 
nor aggravated by it. 

II. Men whose condition may be benefited by further medical 
treatment. 

III. Men with permanent disability who will not be benefited by 
further treatment, and whose cases come before the board of pension 
commissioners. 

The men of class I go to the pay-master for transportation, 
are paid off, given civilian clothing (or $13, as they prefer), 
and 15 days' extra pay, to tide them over until they get em- 
ployment. This procedure is true to a degree of class III, ex- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



cept that they are kept on pay until their pensions are adjusted. 
Red Cross committees look after these maritime men while in 
Halifax, giving them auto-rides, entertaining them in private 
houses, etc. Meanwhile the provincial Returned Soldiers Com- 
mission notifies its representative in each home town that the 
man is on his way, so that he may not arrive unknown, un- 
heralded, and unwelcomed. 

The men of class II get $10 down, the balance of their 
pay is sent by check to their homes, and after a ten days' leave 
(if they are well enough) they come under the care of the 
Military Hospitals Commission, army pay and subsistence al- 
lowance continuing during their period of treatment. 

Men of all classes whose destinations are west of the mari- 
time provinces are entrained for Quebec, where v they in turn 
come before a medical board, and are classified. Elaborate 
case histories are taken down for those of class II, covering 
not only their army and physical record, but such items as 
their former occupation, earnings, schooling, technical training. 
These records are sent in duplicate to the various govern- 
mental departments. For it is at this point, and with these 
men of class II, who, after medical and vocational treatment 
may either be rehabilitated into self-sufficient civilians (like 
class I) or drop into the pensioners (class III), that the pri- 
mary work of the Military Hospitals Commission begins. 

Almost by accident, Canada put into the hands of a civilian 
commission the handling of this return current of men from 
overseas. The far-reaching social significance of so doing is 
only now beginning to lay hold of the public. In testifying 
before a parliamentary committee in March, the general 
charged with mustering battalions in the Montreal district, 
said tersely that he had no time to consider the handling of 
returned convalescents; his business was to produce fighting 
men for the front. Not only do the currents run in opposite 
directions, but their whole functioning is different. The goal 
of the Military Hospitals Commission is to take the discards 
of war and readjust them physically, vocationally and spir- 
itually to civil life. Gradually, as the return current grows 
in volume, and as the commission becomes better known its 
work is being visualized as a great economic and patriotic re- 
sponsibility and service. 

To date upward of 15,000 men have gone through its 
hands. These are only the advance guard of no one knows 
how large an army of invalided men. Until three or 
four months ago, they came only gradually, and the first to 
reach Canada were not the most seriously disabled. Ampu- 
tation and other serious cases would stay on in England for a 
long time. People in most of the provinces are' only now 




beginning to meet the real war cripples — to shake men by the 
left hand or try to talk naturally to one whose painfully 
labored breath and speech are due to gassing. At the outset, 
the heads of the medical corps, engineering and clothing bu- 
reaus of the Canadian Department of Militia and Defense 
were made a special committee to look after returned soldiers. 
A few convalescent homes were started, and there was one file 
at Ottawa to contain the correspondence. Today there are 
1,000 files. The commission was formed by an order in coun- 
cil dated June 30, 1915, under the presidency of Sir James A. 
Lougheed, member of the Cabinet without portfolio, and was 
composed of representative men from all parts of the dominion, 
some of them nominated by the provincial governments. As 
secretary, E. H. Scammell was chosen, an Englishman who 
had lived ten years in Canada and who, before the war, 
had organized the Canadian end of the celebration of 
one hundred years of peace with the United States. Inci- 
dentally, Mr. Scammell's father had been active in rehabili- 
tation work for returned soldiers in England following the 
Boer war. His own experience in mining and industrial 
operations in Canada and Australia has stood him in good 
stead in projecting the social and economic phases of the work. 
For increasingly, those phases, no less than the medical, have 
become important. 

The Canadian Army Medical Corps had been developed 
for fifteen years prior to the war. Base and camp hospitals 
were put in operation to care for the heavy medical work 
incidental to mustering the expeditionary force. Provision 
for physical examination of recruits had to be expanded, reor- 
ganized and brought to new efficiency following the rejection 
of large numbers of unfit men after they had reached England. 
The corps was constantly drained of some of its most experi- 
enced physicians who accompanied the troops over sea. But 
even had the medical corps been equipped to handle invalided 
men also, so far as numbers goes — and this is a moot point — 
it is my conviction that the present Canadian system which 
has vested adminstrative responsibility for handling returned 
men in a separate civilian agency, is the better one. The phys- 
ical restoration of a sick or temporarily injured soldier, so that 
he can return to the ranks, is a job for army doctor and 
drill master. The rehabilitation of a permanently injured man 
for the resumption of civilian life where he left off, or even 
the care of the wide variety of war wrecks who come back 
from the front, calls into play all manner of specialists, sur- 
geons, psychiatrists, tuberculosis experts, trade teachers, agri- 
culturists and the like. 

Specialization in Treatment 

The work falls into four chief branches — medical, 1 mili- 
tary, vocational and employment. In order to make use of 
existing resources, and to bring convalescent patients within 
reach of friends and families, the first step in development was 
to arrange for hospitals in the chief provincial centers. The 
work was emergent, much of it clearly temporary, and the 
effort was not to supplant but to use existing institutions. In 
December last, overseas patients were being cared for in ap- 
proximately thirty such, some managed directly by the com- 
mission, some by philanthropic or public agencies with which 
the commission made per-diem arrangements; this in addition 



JAMAICANS WHO LOST THEIR LEGS AND FOUND A VOCATION 



1 The work has been handicapped to a degree by vagueness as to medical 
and official jurisdiction, but a working arrangement has been arrived at by 
which physicians of the Army Medical Corps now carry on the general 
medical work in the institutions of the commission, under a medical super- 
intendent responsible to the commission; while army officers assigned to a 
command also responsible administratively to it look after discipline, pay, etc., 
the patients being still, of course, enlisted men. Meanwhile, the commission, 
as a civilian body, is able to enlist in many cases full-time volunteer work 
from citizens, make favorable arrangements with private and provincial in- 
stitutions, and carry on, more flexibly, its overhead administrative work. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7 , igi 7 



to eighteen sanatoria for tuberculosis. In many cases an addi- 
tion is built, the commission paying half the cost and having 
the use of it so long as required. 

As the number of men increased, a second classification ac- 
cording to physical disability naturally followed, which called 
for the creation, equipment and maintenance of specialized in- 
stitutions. One day at the Montreal office, I ran through the 
blanks which had reached it that morning of invalided soldiers 
on the way to the city. The physical disabilities included 
"over age and unfit" ; tendon of Achilles partially severed ; 
ruptured ligament of the right knee; stiff hip; injury to mus- 
culo-spiral nerve from gunshot wound in arm; shell shock and 
goitre ; shell shock and anaemia ; stiff right elbow ; amputated 
fingers ; fibula shot away ; gunshot damage to thoracic nerve ; 
shell shock and deafness ; nervous break-down. A great many 
wounds were of the arm and shoulder; few of the legs and 
feet. To the simple explanation that the upper part of the 
body may be more exposed, the doctors added the darker one 
that often the men wounded in the legs and feet in No Man's 
Land die there. Rheumatism, tuberculosis and heart trouble 
were the most frequent entries. 

War Consumptives 

In handling tuberculosis cases, the commission has been 
meeting an emergency situation for a year past. Last summer 
it cabled to England for an estimate of the number of in- 
valided soldiers to be anticipated. The commission arranged 
for 30 per cent in excess. When the Canadian camps were 
closed last fall the hospitals were fairly swamped with tuber- 
culous and other ailing men whose presence in the camps had 
not been reported. Returned men from England numbered 
twice the estimates. The demand developed so rapidly and 
so far ahead of medical prognostications that the commission 
has been meeting it by leasing hotels, schools and other build- 
ings for the quickly-curable cases. In the province of 
Quebec, the commission has thus opened an old inn and in- 
creased the size of two private sanatoria. It has had designed 
a standard tuberculosis pavilion which will take care of ten 
men and will last from six to ten years. This can be put up 
in two weeks and attached to the drainage and water system 
of any sanatorium. Whether the commission will create 
permanent institutions of its own for chronic cases to be pen- 
sioners of the dominion for life, remains to be seen, but it is 
felt that the general outcome will be the development of 
a stronger sentiment for public sanatoria throughout all 
Canada. 

Perhaps 80 per cent of the patients had the disease before 
they came on the strength. In some cases it was impossible to 
tell when they enlisted. But that many clearly incipient cases 
were admitted to the ranks in the early rush due to lack of 
skill of local examining physicians or the ill-advised pressure 
of recruiting officers and commanders, is without question. 
Large numbers of the men developed pulmonary tuberculosis 
during their training in Canada, brought on by long route 
marches, wet feet and sleeping in tents before they were moved 
into barrachs for winter. Others came down in England 
and others through exposure in the trenches. At one time as 
high as 60 per cent of the tuberculous men had never left the 
country. Today the percentage is about 50. Not more than 
15 per cent have been to France. 

In the matter of treatment, the Saranac Lake men in Can- 
ada have held to the rest policy. The English sanatoria go 
in for physical work. The Canadian commission has taken 
a middle course in adapting vocational training to the three 
classes into which the patients are divided : 




CLASS IN POULTRY RAISING AND GENERAL AGRICULTURE, 
SEWARD PARK CONVALESCENT HOME, QUEBEC. EGGS AND 
FOWLS ARE SOLD AND THE PROFITS GO TO THE SOLDIERS 

1. Bed cases with temperature. These are given no vocational 
training. 

2. Porch cases. These men in the warmer months study general 
subjects which can be taken from books; they draw, or do rarha, 
basketry, crocheting or embroidery. Of course, these occupations 
cannot be carried on outdoors in the severe Canadian winter. 

3. Men on exercise. These put in from one to four hours a day 
in classroom or workshop along the lines which will be described 
for general convalescents. 

The most striking specialized institution is at Toronto. 
Here is both an orthopaedic center for amputation cases and a 
factory for artificial limbs. In the manufacture of such 
limbs the United States has led the world. Three 
American experts have, in fact, been called to Europe since 
the war began to cooperate with the military authorities of 
the Allies in artificial limb production — Hanger of Brooklyn, 
the inventor of a special joint; Rowley of Chicago, a large 
manufacturer of legs, and Carnes of Kansas City, noted for 
his patent arms. The Canadian soldiers have had difficultv in 
getting limbs from the English depot, however, because of the 
great demand from English war cripples. The Toronto in- 
stitution is the result. 

This factory is in charge of a man of thirty years' experience. 
Skilled artisans have been brought from the United States. 
As it is a government institution, the factory is able to draw 
on all known devices without regard to Canadian 
or foreign patents, and the Military Hospitals Commission 
claims that its limbs include the best points of French, Belgian 
and English war designs. In other words, the Canadian sol- 
dier marches off on an Entente leg. More practically, per- 
haps, it should be added that one of the members of the 
Military Hospitals Commission has an artificial arm — a man 
of wealth who has tried all inventions and whose advice has 
had influence in developing a simple government type. 

The procedure in the United States has been to give a 
crippled veteran a grant for an artificial limb. This grant 
he can spend as he sees fit or go without the limb entirely 
if he chooses. Limbs are very costly. A soldier has not much 
chance to kick even with his natural member, if his bargain 
is not satisfactory. Under the Canadian system the limb is 
made satisfactory and kept so. Recently a Frenchman with 
two medals hut a bad leg — all gifts of his government — was 
re-fitted at Toronto. 

In amputation case< a cast is taken of the stump, the limb 
is made, fitted and practised for a certain length of time. Four 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



to six months must elapse after the operation before the stump 
is shrunk to normal size, and it must meanwhile be massaged 
and exercised, or, to use the technical phrase, functionally 
re-educated, to restore as much as possible of the normal 
strength and freedom of the muscles. Meanwhile, the time 
is turned to account. As yet little attempt has been made to 
follow the French precedents, where mechanics have been 
taught to use their artificial arms in fine operations. The 
vocational preparation has been simpler, but is felt to be more 
practical. 

To illustrate: Ten apprentices are to be taken on at the 
Toronto factory itself, preferably soldiers from different parts 
of the dominion who have lost their legs. The life of an 
artificial limb is from three to ten years, and the government 
undertakes to repair and replace limbs as often as necessary. 
These apprentices are to be taught leg making and repairing, 
that they may be able to look after the legs in their part of 
the country in following years. 

A central hospital for nervous diseases has been established 
at Coburg, Ontario, where men suffering from shell shock and 
neurasthenia are sent. All the different forms of nerve sick- 
ness are present — melancholia, amnesia and dementia, and the 
rest. At the end of two or three months, chronic cases are 
transferred to provincial hospitals for the insane. Two alien- 
ists are in charge, and a new institution is likely to be opened 
soon for shell-shock cases, which do not mix well with the 
others. Theirs is nervous prostration through terrible ex- 
perience. The head wiggles; if you speak quickly the man 
jumps; he cries easily. Only a small residue it is hoped will 
be in need of permanent institutional care, but no one can 
forecast what recurrent consequences of the great war will 
press down upon these men in the years to come. 

A war-time version of the bramble bush is that of Private 
Chambers who was blinded as a result of shell-shock. After 
an extended but unsuccessful treatment in London, he was 
started home in a boat which was torpedoed. The excitement 
restored his sight and the passengers were saved. Even so, 
there are limitations to the psychiatric treatment which can be 
generally recommended ! If the case proves to be only a mild 
form the patient is sent to his home on military pay, or to a 
convalescent home with recommendation for vocational train- 
ing. For here again occupation has been found to be of great 
value. 

The story is told of a young American volunteer, wounded 
in the shoulder, who, as a result of shell-shock, had a total loss 
of memory. Before the war he had been a stationary engineer 
in the South Station, Boston. He was sent to his sister's home 
in St. John, N. B., so nervous that he could not be treated 
in a convalescent hospital of the ordinary sort and so afflicted 
that he could not go three houses away and find his way back 
again. A teacher was sent to the house and began with raffia, 
basketry and simpler woodwork. Memory exercises were 
built up on these occupations and the man is slowly recovering. 

Hospitals for Convalescents. 

Altogether some 4,000 soldier patients are being cared for 
by the commission at this time, either in institutions or as 
out-patients. Even after the process of institutional differ- 
entiation is carried much further than at present, the largest 
group will be the general cases — just as with a city hospital, 
or charity organization society, or any other social agency re- 
ceiving all comers. Along with its various advantages, the 
commission was not only unwieldy in size and scattered in 
membership, but it has had to be educated. It has learned some 
things, slowly, only through experience; a process which nev- 



ertheless has been accelerated by the fact that certain key 
members have practically put in full time, grappling with prob- 
lems as they arose. The commission started with small homes 
and not a few of these were donated. While each was a 
tribute to a patriotic conscience, it was apt to be a poor place 
for a convalescent patient. Writing of them, Senator John S. 
McLennan, of Sydney, one of the broadscale members of the 
commission, said : 

"There are many men in our homes today, still unfitted to 
resume civil life, whose wounds were received in the great 
battles of a year ago. The supply of comforts, which in many 
cases were luxurious; the relaxation of discipline, the treating 
of men as one treats a civilian patient in the interval between 
illness and the resuming of ordinary occupation, which might 
do no harm if the experience was to be counted in days, are 
most seriously detrimental to the best interests of the men 
when extended over the prolonged periods which have been 
found unavoidable. The first conception of the homes was 
that they were places of relaxation ; the right one, which expe- 
rience has taught us to realize, is that they are places of re- 
habilitation." 

In the second stage of the commission's work, therefore, 
the trend has been toward larger city units under its own 
management. There are signs that this, in turn, is giving way 
to a third stage of still larger units, some distance out from 
the cities, near enough to call on the best medical service, but 
iar enough away so that men will not be cooped up in barracks- 
like recreation-rooms, nor left in their free time to the com- 
mercial amusements of a wide-open town like Montreal, with 
resulting drunkenness and venereal disease. 

Much is anticipated from the development at Whitby, 
where a large hospital for the insane built by the Ontario 
government has been taken over by the commission for its con- 
valescents. Similarly, in Quebec, Lieutenant-Colonel Smith 
is negotiating for new suburban institutions and getting esti- 
mates on hut-hospital settlements similar to those created in 
France. 

Moreover, every month has added to the evidence that it 
ir. not rest the men require so much as occupation, mental and 
physical, a need which calls for a further classification of 
patients quite as important as any thus far set down. Among 
the 2,600 patients in the Ontario hospitals, "300 occupations 
were represented. The men's tastes ran in twenty different 
lines. Only in large units can you get enough men to justify 
a class in even representative trades. But while the commis- 
sion failed to call in institutional experts at the outset, in work- 
ing out its administrative problems, it has been forehanded 
in calling into its vocational work some of the most experi- 
enced men in technical education in Canada under the super- 
intendency of T. B. Kidner. Professor Kidner came to Can- 
ada in 1900 under the Macdonald fund, organized technical 
education in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and came to 
the commission from Calgary, where he was director of 
technical education. 

The Vocational Work 
The origin of the vocational work was characteristic. The 
first year of war Mr. and Mrs. T. K. L. Ross lent their home, 
Drumbo, in Sydney, as a convalescent home. Mrs. Ross's 
sister, Miss Matthews, discovered the social need of the men 
who were beating time while waiting to get well. She ap- 
proached B. H. Murray, premier of the province, who asked 
Principal F. H. Sexton, of Nova Scotia Technical College, to 
look into the matter. Engineering courses in five colleges 
(mining, civil, electrical and mechanical) and evening tech- 
nical schools at twenty points throughout the province fall 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 




FREDERIC H. SEXTON 



SIR JAMES A. LOUGHEED 



LIEUT. COL. C. I-'. SMITH 



under Professor Sexton's oversight, so that he brought excep- 
tional knowledge of occupational conditions as well as educa- 
tional method to his task. 

"The stream of badly wounded soldiers has started to flow 
to Canada," wrote Professor Sexton; and asked, "Are they 
to drift through life as respected paupers, or to be helped to 
competency?" He pointed out that pensions would keep men 
from want, but without productive labor would not maintain 
them on the level desired ; that the country at large did not 
want to enter upon "such an elaborate and spendthrift policy 
as has been developed in the United States." The way to 
prevent such a wholesale charity, argued Prof. Sexton, is "to 
train disabled soldiers for occupations by the well-known and 
tried methods of vocational guidance and the training of 
adolescents." There would be nothing new, except the kind 
of human material which would be available. With increasing 
use of the dictaphone, it might be possible to make an efficient 
stenographer out of a blind man with no legs. But the prac- 
tical range of opportunity has opened up in many less spectacu- 
lar ways. More than twice as many gainful, skilled and semi- 
skilled occupations, according to Professor Sexton, are open 
than there were fifty years ago, or at the close of the Civil 
war. Automatic machinery is calling for less physical 
strength. Whereas the old apprenticeships took from two to 
five years, the time necessary to become proficient in some of 
the new occupations which have come in with the subdivision 
of labor may be only as many months. There would be, 
therefore, a host of outlets for men partly disabled. It would 
not be sufficient, however, warned Professor Sextorr; to train 
an invalid man as machine tender. He must be given a gen- 
eral groundwork so as to adapt himself to rapid evolution in 
manufacturing. 

Professor Sexton pointed out the beginnings already made 
in France in schools and workshops for invalids; boarding- 
houses with apprenticeship in private workshops ; organized 
cooperative workshops subsidized and encouraged by the state ; 
and industrial allowances permitting invalids to follow ap- 
prenticeships in their homes. He felt that the Canadian 
solution lies in shop-hospitals and convalescent homes coopera- 
ting with technical schools and neighboring workshops and in 



enlisting voluntary instructors, such as schoolteachers, skilled 
mechanics and employers. Such a system should be applied 
locally, for the man would want to be near home, and indus- 
trial and educational cooperation would be most efficient and 
natural, province by province. 

"It should be looked upon," wrote Prof. Sexton, "both as 
a public investment and as an obligation to the men who have 
risked all, that the individuals of the empire may continue 
under the conditions of personal liberty which they have 
bought so dearly and cherished so ardently." 

In October, 1915, at the federal prime minister's invitation, 
an interprovincial conference was held at Ottawa. Five 
premiers, among other provincial ministers, took part. The 
commission's secretary submitted a report recommending that 
the work of training returned soldiers and finding employment 
for them should be established on a comprehensive basis; sev- 
eral of Prof. Sexton's suggestions were embodied in his report, 
and vocational education was definitely entered upon early in 
1916. Canada, while not the first to take it up, has the dis- 
tinction of being the first not only of the colonies, but of the 
allied countries to put it on a national basis under a centralized 
authority. In France it has been taken up in many different 
ways by many different institutions. Education in Canada is 
a provincial matter. At first there was some question of its 
being an infringement on local autonomy, but the creation of 
provincial commissions and of local advisory bodies adjusted 
this difficulty. Expenditures by provincial educational 
authorities in connection with classrooms or shops are 
reimbursed ; teachers are responsible to the commission and 
their salaries are borne by it. The vocational work is divided 
into six main regions, each under an experienced secretary — 
Quebec and the maritime provinces, Ontario, Manitoba, Al- 
berta, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. The work in 
Quebec and the maritime provinces is under Professor Sexton, 
with headquarters at Montreal. There the pioneer develop- 
ment has taken place which has set the norm for the dominion. 

The therapeutic value of the work gives it its first claim. 
Keep a convalescent busy, get him to forget his troubles and 
he will get well more quickly. It is this principle which 
threads through the scheming of classes in such varied subjects 



8 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



as arithmetic, English, stenography, bookkeeping, poultry- 
raising, bee-keeping, market-gardening and the lighter forms 
of agriculture; motor mechanics and carpentry; mechanical 
and architectural drawing, no less than through the handicraft 
work of the sanatoria. Of course, there are some slackers 
who would rather loaf through convalescence, but that is not 
the spirit of the majority. The army doctors say that voca- 
tional work is better than drugs — and so do the men. For 
example, a man who had ankylosis of the fingers — stiffening 
of the joints — claimed he got three times as much good from 
typewriting as from the most skilful massage. His testimony 
was not altogether different from that of the returned officer, 
wounded by shrapnel in the wrist, who found more relief 
in sweeping vigorously at curling than in massage. Some 
men in the carpenter shop develop more flexibility and 
precision in muscular effort than in using the most elaborate 
mechanical devices for treatment. 

Nor are the results merely physical. Most of the men come 
back with sluggish mental action. They have been under 
military discipline so long, clothed, fed and ordered about, 
that they have lost independence. On top of that may have 
come loss of further initiative by hospitalization as an active 
case in an overseas military hospital. Many of them have 
been under tremendous strain which they do not recognize 
until they are back from the front. All this involves a 
nervous reeducation for which vocational work proves more 
effective than any medical or disciplinary program. A man 
gains confidence by making something with his hands. He 
concentrates on it and gets a new freedom for eye and muscle. 

Recently, at the Grey Nunnery, the medical officer brought 
in one English-born patient who was suffering from insomnia 
dating back to shell-shock in the second or third battle of 
Ypres. "He's simply lost his nerve and is going to pieces," 
said the "M. O." "Can you do anything for him?" When 
the fellow took his stand at the carpentry bench he jumped 
at every noise ; he could not work for an hour ; he found diffi- 
culty in coordinating his muscles. The day of my visit he 
was leaning over his bench making some careful measurements 
with sure fingers on a wooden candlestick which was to fill 
a Montreal order. They said he was sleeping like a top. 

The men I saw in the classes at the Grey Nunnery ranged 
from trappers to clerks and mechanics. Mostly, however, they 
had been unskilled laborers. When they come in, according 
to the vocational officers, they have little plan for the future. 
They have been used to living from day to day as the soldier 
does. Many are depressed, yet many are optimists. A man 
with a leg off says — "It might have been my arm." A man 
with a hand off says — "It might have been my leg." In the 
vocational classes they begin to gain not only a new self- 
confidence, and slowly a new initiative, but a new horizon 
for the future. Here the economic motive is brought into 
play. To illustrate with a low-grade group: 

From Trench to Cobbler's Bench 

Shoe repairing is adapted to the older men — for some who 
went out with the first recruits, men of adventurous type, had 
turned fifty if they were a day. "Do you want my regimental 
age or my real one?" they ask when they are back in a hospital. 
The vocational classes get condemned military boots, or 
those which have been partially worn out. These are repaired 
by the probationary cobblers in the shoemaking class, so that, 
on an average, seventy-five pairs a week are turned out at 
the Grey Nunnery. In some cases it means taking the uppers 
and relasting them to boys' sizes. The shoes are for the most 
part sold back through the regimental canteens at $1.50 a pair. 



The difference between the cost of the stock and the sale 
price of the made-over shoe goes to the convalescent. "Here," 
says Professor Sexton, "is a good economic circle. The shoes v 
would have been useless ; the soldier-pupils have actual shoes to 
work on — something much easier for a beginner than to make 
a new pair. Moreover, the soldier gets a good pair cheap. 
He gets only two pair a year from the government while in 
the Canadian camps, and has to buy others out of his own 
pocket. The repairing is something which men forty years old 
can carry out, who have had only unskilled occupations in the 
past, and who are no longer going to be strong enough to do 
heavy labor. And there are openings for little repair shops 
in many a village in Canada." 

Not a few of the instructors are themselves invalided sol- 
diers. One reason lies in the fact that the war has drained 
the trade schools. No less than five of the men from the 
technical staff of Calgary went overseas. One of the best 
instructors in Montreal was a wounded man sent back as 
conducting officer with a party of sick. At Lake Edward 
the commission is making the experiment of building up the 
entire staff from among returned men. A graduate of an 
agricultural college, a graduate from a technical school and 
one from a business college were found among the tuberculous 
patients. The shoemaking class at the Grey Nunnery is 
taught by Corporal . Brown, returned from the sixtieth bat- 
talion with a severe case of asthma. The vocational officer 
in charge is himself a former instructor in philosophy at Kings 
College, who had taught general subjects in summer schools 
throughout the Canadian west, and whose physique kept him 
from going overseas after enlistment. 

The Carpenter's Shop 

One of his most interesting experiments has been in the 
carpentry class. Through an exhibit of their first work one 
thousand dollars' worth of orders were taken in. These filled, 
orders for one thousand dollars more are in hand. At first 
there was some reluctance on the part of the commission 
to have men earning in addition to their soldier's pay, as it 
was felt it might induce some to keep on as institutional work- 
ers, especially should they get a sentimental value for the 
things sold. That last was easily prevented. The plan itself 
involves no cost to the government, and its practical value in 
motivation has been convincing, so that it has been adopted. 

Twenty-five per cent is checked off the retail value of the 
article for material and overhead; the soldier-pupil gets 75 
per cent. In this way men earn from fifty cents to over a 
dollar a day. One such soldier, as the result of three months' 
work, left the Grey Nunnery with $70, with which he was 
going to give his little girl music lessons. The soldiers can 
draw 20 per cent of their earnings in cash, the remaining 80 
per cent on discharge. Thus, incidentally, thrift is encouraged. 

Meanwhile the handicraft classes are turning out things for 
the hospitals themselves. Three massage-tables and 100 bed- 
trays are being made in the carpenter shop at the Gray Nun- 
nery — to say nothing of chests, umbrella-stands, tabourettes, 
workbaskets, magazine-racks and kitchen-tables. 

Similarly, in Alberta, the men receiving agricultural train- 
ing at one of the convalescent homes get the returns from their 
small gardens and poultry-raising. Each is allotted a piece 
of ground and prizes are given for the best vegetables. 

The industrial classes are schemed out along practical lines 
so at once to arouse ambition and make the man more valuable 
as a producer when he re-enters industrial life. Very often 
a machinist or carpenter, for example, can increase his earn- 
ing power by learning to read blue-prints. A molder, hit 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



with, shrapnel in the back, was unable to return to his work. 
After much talk, he was persuaded to go into the drafting 
class, and discovered that he had talent for drawing. In 
six weeks he was doing simple mechanical drafting with pre- 
cision and equipping himself to become a foreman in a molding 
shop. Corporal Cassils was a Canadian machinist who came 
back with a distinguished conduct medal and a wound in 
the back. He took four months' instruction in drafting, and 
in March secured a place at more pay than he has ever earned. 

In some cases men are able to shift occupations, leaving those 
they do not like for ones they do. A man who had been 
driving a milkcart, earning $12 a week, came back from war 
with a wounded shoulder. He was placed in the drafting 
class for three months. In March he got a job in a munitions 
factory at $75 a month. A Russian in the carpentry class 
had been a coal-miner in Canada, and by a trick of fate it 
was a mine explosion on the battlefront which seriously in- 
jured him, so that he could never use a pick again. He had 
never handled bench tools in his life, but proved to be a 
"natural born carpenter." After two and a half months his 
instructor said he was fit to take up light work. 

Further illustrations of the simpler forms of vocational re- 
adjustment — which in the mass mean much more than the 
more striking cases of re-education to be described later — are 
the following: 

A Nova Scotia farmer's son of twenty had worked as a 
painter before enlistment. He contracted tuberculosis be- 
fore leaving the country, but could not return to painting be- 
cause of the danger of a recurrence, nor was he strong enough 
for farming. All work like pitching hay, ploughing or even 
hoeing strains the pectoral muscles and is apt to reopen 
lesions. The boy was of ordinary intellectual ability. He 
has been sent to a business college for six months and is prov- 
ing an excellent student. 

Another Nova Scotian farmhand partially lost his hearing. 
He tried to get work without success, for the farmers did not 
want to bother writing out their directions. He was sent 
to a school for the deaf to learn lip-reading. Incidentally, 
the principal is a poultry-fancier, the young fellow is working 
with him in his hennery and later is to be sent to an agricul- 
tural college for six months. 

A Scotchman employed as a filing clerk in handling blue- 
prints before he went overseas, where he was shot through 
the elbow, has been taught stenography and trained to use 
the typewriter with the left hand. He is now a typist in the 
pay department of the Canadian army, and catalogs books at 
night in the law library of McGill University. 

The day of my visit to the Grey Nunnery twenty-one men 
had written the preliminary examination for the civil service. 
Fifteen men had been studying history, geography, composition 
and arithmetic in preparation for the qualifying examination, 
which leads to a general clerkship starting at $900 with a $100 
increase annually up to $1,200. Two were writing their 
papers for the second class, which qualifies for $1,600 positions. 

Altogether, 347 men went through the training classes at 
this Gray Nunnery from September to February. Orders have 
been issued from Ottawa requiring every man (unless excused 
by the medical officer) to take a certain amount of vocational 
work every day in some class he elects. The vocational de- 
partment, however, counts more on interest than on compul- 
sion, and, as better equipment is introduced, the response is 
immediate. The simple shops at the Grey Nunnery have been 
succeeded this spring by the machine shops at McGill Uni- 
versity, where chipping, filing and the general range of bench 
work is being taught; and by classes at the Montreal Tech- 
nical School, to which the men go in squads for carpentry, 
motor mechanics, architectural drafting, mechanical drafting, 



metal work, shoe repairing, electrical wiring, agriculture in 
its lighter forms and handicrafts. In February seventy-four 
men took the courses at the Grey Nunnery; 140, or double 
the number, applied for the new classes. 

The Borderline Cases 

Occupational therapy — such as has been described, and such 
as has brought about excellent results in progressive sana- 
toria for tuberculous and neurasthenic patients, and earlier 
in institutions for cripples and defectives — is new as a wartime 
medical policy. And it js still, so far as the Canadian hospitals 
go, conceived of chiefly as a medical policy. Its economic 
aspects are only now carrying conviction outside the group of 
vocational officers who have been its pioneers. As yet it has 
a great shortcoming. 

When medical discharge comes the vocational work is cut 
short. The doctor may estimate that it will take three months 
for a man successfully to convalesce ; the vocational work may 
be schemed out accordingly. The man grows well more 
quickly, is discharged and the vocational plan frustrated. Not 
only should there be provision for continuing training in such 
cases, but the vocational officer should be empowered to work 
out a complete program for each man on a vocational basis 
in the same way that the medical officer works out his on a 
medical basis. Discharged men are allowed to come back to 
classes after they leave the institutions, but theirs is a prob- 
lem both of money and strength. A patient just discharged 
from a convalescent home is not likely to have the surplus 
physical energy to continue class work in addition to earning 
a living. He may have to go a long way before he is fit to 
carry his ordinary load. 

The vocational men believe that the door of opportunity 
should be opened wider. It has been opened to one group 
of men — those so physically disabled as to be unfit for their 
previous occupations. These are continued on a modified 
scheme of government pay during a period of re-education. 
A year's trial has shown that this program, as far as it goes, 
is worth while. Secretary Scammell is ready to advocate an 
enlargement of its scope to take in the borderline cases — men 
who could return to work, but, being capable of development, 
would be much better off eventually if given a longer proba- 
tionary period. In their testimony in March before the parlia- 
mentary committee investigating the treatment of discharged 
men, this recommendation was strongly made by Secretaries 
Kidner and Sexton. 

The fear has been expressed that if the government should 
loosen up its regulations there would be a great deal of ma- 
lingering. Unlike ordinary patients, the men are on pay. Yet 
it would seem no more difficult for a vocational officer to 
prevent malingering — less difficult, perhaps — than a doctor. 
The thing, obviously, to guard against is lest numbers of 
men feel that they have a living coming from the government 
and so cling to the convalescent institutions when they might 
be striking out for themselves. Psychologically, this is a very 
real problem; but not an impossible one through such a half- 
time arrangement for trade training, for example, as Wis- 
consin has worked out between the public schools and indus- 
trial establishments. 

Re-Education 

At a rough guess, 2 per cent of the invalided men are can- 
didates for re-education. This is the second main division 
of the vocational work, and was only entered upon last June. 
Senator McLennan has made it his special interest and re- 
cently brought out a report covering French, English and (a 
rare example of wartime broadmindedness) German experi- 



10 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



ence in this field. It means a much longer process, and a much 
larger government investment in the individual man — from 
three months to two years, during which the Medical Hos- 
pitals Commission supports him and his family on standards 
built up from the experience of the Patriotic Fund. Here 
Alberta has taken the lead. The training is carried out either 
in hospitals or provincial institutions, or it may be intensive 
industrial apprenticeship in conjunction with some industrial 
plant. 

The most obvious cases are the blind, but to date nearly 
all Canadian men who have been blinded — fortunately no 
more than twenty — have been trained in St. Dunstan's Home, 
Regents Park, London, under Sir Arthur Pearson. The record 
of some of these men has been very encouraging. Lieutenant 
Baker, for example, is on the staff of the Hydro-Electric Com- 
mission. Two privates are being trained in the school for 
the blind at Halifax, established by Sir Frederick Fraser. 

Perhaps the most engaging story is that of Private Smith, 
an American homesteader in Alberta who enlisted in the Ca- 
nadian expeditionary force. Broad-shouldered, young and vig- 
orous, the medical examiners did not detect that he could 
not see out of one eye. While he was in training camp the sight 
of his second eye became affected. Even the doctors in the 
camp hospitals did not discover that his seemingly good eye 
was blind, for he kept his secret and clung to his hope of 
going to the front. He was sent to Quebec, put on a train 
for Montreal and found his way to the Patriotic Fund. He 
was suffering from detached retina and half an hour later 
was in a hospital under skilled medical care. There was a 
chance through an operation. He fought his fight in the 
Montreal hospital, and lost, so far as his eye went. When 
that eye went, the light of the world, of course, went out for 
him. 

But Private Smith won his fight in another way. He went 
to the blind school in Montreal for two months. A visitor 
from the Patriotic Fund went to the hospital every day and 
read to him. If you can get a man over the spiritual dark- 
ness at the outset the fight is half won. Smith came to see 
that he was learning things he had never known before. Tired 
of the juvenile classes at the blind school, he went back to 
his homestead. The fund gave him a typewriter, which he 
had learned to use, a Braille machine, a blind man's watch 
and an outfit of clothing. One of the fund visitors learned 
Braille in order to write to him, as she does every week. He 
is dividing his work into three parts, and has an avocation 
besides. He peddles aluminum ware and books on farming; 
he shovels grain in harvest-time ; he does the typewriting at the 
local hotel, and when county-fair time comes he sells soft 
drinks. But more than all that, he is writing letters to other 
blinded soldiers, encouraging letters to help them through the 
first difficult period of spiritual darkness. "The first thing 
to remember is to be cheerful," he writes. "If you don't, you 
are a burden to yourself and nobody else likes you." 

Secretary Kidner tells of a private in the tenth battalion 
who lost an arm, which ended his former calling, that of a 
locomotive fireman. Not to scrap his knowledge of railroad- 
ing he has become a station agent and trained telegrapher. 

Less than a dozen men have as yet been fully re-educated 
in Canada. The first step is an analytical survey of physique, 
mentality and industrial experience. In France elaborate appa- 
ratus has been invented to test scientifically the reserves of phy- 
sical and nervous power a man has to build on ; but even with 
that, his problem of livelihood has only been broached. "You 
have to sit down and think hard," says Professor Sexton, "and 
then think hard some more, to figure out what a man who 



comes back badly crippled physically and industrially can be 
fitted for in the scheme of things which will be Canada after 
the war. On what you think out may hang years of that 
man's fortune." 

If, on investigation, the vocational officer believes a patient 
entitled to re-education, he brings his case before a Disabled 
Soldiers' Training Board, composed of the vocational officer 
of the district, the medical officer of the Canadian Army 
Medical Corps and a lay member — usually a member of a 
provincial committee on vocational education appointed under 
the Military Hospitals Commission. These last committees 
are composed of men in each province representing different 
phases of life, such as experts in general and applied science, 
in agricultural education, employers, labor representatives and 
members of the provincial soldiers' employment commissions. 
If a man is recommended by this board, forms giving his record 
and its findings are sent to Ottawa, where they come before 
the vocational secretary and the medical superintendent of 
the Military Hospitals Commission for final action. 

Facing Life Again 

The vocational work proper is, of course, numerically, the 
more important division, and, as we saw earlier, enters into 
the scheme of treatment for practically every group of in- 
valided men — and this, for social as well as medical reasons. 
And, veterans though they are, the process, psychologically, 
is often one of conquering fear. "The majority think they 
cannot go back to their old positions," says Professor Sexton. 
"They dread not being able to make good. They shrink at 
the thought of continuous effort eight or ten hours a day, 
for, while the demands of military life are often intense, 
they are spasmodic. They fear the daily grind necessary to 
make a living. It is here that the vocational training comes in. 
They get an opportunity to find their old power. Men go 
into a carpentry shop and make things they have never made 
before. Men go in with insomnia who hang around the door 
in the morning until the shop is opened. Only so can they 
forget what they have been through and the ghastly horrors 
burned into their minds. To fix their attention on the thing 
they want to do, the thing that grows under their own hands, 
is the greatest of restoratives." 

For, after all, the men crippled with rheumatism who limp 
about the halls of the convalescent homes, or the men with 
poison oozing from their feet from forms of trench gangrene, 
the men still weak after pneumonia or panting from gas, the 
war consumptives who line the porches of the sanatoria, or 
the nervous shakers in the shock-hospitals have only reached 
what might be called the second line in fighting their return 
way to the ordinary walks of life. They are throwbacks 
from the ugly business of war. They are recruits for peace 
from the front, and all comers must be mustered in. And 
still ahead of them, after discharge, is the final battle-ground 
for the wounded men. 

Something of that and of the work of the provincial em- 
ployment commissions will be taken up in another instalment. 
This can well close with a word of recognition of Canada's 
good fortune that this mustering of broken soldiers — this "civ- 
ilization," if you will, to use a thought-challenging phrase to 
set off against the out-going "militarization" — is in the hands 
of a civilian body. The Military Hospitals Commission has 
shown breadth and social insight in conceiving its work for 
13,000 convalescents, invalids and insane along lines of health, 
schooling and vocation. It has coordinated widely scattered 
institutional agencies into a working scheme for readjusting 
men to normal life and labor. 



Rebuilt Men 

New Trades and Fresh Courage for French War Cripples 



By Bruno Lasker 

OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



w 



<4~W"~V "7"HO will make a courageous start? The 
Army Medical Corps would like nothing 
better ; but the war minister has declared that 
he will not meddle in school matters. A com- 
mission, it seems, is going to establish these schools for war 
cripples. It consists of delegates from several government 
departments. If we have to wait until they agree! The 
mayor would gladly take this new institution under his wing. 
But some of the city councillors are afraid of the cost. They 
want to know what this is going to lead to. They would like 
to limit this new school to residents. They demand in ad- 
vance quite a number of precise guarantees." So, according 
to Jean Breton {A L'Arriere, a series of charming sketches 
written to tell the men in the trenches how things are getting 
along "behind," published by Delagrave, Paris, 1916), the 
provision of proper training facilities for war cripples hangs 
fire indefinitely. 

But matters are moving. In one place, a big manufacturer 
simply overrides all red tape, supplies the material means and 
infects others with his enthusiasm. In Lyons, Mayor Herriot 
(known to many Americans as the genius behind the French 
exhibit at the San Francisco fair and organizer of the Lyons 
municipal exhibition of 1914, now a senator, and minister of 
national subsistence and labor in the last cabinet) has taken 
the initiative and transformed a trade school for cripples pre- 
viously in existence. Other cities have followed ; and there 
is now in progress throughout the country the establishment 
of a great, new social service, the training of the war victims 
in industrial and commercial activities which will make them 
self-supporting in spite of their physical limitations. 

In some cases, says Breton, involuntary idleness already had 
made inroads upon the spirit, health, and capacity of the crip- 
pled soldiers. Accustomed to vigorous activity, many of them 
were languishing, pessimistic, and gradually falling into that 
hopeless invalidity which is psychological rather than physical. 
They were even suspicious of the new trade schools when these 
were established. "Does the government want to deprive us 
of our pensions?" "Are we to work without pay?" "What 
is behind this effort to get us into schoolrooms and teach us 
new crafts?" But when it was found that the payment of 
pensions went on as before and that there was no pressure, 
other than that of well-meant advice, the number of volun- 
tary candidates for admission to the schools quickly increased. 
Now the attendance is so great that the improvised premises 
with their imperfect equipment are very far from adequate. 

Taking for his motto the old adage that "habit is second 
nature," and for his program "no more invalids," Prof. 
Charles Juillard, of Geneva, head of the surgical department 
of Red Cross Auxiliary Hospital 112 at Lyons, has published 
a study on Habituation to Mutilations, which won the first 
prize of a competition organized by the Committee on Acci- 
dents of the second International Medical Congress at Rome 
(library of the University of Geneva, and Felix Alcan, Paris, 
1916). 

This work owed its inception to the increasing need felt by 
administrators of workmen's compensation laws to define the 



extent to which victims of labor accidents may reasonably be 
expected to become self-supporting. The idea that a maimed 
or wounded limb can still be useful, that its functions are not 
necessarily compromised by the organic loss, has become more 
and more accepted. The study of habituation to such losses 
was begun by Guermonprez, who drew attention in 1884 to 
cases of remarkable adaptations to the losses inflicted by serious 
accidents, and has since been advanced by a voluminous liter- 
ature, chiefly by German students. 

The chief factors in functional adaptation are age, nature 
of hurt, previous occupation, legislation to which patient is 
subject, his character, intelligence, and temperament, general 
health, social environment, sex, education, time elapsed since 
accident, influence of doctor and lawyer. Youth is, of course, 
a great advantage. But if a serious mutilation occurs before 
the period of growth is over, it may in certain affections of 
the bone arrest the natural development of what remains of 
the limb. No statistics are available on the effect of ampu- 
tation on the length of life; and at least one big insurance 
company has confessed that its premia in such cases are based 
quite arbitrarily on the mortality expectation of invalids en- 
tirely incapable of work. The chief advantage of youth is 
greater ability to change occupations. But more important 
still is the effect of mutilation on the mental state of the 
patient ; and here it is sometimes found that the young, seeing 
their professional career destroyed and believing themselves 
unable to marry, are more likely to fall into a state of melan- 
cholia. 

The effect of legislation is seen by the difference of results 
obtained in Switzerland, where compensation is in lump sums, 
and in countries where it is in the form of a life pension. In 
the former, adaptation is much more rapid. "We have found 
a large number of maimed workers," says the author, "who 
have become accustomed to their mutilation in one year, for 
example in the case of total loss of thumb and several fingers. 
They were working at a full wage after several weeks but 
declared they had not become really habituated to their loss 
in less than a year. For the same mutilations, we see in 
Germany delays of habituation extending sometimes over sev- 
erals years." 

The amount of compensation also makes a difference. The 
author believes that inertia can best be overcome by a period- 
ical revision of benefits, on the basis of a new medical examina- 
tion with a special view to establishing whether functional 
adaptation has progressed. Character, education, and other 
factors are too subtle to enable statistical or other definite 
comparisons. Experience goes to show that married workers 
and heads of families are more likely to adapt themselves 
quickly than the unmarried. 

How to Accelerate Habituation 

How may this functional adaptation best be accelerated ? 
Juillard insists on the need, more especially, for early mechano- 
therapeutic treatment to alleviate the troublesome symptoms 
and to encourage new helpful muscular movements. Often it 
is the best thing to adapt such treatment from the beginning 

11 



12 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



From "Documents de la Section Photographique de VArmee (Ministere de la 
Guerre)" No. Hi, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris 




Left, a turner in the Joffre trade school for 
wounded soldiers at Lyons; center, an Al- 
gerian, who has lost both legs, learning shoe- 
making at the Paris school for crippled 
soldiers; right, a "left-hander" 



to the specific employment of the patient by placing him in 
an institution where the proper tools or machines of his craft 
are available. In some German institutions, navvies may be 
seen shovelling sand into barrels which empty themselves auto- 
matically within the proportionate time allowed for the oper- 
ation. Other workers try to wield a hammer, a file, a saw. 

Prof. Jules Amar, director of the Paris research laboratory 
for occupational labor, has installed in a number of training 
schools apparatus for physical and psychical tests (described 
by him in a special bulletin of the Military Hospitals Com- 
mission of Canada, April, 1916) where men's movements are 
analyzed by graphic registration, in relation to their regularity, 
direction, speed and force expended. They give a fairly re- 
liable test of the nature of the physical incapacity, maladroit- 
ness or disability, and thus indicate the most promising method 
of training. The laboratory expert furnishes each man with a 
card of his qualifications upon the strength of which expert 
instructors in the workshops select the practical and theor- 
etical training. 

The mental condition of the patient is of the greatest pos- 
sible importance in this connection. It will determine, says 
Professor Amar, "the diminution of his former personal value 
which is the result, often unsuspected, of the wound." A man 
in good health, fairly intelligent and well educated, other 
things being equal, is a much more promising student for a 
skilled trade, either his previous or a new one, than a man 
suffering from the nervous effect of his illness, not particularly- 
bright and with no rudiments of trade knowledge. In the 
one case, it will pay to make every effort, even though pro- 
longed and costly, to set the student up as an independent, 
skilled craftsman; in the other, one of the unskilled trades, 
and possibly relief employment at a made task, may have to 
be chosen. 

Dr. Bourillon, director of the National Trade Institute for 
War Invalids at St. Maurice, believes that the re-training of 



men for their former occupations may easily be carried too 
far. {Revue Philanthropique, January, 1916.) "For ex- 
ample, one cannot help thinking, when contemplating a car- 
penter who is laboriously planing with an artificial arm that 
it would have been wiser to have found him a profession 
which would profit by his intelligence and by the arms and 
legs remaining to him, and have made hina either head of a 
timber yard, by developing his instruction, and giving him 
some notions of drawing, or a postman, a bookkeeper, a care- 
taker in an office, etc. One would have less occasion then 
to fear that, discouraged by the insufficiency of his wage, and 
the trouble he experiences in the exercise of his trade, he 
might abandon it and find himself without hope in life." 
Dr. Bourillon also foresees other possible problems arising 
from training an over-supply of workers for certain trades 
which would result in a lowering of wages, from competition 
with women workers, from greater liability to accident. To 
some extent, the first two can be solved by directing disabled 
men toward trades in which they themselves can become 
small employers; but a mention of these difficulties shows 
how complicated are the considerations which must go into 
the choice of trades and how many different kinds of train- 
ing schools will be required. 

New Types of Trade Schools 

Thus, trade schools are needed for those able after re- 
training to follow their previous occupations, those who must 
be trained for new occupations, and those who can never be- 
come quite self-supporting by their work. There were, pre- 
vious to the war, such institutions in Denmark, Sweden, Nor- 
way, at Altona (Prussia) and Charleroi. Here shoe making, 
book binding, paper box making, tailoring, basket work, har- 
ness making, and bookkeeping are taught, and a choice is pro- 
vided of a number of suitable occupations. In these schools won- 
ders have been accomplished. The case is told of a pensioner in 



THE SURFEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



13 



the institute of Charleroi who, both hands amputated, with 
the help of apparatus ending in a magnet at the right and a 
hammer at the left, was able to secure employment in the 
manufacture of brushes by driving nails. There is no limit 
to human ingenuity. "However mutilated and useless in 
appearance, a man can with good will succeed in taking up 
again an honorable place among his fellow workers." 

One of the chief functions of these schools is that of giving 
students a taste for work, the habit of discipline and regu- 
larity, saving them from pauperism and moral deterioration. 
In the most modern establishments, an effort is made to bring 
as many of these unfortunates as possible back to their accus- 
tomed occupations. Care, of course, must be exercised not 
to interfere with the inflammations of neo-plastic affectations 
which sometimes follow an accident and require either im- 
mobility or appropriate treatment. But most of the trau- 
matisms which leave behind faulty circulation, nervous trou- 
bles, hyper-sensitiveness, muscular atrophy, thickening of the 
epidermis, etc. — that is the residue of the great majority of 
non-fatal labor accidents — benefit from everything that aids 
circulation, attenuates the impressionability of the nerve ends, 
makes supple the ligaments and tissues, and strengthens the 
muscles. No orthopaedic treatment alone, in the majority of 
cases, is of the same value as regular work, requiring real 
effort. 

Applied to war mutilations, this finding from the experi- 
ence of industrial accidents becomes at once of vast impor- 
tance. There is not, however, an absolute analogy. A greater 
number of the mutilations are of a serious nature, wounds 
more often affect important organs, and complications by 
suppuration are frequent which leave behind irreducible 
ankylosis. Yet, from the experience of industrial mutila- 
tions it is certain that the great majority of war cripples can 
be made industrially productive and economically inde- 
pendent. 

Again, amputation is incomparably more frequent in war 
surgery than in civil surgery, because of inability to give im- 
mediate attention, infection from lodgment of projectiles or 
fragments of clothing in tissues, of seriousness of lesions, and 
repeated hemorrhage. Yet, in the schools for wounded sol- 
diers created during the war, marvellous results have already 
been observed in the rapid habituation to new uses of healthy 
limbs and to artificial limbs. 

A surgeon connected with one of the trade schools for 
wounded soldiers says: "We thought in installing our pupils 
in their trades that time and experience would throw light 
on the respective usefulness of different makes of artificial 
limbs and would show desirable modifications. . . . But 
in practice, the pupils have so quickly learned to overcome 
difficulties by natural means — substituting for movements that 
hurt others, developing an ingenuity of touch in the stump 
of a forearm or arm — that it has proved difficult to make 
them accept the aid of any apparatus. At first when I paid 
an unexpected visit to the workshop of the brushmakers or 
of the paper box makers, I got red angry to observe that 
they had carefully laid aside on the table their artificial arms 
and were at work with the greatest zeal, using the invalid 
limb, the stump, the elbow. Now I have come to the point 
where I no longer insist on the use of these aids except in 
certain particular cases." 

The experience of these schools already has shown that the 
amputation of a limb is not incompatible with the exercise of 
the trade of a machinist, a bookbinder, a toymaker or a de- 
signer. Loss of a leg does not prevent a tailor or shoe- 
maker — in short, any member of one of the so-called shop 




MUTILATED SOLDIERS LEARNING TIOOKRINDING 

crafts — from following his trade. Gardeners with a wooden 
leg will soon be common. 

Here is a case where habituation after an amputation has 
taken place with remarkable celerity: An Alpine chasseur, 
thirty years old, was wounded in August, 1914, and made a 
prisoner. He had his left leg amputated by the Germans, 
was operated on again later to regulate his stump, and finally 
was repatriated to France in March, 1915, with a convoy of 
"seriously incapacitated." He received his wooden leg in 
May. Eight days later, he was dismissed as "mended" and 
went home. He immediately turned to work on the land 
and, a month later, was able to mow the mountain meadows 
of his farm and to employ himself in all the chores of field 
and stable, even climbing trees to gather fruit, mounting on 
horseback without assistance, and riding equally well at a 
trot and gallop. 

Another hopeful discovery is that projectiles of every cali- 
ber and of every kind, balls, howitzer splinters, shrapnels, can 
remain in the organism without occasioning trouble. In the 
long run, the wounded gets accustomed to them, and no bad 
effects remain behind. Sometimes there is a reopening of the 
infection which may bring about suppuration and elimina- 
tion ; but in far more cases than is usually thought a complete 
tolerance of the foreign object results. 

Rapid mobilization of wounded limbs, in nearly every case 
where reinfection is no longer to be feared, has been found 
the most important factor in rapid functional adaptation. 




POILUS INITIATED INTO THE MYSTERIOUS FORMALITIES OF 
FRENCH BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE 



14 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, rgi7 



Even when the unhealthy region must be kept immobile, the 
neighboring functions can be exercised. There is now a gen- 
eral feeling that bandages should not be worn longer than 
absolutely necessary, that crutches should be taken away as 
soon as it is possible for the patient to walk with an effort, 
even though still in pain. "The apparatus of immobilization 
and of aid, is valuable while the wound is healing; it is a cer- 
tain enemy when functional adaptation to a new state has 
already commenced." 

There is not as yet much experience to show how different 
kinds of cases will adapt themselves to different occupations 
and trades. Among the mutilated some try to make the best 
of their old careers which their infirmity permits; while oth- 
ers prefer to embrace a new one for which they are more 
fitted. 

Professor Amar is of opinion that the fitness of war crip- 
ples for any particular trade can be accurately proven by the 
experiments already mentioned. On the strength of much 
experience he is convinced that 80 per cent of the maimed 
are capable of vocational re-education. "They may be divided 
as follows: 45 per cent totally, that is to say that they may 
succeed in earning normal salaries, on condition that 10 per 
cent among them, or thereabouts, specialize. The direction 
in which they specialize should always be within the limits 
of their former trade. Twenty per cent may not arrive at a 
full working capacity, as their re-education is partial, but still 
it gives an appreciable output. . . . Fifteen per cent will 
have to work in small shops (petits metiers), in which pro- 
duction is limited, their re-education being entirely fragment- 



ary ; they must work in workshops organized for this pur- 
pose, where in any case they can earn a bare livelihood. The 
majority of the 20 per cent not capable of being re-educated 
are dependent upon relief institutions for work ; nevertheless, 
a very small minority attain sufficient productivity to be use- 
ful in the workshops." 

The immediate establishment of suitable training schools, 
thus, is the matter of utmost importance if the great majority 
of war-cripples is to be permanently self-supporting. Such 
training schools multiply throughout France. They teach 
a great variety of manual trades, also bookkeeping, stenog- 
raphy, typewriting, even industrial drawing and music. All 
are full. 

As we have seen, the treatment of this problem of the war- 
cripple, at least in France where seemingly it is most ad- 
vanced, has benefited enormously from the experience gained 
with industrial accident surgery and in training institutions 
for disabled workmen. In its turn, there is now no doubt it 
will contribute materially to the practical knowledge of one 
of the most important biological phenomena — that of organic 
habituation to mutilations. On the other hand, it is not yet 
clear whether in the system of pensions for invalided soldiers 
adopted by France — the existing method cannot be regarded 
as final — a similar departure will be made from antiquated 
traditions. There is no agreement, it would seem, among 
the authorities concerning the form which war pensions to 
these men should take, except that they should be so devised 
as to encourage the greatest degree of self-help and to relate 
in some way both to effort and to family needs. 



Lock and Key 

By Elizabeth Robbins Hooker 



DR. RICHARD C. CABOT once showed in a lec- 
ture how urgent is the need of a sanatorium for 
nervous invalids that are neither very rich nor 
very poor. As we all know, many wage-earners 
and professional men and women break down early in life 
through causes for which they are little if at all to blame. 
Some have been square pegs in round holes; some, under pres- 
sure of family crisis or other stern compulsion, have received 
upon their shoulders burdens too heavy for them to carry ; some 
are paying dear for their portion of experience. This class of in- 
valids includes men and women of fine quality — broadly 
sensitive, conscientious, easily touched by noble impulses. Per- 
haps, after long preparation, they had made a start in which 
by working long hours and straining every nerve, they had 
won some measure of experience and reputation. Then has 
come the break; and, weak and suffering, misunderstood by 
friends and especially by relatives, they sit in the house, 
dreading the coal bill, despairing of ever again being of use 
in the world, and schooling themselves, perhaps, to accept 
bravely the fate of the unfit, over whose fallen bodies the 
strong must pass to the conquest of the heights. 

Shall we accept this waste of that most precious form of 
human wealth — well endowed and highly trained workers? 
To lift themselves out of despondency is for all such pa- 
tients slow and difficult, and for many impossible. But with 
the help of right conditions, nerve specialists believe, in the 
words of one of them, that "much salvage is possible." 



What are these conditions ? We are taking into account, be 
it understood, only those disciplined workers who are broken 
down but not utterly prostrated. In the first place, they need 
a complete change, which shall remove them from relatives and 
from everything that might remind them of work, worries and 
responsibilities. They need a healthful regimen, subjecting 
them to the healing influences of nature: air, sunshine, food, 
sleep and contact with the earth. They need carefully gradu- 
ated exercise, especially of the larger muscles. They need an 
engrossing interest, which may keep them from brooding over 
their own troubles. And, finally, they need a sense of present 
and growing usefulness. 

Most of these conditions the sanatoria for nervous in- 
valids, with much science, ingenuity and outlay, attempt to 
provide. But the invalids with whom we are concerned are 
unable to pay the rates which the sanatoria, with their large 
staff and expensive equipment, are obliged to charge. Some 
of the sanatoria take privileged invalids at reduced rates or 
even free ; but such opportunities do not cover even a small 
part of the cases, and our wage-earning invalids gain slowly 
under the irksome sense of being objects of charity. It is 
true that in some cases of serious breakdown, the patient 
needs constant oversight from experts, and a highly special- 
ized course of treatment, often with apparatus and attendants. 
For such, a stay in a sanatorium is almost indispensable. In the 
cases of which we are speaking, however, the conditions of 
recovery are attainable on much more reasonable terms. Pleas- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



15 



ant and graduated work out of doors, producing something 
really needed by man, would form an ideal course of treat- 
ment, provided the environment could be healthful and happy. 

A nervous invalid could rarely find these conditions by 
taking a place, say, upon a farm. Even where favorable living 
arrangements are attainable, the work is too hard and the 
hours too long. A great defect of our present industrial or- 
der, in farming as elsewhere, is the lack of half jobs. Tom 
must keep up the pace of Dick and Harry, or be trodden down 
in the lockstep industrial march. Our fettered invalids not 
only cannot fill their own former places; they cannot do any 
kind of full day's work. Yet they could do something. Pent 
up within them is vitality fretting at inaction, humiliation at 
their dragging ineffectiveness, craving for self-support and 
service. Streamlets that set free and collected might turn 
some idle mill wheel, thus dammed up, are creating a stagnant 
marsh. Can we not find that idle mill? To do so we must 
originate a new industry, in which the nature and hours of 
the work may be adjusted to the small but increasing powers 
of the workers. Here is a key, now idle and rusting with 
disuse; can we find a lock which it is fitted to turn? 

I once went to visit a patient in a large hospital for the 
insane, carrying a bunch of garden flowers open in my hand. 
I was led through corridors lined with bare little cells, and 
through broader, shiny halls, almost unfurnished except for 
a bench or two and a few chairs. As I passed, a woman rock- 
ing monotonously with folded arms roused to ask for a 
flower. Another, who had paced up and down making strange 
noises, came toward me with outstretched hands. More wom- 
en appeared from I knew not where, crowding around me, 
and demanding "just one flower." To hold my bouquet 
high and make myself deaf and blind to the entreaties of 
those prisoners of little hope, for the sake of the one to whom 
the flowers had been sent, seemed a cruel thing to do. 

Again, a friend of mine used sometimes to pass along cer- 
tain poor streets of Boston, with a basket of fruit on one arm, 
and a basket of flowers on the other. When the children ga- 
thered about her, she would offer each one his choice between 
a flower and a red apple or juicy pear. They invariably chose 
the flower. 

Far more pathetic instances of the longing for flowers come 
under the daily observation of many a social worker in the 
cities. References to such cases may be found in any issue of 
the National Plant, Flower and Fruit Guild Magazine. Re- 
cent numbers have told of the mission of flowers to a woman 
just past the crisis of a long and serious attack of typhoid 
fever, and to a poor, hard-working mother, bending 
over a tiny coffin. What flowers must mean to some of our 
immigrants was vividly suggested at the beginning of the pres- 
ent European war, when French soldiers marched out of 
Paris for the battlefield, each decorated with a flower, while 
the sidewalks were crowded by women carrying more, lest 
any soldier should have been overlooked. 

The Love of Flowers Deep Rooted 

The desire to satisfy this craving is not mere sentimental 
soft-heartedness. The need of flowers is rooted deep in uni- 
versal human nature. Witness the sunflowers beside the poor- 
est cottage, and the sickly geranium in the dark tenement-house 
kitchen. For many people, flowers are the only accessible form 
of beauty. What comes to the more favored through music, 
the drama, painting, landscape, poetry — all the softening and 



ennobling work of beauty upon man — must reach the slums, 
if at all, through the bright, familiar faces of the flowers. The 
ministries of flowers also sweeten and strengthen the bonds 
between one human being and another; and in many a hard lot 
a flower is the most persuasive evidence that there is goodness 
at the heart of the world. 

These flower-hungry people cannot afford the prices of the 
florist. But suppose that we could raise blossoms without a 
hothouse, and distribute them without either market or store. 
If the enterprise could be run on a scale sufficiently large so 
that nickels and dimes might balance running expenses, would 
the poor, after all, care enough for the flowers to pay for 
them? I believe they would, especially in sections inhabited 
by immigrants. Settlement workers have in some degree tested 
the question ; so has at least one five- and ten-cent store. 

The labor of raising these flowers for the poor could be 
done largely, in short periods, by those nervous invalids need- 
ing and craving such useful outdoor activity. Raising flowers 
would take the invalids into a new world. They would see 
and help forward the magical processes of growth, and have a 
proud share in the production of beautiful things. Since the 
product of their labor would be marketable, they could be paid 
a small wage, which would make vivid their sense of usefulness 
and strengthen their self-confidence. 

On the other hand, without the appropriation of some such 
unclaimed labor, the poor could not have their cheap flowers. 
Moreover, cultivated men and women, instead of confining 
themselves to the conventional favorites of the florists would 
draw widely on the wealth of the flower kingdom ; and they 
would arrange the flowers with taste, and would distribute 
them with intelligence and sympathy. 

The bare essentials of such an industry for invalids would 
include a home for the workers, where their peculiar needs — 
change, nutritious food, outdoor rest, and good cheer — could 
be economically met. There must be fields, hotbeds, tools and 
workrooms. The more beauty, the more interest, the more wise 
and great-hearted guardians, the better; but the beginnings 
might be very simple, for the chief recuperative agencies of 
the institution would lie in the work itself, and in the contact 
it would ensure with nature and with human need. 

The distribution of the flowers could be accomplished 
partly through existing institutions, such as missions, settle- 
ments and salesrooms for the work of convalescents. Outdoor 
flower markets like those abroad would form another possible 
outlet, especially in the foreign quarters of cities. There 
might be also a mail-order department. Hampers for hos- 
pitals and homes might be financed by benevolent persons. 
With clever advertising, regularity and persistence, the enter- 
prise ought to succeed. General support would rally to a 
novel enterprise doubly philanthropic without being a charity 
in either of its aspects. The plant, of course, would have to be 
contributed, together with working capital for a few years; but 
though an endowment would be desirable, the necessary run- 
ning expenses should soon be covered by the board paid, plus 
the money received from flowers. 

This dream, with its promise of spreading hope and health 
and joy, is so alluring that it must surely some day come true. 
Perhaps a warm-hearted and childless farmer will bequeath 
his house and his fields for such an enterprise. Perhaps a 
life-long invalid will collect subscriptions, in order to save 
others from a similar fate. Perhaps a lonely millionaire will 
establish such a memorial to a frail lover of flowers who is 
gone. Some day the dream will be realized. 



16 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, W7 



GENTLEMEN OF THE CONGRESS: I have 
called the Congress into extraordinary- 
session because there are serious, very 
serious, choices of policy to be made, and 
made immediately, which it was neither right 
nor constitutionally permissible that I should 
assume the responsibility of making. 

On the third of February last I officially 
laid before you the extraordinary announce- 
ment of the imperial German government 
that on and after the first day of February 
it was its purpose to put aside all restraints 
of law or of humanity and use its sub- 
marines to sink every vessel that sought to 
approach either the ports of Great Britain 
and Ireland or the western coasts of Europe 
or any of the ports controlled by the enemies 
of Germany within the Mediterranean. That 
had seemed to be the object of the German 
submarine warfare earlier in the war, but 
since April of last year the imperial govern- 
ment had somewhat restrained the com- 
manders of its undersea craft, in conformity 
with its promise, then given to us, that 
passenger boats should not be sunk and that 
due warning would be given to all other 
vessels which its submarines might seek to 
destroy, when no resistance was offered or 
escape attempted, and care taken that their 
crews were given at least a fair chance 
to save their lives in their open boats. The 
precautions taken were meagre and hap- 
hazard enough, as was proved in distressing 
instance after instance in the progress of the 
cruel and unmanly business, but a certain 
degree of restraint was observed. 

The new policy has swept every restriction 
aside. Vessels of every kind, whatever their 
flag, their character, their cargo, their desti- 
nation, their errand, have been ruthlessly 
sent to the bottom without warning and with- 
out thought of help or mercy for those on 
board, the vessels of friendly neutrals along 
with those of belligerents. Even hospital 
ships and ships carrying relief to the sorely 
bereaved and stricken people of Belgium, 
though the latter were provided with safe 
conduct through the proscribed areas by the 
German government itself and were distin- 
guished by unmistakable marks of identity, 
have been sunk with the same reckless lack 
of compassion or of principle. 

I was for a little while unable to believe that 
such things would in fact be done by any 
government that had hitherto subscribed to 
humane practices of civilized nations. Inter- 
national law had its origin in the attempt to 
set up some law which would be respected 
and observed upon the seas, where no nation 
has right of dominion and where lay the 
free highways of the world. By painful 
stage after stage has that law been built 
up, with meagre enough results, indeed, after 
all was accomplished that could be accom- 
plished, but always with a clear view, at 
least, of what the heart and conscience of 
mankind demanded. 

This minimum of right the German gov- 
ernment has swept aside, under the plea of 
retaliation and necessity and because it hid 
no weapons which it could use at sea except 
these, which it is impossible to employ, as 
it is employing them, without throwing to 
the wind all scruples of humanity or of 
respect for the understandings that were 
supposed to underlie the intercourse of the 
world. 

I am not now thinking of the loss of 
property involved, immense and serious as 
that is, but only of the wanton and whole- 
sale destruction of the lives of noncom- 
batants, men, women, and children, engaged 
in pursuits which have always, even in the 
darkest periods of modern history, been 
deemed innocent and legitimate. Propertv 
can be paid for; the lives of peaceful 
and innocent people cannot be. The 
present German submarine warfare against 



commerce is a warfare against mankind. 

It is a war against all nations. Ameri- 
can ships have been sunk, American live.- 
taken, in ways which it has stirred us very 
deeply to learn of, but the ships and people 
of other neutral and friendly nations have 
been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters 
in the same way. There has been no dis- 
crimination. 

The challenge is to all mankind. Each 
nation must decide for itself how it will 
meet it. The choice we make for ourselves 
must be made with a moderation of counsel 
and a temperateness of judgment befitting 
our character and our motives as a nation. 
We must put excited feeling away. Our 
motive will not be revenge or the victorious 
assertion of the physical might of the nation, 
but only the vindication of right, of human 
right, of which we are only a single cham- 
pion. 

When I addressed the Congress on the 
twenty-sixth of February last I thought that 
it would suffice to assert our neutral rights 
with arms, our right to use the seas against 
unlawful interference, our right to keep our 
people safe against unlawful violence. But 
armed neutrality, it now appears, is im- 
practicable. Because submarines are in ef- 
fect outlaws, when used as the German 
submarines have been used against merchant 
shipping, it is impossible to defend ship, 
against their attacks as the law of nations 
has assumed that merchantment would 
defend themselves against privateers or 
cruisers, visible craft giving chase upon the 
open sea. It is common prudence in such 
circumstances, grim necessity indeed, to en- 
deavor to destroy them before they have 
shown their own intention. They must be 
dealt with upon sight, if dealt with at all. 

The German government denies the right 
of neutrals to use arms at all within the 
areas of the sea which it has proscribed, even 
in the defense of rights which no modern 
publicist has ever before questioned their 
right to defend. The intimation is conveyed 
that the armed guards which we have placed 
on our merchant ships will be treated as be- 
yond the pale of law and subject to be dealt 
with as pirates would be. Armed neutrality 
is ineffectual enough at best; in such cir- 
cumstances and in the face of such preten- 
sions it is worse than ineffectual; it is likely 
only to produce what it was meant to pre- 
vent; it is practically certain to draw us 
into the war without either the rights or the 
effectiveness of belligerents. There is one 
choice we cannot make, we are incapable of 
making; we will not choose the path of sub- 
mission and suffer the most sacred rights of 
our nation and our people to be ignored or 
violated. The wrongs against which we now 
array ourselves are no common wrongs; they 
cut to the very roots of human life. 

With a profound sense of the solemn and 
even tragical character of the step I am 
taking and of the grave responsibilities which 
it involves, but in '"nhesitating obedience to 
what I deem my constitutional duty, I advise 
that the Congress declare the recent course 
of the imperial German government to be in 
fact nothing less than war against the gov- 
ernment and people of the United States; 
that it formally accept the status of belliger- 
ent which has thus been thrust upon it; 
and that it take immediate steps not only to 
put the country in a more thorough state 
of defense, but also to exert all its power 
and employ all its resources io bring the 
government of the German empire to terms 
and end the war. 

What this will involve is clear. It will 
involve the utmost practicable cooperation 
in counsel and action with the governments 
now at war with Germany, and, as incident 
to that, the extension to those governments 
of the most liberal financial credits, in order 



"Safe For 

The President's Addi 



that our resources may so far as possible 
be added to theirs. 

It will involve the organization and 
mobilization of all the material resources 
of the country to supply the materials of 
war and serve the incidental needs of the 
nation in the most abundant and yet the 
most economical and efficient way possible. 

It will involve the immediate full equip- 
ment of the navy in all respects, but par- 
ticularly in supplying it with the best means 
of dealing with the enemy's submarines. 

It will involve the immediate addition to 
the armed forces of the United States, al- 
ready provided for by law in case of war, 
of at least 500,000 men, who should, in my 
opinion, be chosen upon the principle of 
universal liability to service, and also the 
authorization of subsequent additional incre- 
ments of equal force so soon as they may 
be needed and can be handled in training. 

It will involve also, of course, the grant- 
ing of adequate credits to the government, 
sustained, I hope, so far as they can equitably 
be sustained by the present generation, by 
well-conceived taxation. 

I say sustained so far as may be equitable 
by taxation, because it seems to me that it 
would be most unwise to base the credits, 
which will now be necessary, entirely on 
money borrowed. It is our duty, I most 
respectfully urge, to protect our people, so 
far as we may, against the very serious 
hardships and evils which would be likely 
to arise out of the inflation which would be 
produced by vast loans. 

In carrying out the measures by which 
these things are to. be accomplished we 
should keep constantly in mind the wisdom 
of interfering as little as possible in our 
own preparation and in the equipment of 
our own military forces with the duty — for 
it will be a very practical duty — of supplying 
the nations already at war with Germany 
with the materials which they can obtain 
only from us or by our assistance. They 
are in the field and we should help them 
in every way to be effective there. 

I shall take the liberty of suggesting, 
through the several executive departments 
of the government, for the consideration of 
your committees, measures for the accom- 
plishment of the several objects I have men- 
tioned. I hope that it will be your pleasure 
to deal with them as having been framed 
after very careful thought by the branch 
of the government upon whom the responsi- 
bility of conducting the war and safeguard- 
ing the nation will most directly fall. 

While we do these things, these deeply 
momentous things, let us be very clear, and 
make very clear to all the world, what our 
motives and our objects are. My own 
thought has not been driven from its habitual 
and normal course by the unhappy events of 
the last two months, and I do not believe 
that the thought of the nation had been 
altered or clouded by them. I have exactly 
the same things in mind now that I had 
in mind when I addressed the Senate on the 
twenty-second of January last; the same 
that I had in mind when I addressed the 
Congress on the third of February and on 
the twenty-sixth of February. Our^ object 
now, as then, is to vindicate the principles 
of peace and justice in the life of the world 
as against selfish and autocratic power, and 
to set up among the really free and self- 
governed peoples of the world such a 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



U 



emocracy 

to Congress on April 2 



concert of purpose and of action as will 
henceforth insure the observance of those 
principles. 

Neutrality is no longer feasible or desir- 
able where the peace of the world is involved 
and the freedom of its peoples, and the 
menace to that peace and freedom lies in 
the existence of autocratic governments, 
backed by organized force which is con- 
trolled wholly by their will, not by the 
will of their people. We have seen the last 
of neutrality in such circumstances. We are 
at the beginning of an age in which it will 
be insisted that the same standards of con- 
duct and of responsibility for wrong done 
shall be observed among nations and their 
governments that are observed among the in- 
dividual citizens of civilized states. 

We have no quarrel with the German 
people. We have no feeling toward them 
but one of sympathy and friendship. It was 
not upon their impulse that their govern- 
ment acted in entering this war. It was 
not with their previous knowledge or ap- 
proval. It was a war determined upon as 
wars used to be determined upon in tb 
old, unhappy days, when peoples were no- 
where consulted by their rulers and wars 
were provoked and waged in the interest 
of dynasties or of little groups of ambitious 
men who were accustomed to use their 
fellowmen as pawns and tools. 

Self-governed nations do not fill their 
neighbor states with spies or set the course 
of intrigue to bring about some critical 
posture of affairs which will give them an 
opportunity to strike and make conquest. 
Such designs can be successfully worked 
out only under cover and where no one has 
the right to ask questions. Cunningly con- 
trived plans of deception or aggression, 
carried, it may be, from generation to genera- 
tion, can be worked out and kept from the 
light only within the privacy of courts or 
behind the carefully guarded confidences of 
a narrow and privileged class. They are 
happily impossible where public opinion com- 
mands and insists upon full information 
concerning all the nation's affairs. 

A steadfast concert for peace can never 
be maintained except by a partnership of 
democratic nations. No autocratic govern- 
ment could be trusted to keep faith within 
it or observe its covenants. It must be a 
league of honor, a partnership of opinion. 
Intrigue would eat its vitals away; the 
plottings of inner circles who could plan 
what they would and render account to no 
one would be a corruption seated at its very 
heart. Only free peoples can hold their 
purpose and their honor steady to a com- 
mon end and prefer the interests of mankind 
to any narrow interest of their own. 

Does not every American feel that assur- 
ance has been added to our hope for the 
future peace of the world by the wonderful 
and heartening' things that have been happen- 
ing within the last few weeks in Russia? 
Russia was known by those who knew her 
best to have been always in fact demo- 
cratic at heart in all the vital habits of her 
thought, in all the intimate relationships of 
her people that spoke their natural instinct, 
their habitual attitude toward life. The 
autocracy that crowned the summit of her 
political structure, long as it had stood and 
terrible as was the reality of its power, 
was not in fact Russian in origin, character, 
or purpose; and now it has been shaken off 



and the great, generous Russian people have 
been added, in all their naive majesty and 
might, to the forces that are fighting for 
freedom in the world, for justice and for 
peace. Here is a fit partner for a league 
of honor. 

One of the things that has served to con- 
vince us that the Prussian autocracy was 
not and could never be our friend is that 
from the very outset of the present war it 
has filled our unsuspecting communities, and 
even our offices of government, with spies 
and set criminal intrigues everywhere afoot 
against our national unity of counsel, our 
peace within and without, our industries 
and our commerce. Indeed, it is now evi- 
dent that its spies were here even before 
the war began ; and it is unhappily not a 
matter of conjecture, but a fact proved in 
our courts of justice, that the intrigues which 
have more than once come perilously near to 
disturbing the peace and dislocating the in- 
dustries of the country, have been carried 
on at the instigation, with the support, and 
even under the personal direction of official 
agents of the imperial government, accredited 
to the government of the United States. 

Even in checking these things and trying 
to extirpate them we have sought to put the 
most generous interpretation possible upon 
them because we knew that their source lay, 
not in any hostile feeling or purpose of the 
German people toward us (who were, no 
doubt, as ignorant of them as we ourselves 
were), but only in the selfish designs of a 
government that did what it pleased and 
told its people nothing. But they have played 
their part in serving to convince us at last 
that that government entertains Jno real 
friendship for us, and means to act against 
our peace and security at its convenience. 
That it means to stir up enemies agairtst us 
at our very doors the intercepted note to the 
German minister at Mexico City is eloquent 
evidence. 

We are accepting this challenge of hostile 
purpose because we know that in such a 
government, following such methods, we can 
never have a friend; and that in the pres- 
ence of its organized power, always lying 
in wait to accomplish we know not what 
purpose, can be no assured security for the 
democratic governments of the world. We 
are now about to accept the gauge of battle 
with this natural foe to liberty and shall, 
if necessary, spend the whole force of the 
nation to check and nullify its pretensions 
and its power. We are glad, now that we 
see the facts with no veil of false pretense 
about them, to fight thus for the ultimate 
peace of the world and for the liberation 
of its peoples, the German peoples included; 
for the rights of nations, great and small, 
and the privilege of men everywhere to 
choose their way of life and of obedience. 

The world must be made safe for democ- 
racy. Its peace must be planted upon the 
tested foundations of political liberty. We 
have no selfish ends to serve. We desire 
no conquest, no dominion. We seek no in- 
demnities for ourselves, no material com- 
pensation for the sacrifices we shall freely 
make. We are but one of the champions of 
the rights of mankind. We shall be satis- 
fied when those rights have been made as 
secure as the faith and the freedom of na- 
tions can make them. 

Just because we fight without rancor and 
without selfish object, seeking nothing for 
ourselves but what we shall wish to share 
with all free peoples, we shall, I feel confi- 
dent, conduct our operations as belligerents 
without passion and ourselves observe with 
proud punctilio the principles of right and 
of fair play we profess to be fighting for. 

I have said nothing of the governments 
allied with the imperial government of Ger- 
many because they have not made war upo' 1 



us or challenged us to defend our right and 
our honor. The Austro-Hungarian govern- 
ment has, indeed, avowed its unqualified in- 
dorsement and acceptance of the reckless and 
lawless submarine warfare, adopted now 
without disguise by the imperial German 
government, and it has therefore not been 
possible for this government to receive Count 
Tarnowski, the ambassador recently accred- 
ited to this government by the imperial and 
royal government of Austria-Hungary; but 
that government has not actually engaged 
in warfare against citizens of the United 
States on the s^as, and I take the liberty, for 
the present at least, of postponing a discus- 
sion of our relations with the authorities at 
Vienna. We enter this war only where we 
are clearly forced into it because there are 
no other means of defending our right. 

It will be all the easier for us to conduct 
ourselves as belligerents in a high spirit of 
right and fairness because we act without 
animus, not with enmity toward a people or 
with the desire to bring any injury or dis- 
advantage upon them, but only in armed 
opposition to an irresponsible government 
which has thrown aside all considerations 
of humanity and of right and is running 
amuck. 

We are, let me say again, the sincere 
friends of the German people, and shall 
desire nothing so much as the early re- 
establishment of intimate relations of mutual 
advantage between us, however hard it may 
be for them for the time being to believe 
that this is spoken from our hearts. We 
have borne with their present government 
through all these bitter months because of 
that friendship, exercising a patience and 
forbearance which would otherwise have 
been impossible. 

We shall happily still have an opportu- 
nity to prove that friendship in our daily 
attitude and actions toward the millions of 
men and women of German birth and native 
sympathy who live among us and share our 
life, and we shall be proud to prove it to- 
ward all who are in fact loyal to their 
neighbors and to the government in the 
hour of test. They are most of them as 
true and loyal Americans as if they had 
never known any other fealty or allegiance. 
They will be prompt to stand with us in 
rebuking and restraining the few who may 
be of a different mind and purpose. If there 
should be disloyalty, it will be dealt with 
with a firm hand of stern repression ; but, 
if it lifts its head at all, it will lift it only 
here and there and without countenance 
except from a lawless and malignant few. 

It is a distressing and oppressive duty, 
gentlemen of the Congress, which I have 
performed in thus addressing you. There 
are, it may be, many months of fiery trial 
and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful 
thing to lead this great, peaceful people into 
war, into the most terrible and disastrous 
of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be 
in the balance. 

But the right is more precious than peace, 
and we shall fight for the things which we 
have always carried nearest our hearts — 
for democracy, for the rights of those who 
submit to authority to have a voice in their 
own governments, for the rights and liber- 
ties of small nations, for a universal do- 
minion of right by such a concert of free 
peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all 
nations and make the world itself at last free. 

To such a task we can dedicate our lives 
and our fortunes, everything that we are 
and everything that we have, with the pride 
of those who know that the day has corn- 
when America is privileged to spend her 
Mood and her might for the principles that 
gave her birth and happiness and the peace 
which she has treasured. 

God helping her, she can do no other. 



Learning for Earning or for Life? 



By JVinthrop D. Lane 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



INDIANA, the state in which James Whitcomb Riley 
ran away from home to take up with a travelling paint- 
er and to learn the painter's trade, has been having a 
vocational survey. Both shop and school have been 
studied, and an effort made to analyze opportunities for em- 
ployment open to young people today, and the training those 
young people get, or can get, for their later work in life. 

Three communities came under the microscope. One of 
these, Indianapolis, with a population of over 250,000, was 
chosen as a type of "the large industrial center"; another, 
Evansville, with 80,000, as a type of "the small industrial 
center," and the third, Jefferson county, with no town over 
8,000, typifies the rural and farming area of the state. 

The survey is now over. Its findings fill several volumes, 
more than a thousand pages. The National Society for the 
Promotion of Industrial Education, which was the genius 
back of the inquiry, intended to make the results the chief 
matter of discussion at its annual meeting in Indianapolis 
a few weeks ago, and would have done so if the Smith-Hughes 
bill, appropriating federal money for vocational education 
in the states, signed while the convention was in session, had 
not captured attention. 

The Indiana survey represents a type of educational philoso- 
phy and research that is' fast gaining ground in this country 
and that is the cause of intense disagreement among edu- 
cators wherever it goes. The committee that made the present 
study included many prominent Indiana educators. It had the 
hearty support of the state department of education. Most of 
its members, however, were men and women directly connect- 
ed with the administering of vocational training. Three 
were representatives of the national society already mentioned, 
and one of these, Charles A. Prosser, was its chairman. 

The study was much more than a survey. It included a 
program and a course of action. It had no difficulty in proving 
the need for some kind of vocational training. To do this, it 
had only to recite facts that have already sunk deep into Amer- 
ican consciousness. It had only to recall that an army of young 
children leave school every year at the sixth and seventh grades 
to enter employments for which they have no training. It 
had only to suggest that our public schools, in so far as their 
instruction is vocational at all, prepare for a limited kind of 
employment, chiefly a clerical and office employment, and one 
that is far less prevalent today than when the present courses 
of study were devised. Finally, the survey had only to dis- 
cover that in Indianapolis alone there are more than 20,000 
young people between the ages of fourteen and twenty-one who 
are entirely without instruction, either in the public schools 
or in industry. 

But the survey went much farther than this. It defined 
concretely the vocational character of Indianapolis and Evans- 
ville industries. It made "occupational analyses" of the vari- 
ous trades, and analyzed each trade and subdivision of a trade 
into the operations involved, the tools used, the materials em- 
ployed, and the general and special knowledge required of the 
worker. Those who made the survey believe that these anal- 
18 



yses "present the problem of vocational education, so far as 
that problem is involved in occupational efficiency." 

The inquiry went even farther. It concluded trade agree- 
ments between the schools and employers for all-day, part-time 
and evening vocational instruction. This instruction is in- 
tended to benefit both those who are already in employment 
and those who are still in the public schools and intend to enter 
specific lines of work. For example, one agreement stipulates 
that Indianapolis shall establish a two-year course in wood- 
working and that the shops signing the agreement, which 
number sixteen, shall use the pupils coming out of this course 
as their source of supply for new workers. Under another 
agreement, free evening classes for apprentices in plumbing 
have been established and sixty employers have agreed to 
place all apprentices at the disposal of the school for instruc- 
tion in the theory and practice of plumbing, guaranteeing at 
the same time steady employment at specified wages. Other 
agreements of the same general nature have been entered upon 
in both Indianapolis and Evansville. 

It is the conception underlying all this work that is perhaps 
most interesting. This is stated repeatedly in substantially this 
wording: "Vocational education means just what the term 
implies, an education or training which aims to fit an individ- 
ual or group of individuals for a particular occupation or trade. 
. . . All work and all subjects — technical, scientific and 
academic — which contribute to this purpose are selected; all 
subjects which do not contribute to this purpose are excluded 
from the course. In a vocational school or course in printing, 
for example, ... all instruction and all practice must pre- 
pare directly for work in a commercial print shop." (Italics 
mine.) 

The course in English, for example, would include spelling, 
punctuation, composition and proofreading, Avhile courses in 
printing, art and mathematics would cover training in type 
harmony, design and color harmony, and stock cutting and 
cost estimating. Industrial history and geography would be 
taught "to give the boys a broader view of life and industrial 
possibilities." Instruction in personal and shop hygiene and in 
practical citizenship would be included "because the purpose 
of every vocational school is not merely to make more intelli- 
gent, capable and ambitious workers, but happier and more 
useful citizens." 

The survey was based upon the belief that vocational 
education, to be effective, "must be adapted to the communities 
where the workers are to live." "The same vocational 
courses," says Alvin E. Dodd, secretary of the national society 
and one of its three representatives in the survey, "will not 
serve in a furniture manufacturing city like Grand Rapids 
and a textile city like Fall River." 

Pushed to its conclusion, this doctrine apparently means 
that each city and town in the United States is to train the 
children who happen to be born in it for the particular indus- 
tries there carried on. Evansville and Indianapolis are to 
train their children for the work that Evansville and Indianap- 
olis dr\ If there are flour mills there, children are to be trained 
to work efficiently in flour mills. If no shoe factories exist, 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



19 



children there are not to be trained to work in shoe factories. 

Not all of the reasons given by the committee for its belief 
in some sort of vocational education have yet been indicated. 
Such education is needed, it declares, to conserve and to de- 
velop the natural resources of the country, and to prevent for 
industry the great waste of human labor. Indianapolis needs 
such education because in it lies the "promise of an adequate 
supply of skilled workers for industrial processes." For every 
permanent position in the industries of the city, says the com- 
mittee, at least four persons have served temporarily and have 
given way to others. 

Again, the prosperity of both Indianapolis and Evansville 
demands that they should provide this training. Both cities 
need it if they are to keep up their present pace in occupying 
"larger and more attractive markets." Both need it if they 
are to add, as they ought, to the value of raw materials used 
in their manufactories. Both need it because the price they 
are now paying for inefficiency is greater than the price that 
such training will cost them. Indianapolis needs it because 
she is the center of the economic life of the state and other 
communities depend upon her to a large extent for workers. 
Evansville needs it because through the Ohio river, the Gulf 
of Mexico and the Panama canal she is bound to meet the 
competition of Germany in her search for South American 
markets, and she must have more highly skilled workmen if 
she is to win out. Both need it because without it industry 
cannot succeed, and industry itself cannot supply it. 

The committee's plea for vocational education throughout 
the reports of this survey is made chiefly from the standpoint 
of industry and the manufacturer. Its summary of "the case 
for Indianapolis" presents twenty-three separate reasons for 
vocational education ; sixteen of these deal with industrial and 
economic gains, seven may by a generous interpretation be 
said to deal with gains to the individual and the community. 
Only four are in any sense arguments for a completer educa- 
tion for the child. A quite similar emphasis appears in the 
Evansville report. 

All of this has a direct bearing on the two great approaches 
that are being made at the present time to the matter of 
vocational education for young people. Unless these thousand 
pages lie, they reveal strikingly which of these approaches is 
embraced by the dominant educational group in Indiana 
today, and by the National Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education. 

These approaches have to do with the question: Whose 
interests are to be primarily considered in the development of 
industrial education? John Dewey recently gave so clear an 
analysis of both philosophies that he might almost have been 
talking about the Indiana surveys. He did not even mention 
them, nor the national society, but his remarks are so appro- 
priate that I quote in part: 

"To understand the educational issue [in industrial edu- 
cation] is to see what difference is made in the schools them- 
selves, whether we take the improving of economic conditions 
to be the purpose of vocational training, or take its purpose to 
be supplying a better grade of labor for the present scheme, or 
helping on the United States in a competitive struggle for 
world commerce. I know that those who have the latter end 
chiefly in view always make much of the increased happiness 
of the industrial worker himself as a product to result from 
better industrial education. But after all, there is a great dif- 
ference between the happiness which means merely content- 
ment with a station and the happiness which comes from the 
struggle of a well-equipped person to better his station. Which 
sort of happiness is to be our aim? I know, also, that stress 



is laid upon the ability which is to proceed from a better indus- 
trial education for the laborer to increase his earnings. Well 
and good. But, does this mean simply that laborers are to 
have their skill to add to the profits of employers increased, 
by avoiding waste, getting more out of their machines and 
materials, so that they will have some share in it as an inci- 
dental by-product, or does it mean that increase in the in- 
dustrial intelligence and power of the worker for his own 
personal advancement is to be the main factor." * 

Professor Dewey went on to point out that those who con- 
ceive the main purpose of vocational training to be to supply a 
better grade of labor for industries will endeavor to nar- 
row this training down to "those forms of industrial skill 
which will enable the future workers to fall docilely into the 
subordinated ranks of the industrial army." On this "narrow 
trade plan," he said, 

"the curriculum will neglect as useless for its ends the topics 
in history and civics which make future workers aware of 
their rightful claims as citizens in a democracy, alert to the 
fact that the present economic struggle is but the present-day 
phase taken by the age-long battle for human liberties. So 
far as it takes in civic and social studies at all, it will em- 
phasize those things which emphasize duties to the established 
order and a blind patriotism which accounts it a great priv- 
ilege to defend the things in which the workers themselves 
have little or no share." 

Professor Dewey is, of course, one of the severest critics 
of our present public schools of the traditional type. Con- 
tinuing, he said that the other idea of industrial education 
will proceed in an opposite way: 

"Instead erf trying to split schools into two kinds, one of 
a trade type for children whom it is assumed are to be em- 
ployes and one of a liberal type for the children of the well- 
to-do, it will aim at such a reorganization of existing schools 
as will give all pupils, a genuine respect for useful work, an 
ability to render service, and a contempt for social parasites, 
whether they are called tramps or leaders of 'society.' . . . 
It will indeed make much of developing motor and manual 
skill, but not of a routine or automatic type. It will rather 
utilize active and manual pursuits as the means of developing 
constructive, inventive and creative power of mind. It will 
select the materials and the technique of the trades not for 
the sake of producing skilled workers for hire in definite 
trades, but for the sake of securing industrial intelligence — a 
knowledge of the conditions and processes of present manu- 
facturing, transportation and commerce so that the individual 
may be able to make his own choices and his own adjustments, 
and be master, so far as in him lies, of his own economic fate. 
... It will remember that the future employe is a con- 
sumer as well as a producer, that the whole tendency of 
society, so far as it is intelligent and wholesome, is to an in- 
crease of the hours of leisure, and that an education which 
does nothing to enable individuals to consume wisely and to 
utilize leisure wisely is a fraud on democracy. So far as 
method is concerned, such a conception of industrial education 
will prize freedom more than docility, initiative more than 
automatic skill, insight and understanding more than capacity 
to recite lessons or to execute tasks under the direction of 
others." 

Indiana has at least rendered a service in making sharp the 
division between these two methods of approach. We may 
now watch to see what other states will lend themselves to the 
doctrines and purposes that have been made so plain in these 
surveys. 



1 This and the following quotations from Professor Dewey are taken from 
his address at the annual meeting of the Public Education Association of 
New York city, February 20. 







■KM. 



PLANS FOR THE CARE OF 
SOLDIERS' FAMILIES 

THE American Red Cross issued in- 
structions last week to its 370 chap- 
ters telling them to announce their in- 
tention of meeting the needs of families 
of soldiers and sailors as long as may be 
necessary, or at least until provision is 
made by the government for a separation 
allowance. Last summer, it was pointed 
out, when troops went to the Mexican 
border, provision by the government did 
not become operative for three months 
after the men had left their homes. 
During this period many different or- 
ganizations helped to meet the need. If 
any of these organizations, or new ones, 
wish now to help, local Red Cross chap- 
ters are advised to encourage and co- 
operate with them and not to start com- 
petitive plans. 

Concerning the future method of 
meeting this huge relief need, the in- 
structions say: "To have this work 
done under the Red Cross flag and as 
part of a national organization will 
prove advantageous should the problem 
become a large one and have to be taken 
up on a national basis." 

With the sanction of the Red Cross, 
the New York School of Philanthropy 
has undertaken to train volunteer work- 
ers for civilian relief similar to the vol- 
unteer agents of the Canadian Patriotic 
Fund. Starting April 11, the course 
will last for ten weeks, including two 
lectures and three days of field work 
each week. The class will be conducted 
by Porter R. Lee, of the staff of the 
school, and the field work will be sup- 
plied by the Charity Organization So- 
ciety, the Association for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor, the Brooklyn 
Bureau of Charities, the Department of 
Public Charities, the State Charities Aid 
Association and the United Hebrew 
Charities. 

Those who complete the course will 
receive a certificate in emergency social 
service. Both lectures and field work 
are free, but all who are admitted will 
be required to pledge themselves to com- 
plete the course and to consider them- 
selves subject to call for active service. 

The lectures will include a study of 
the factors in the normal development 



of the family, the problems which it 
faces in ordinary times and the special 
problems of war time ; organization of 
relief after floods, fires, earthquakes, 
and other disasters; methods of social 
work with families — health, home eco- 
nomics, care of children, employment of 
women and children, low standards, val- 
ue of personal influence, material relief, 
employment for the disabled, ways in 
which social agencies in New York can 
be used in war relief work ; the correla- 
tion of charitable effort ; the responsibil- 
ity of the nation and of the Red Cross 
worker. 

The field work will include the mak- 
ing of personal contacts with families, 
interviewing, writing and using records, 
study and treatment of the problems of 
disorganized family life ; acquaintance 
with hospitals, dispensaries, day nurs- 
eries and other agencies which form an 
important phase of civilian war relief ; 
and an introduction to such facilities as 
the city offers for the care and employ- 
ment of the disabled. 

With Joseph H. Choate, its president, 
in the chair, the board of managers of 
the New York State Charities Aid As- 
sociation adopted a resolution last week 
offering the services of the association to 



WORD FROM MADAME 
BRESHKOVSKY 

JLICE STONE BLACKWELL, 
-*-* of Boston, has received from 
Madame Breshkovsky a postal card, 
dated February 2, and written from 
her exile in Minoussinsk, Siberia. In 
it she makes no reference to the im- 
pending revolution, but expresses her 
pleasure in the magazines sent her by 
American friends. "The Survey/' 
she writes, "has had some very re- 
markable articles about the interna- 
tional questions. We may hope this 
year is the last of fighting and deso- 
lation. Nobody can imagine the 
reality without seeing it. Live and be 
blest, all you who work for the com- 
mon welfare and progress of man- 
kind! . . . I am well, and wish you 
to be the same." 



the nation "in such form as may be con- 
sidered advisable and most efficient" in 
the event of war. A committee was ap- 
pointed to confer with national and state 
authorities and to consider how to give 
practical effect to the resolution. 

This association owes its origin in 
large part to humanitarian work done 
during the Civil war. Louisa Lee 
Schuyler, who founded it, obtained her 
early experience and much of her in- 
spiration from serving throughout that 
conflict in the New York branch of the 
United States Sanitary Commission. 
The early membership of the association 
was largely recruited from former mem- 
bers of that commission. It was Miss 
Schuyler who presented the resolution 
adopted last week. 

One suggestion of the kind of service 
that the association might render is that 
in places in the state where there is no 
Red Cross chapter or local social service 
agency it might act as an intermediary 
between bodies formed for the relief of 
soldiers' families and the families them- 
selves. Its field agents might stimulate 
local giving to such families and might 
enlist local volunteers to perform the 
necessary administrative and other work. 

TAXING WEALTH TO PAY 
FOR WAR 

A "TEST OF PATRIOTISM" is 
being conducted by a newly or- 
ganized committee in New York, 
known as the American Committee on 
War Finance. The test consists of a 
pledge, inserted in newspapers through- 
out the country, which places its signers 
on record as favoring legislation to take 
all profit out of war. Thus, it pro- 
poses, that in case of war all net in- 
comes of $5,000 or over shall be sub- 
jected to a graduated tax ranging from 
2y? per cent on incomes from $5,000 
to $10,000 to a contribution on incomes 
over that sum which will permit of no 
individual retaining an annual net in- 
come in excess of $100,000 during war. 
Other clauses of the pledge call for 
reducing profit on war supplies to not 
more than 3j^ per cent, and on food 
and necessities of life to not more than 
6 per cent. Failure to furnish the gov- 
ernment with correct figures as to in- 



20 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7 , 191; 



21 



comes and profits or to sell defective 
war supplies to the government would 
make an individual or corporation guilty 
of a felony, punishable by imprisonment. 

Seventeen committees have been or- 
ganized in every section of the United 
States to obtain signatures to the 
2,665,000 copies of the pledge which 
have been distributed and to insure the 
immediate adoption of such tax laws 
both by Congress and by state legisla- 
tures. Responses to the newspaper ad- 
vertisement of the pledge have swamped 
the committee's offices. Over thirty 
thousand dollars has been contributed. 

The organization committee, Owen 
R. Lovejoy, Amos Pinchot and John 
L. Elliot, of New York city, have all 
been identified with peace activities, but 
the present movement is being supported 
both by militants and pacifists. Its pur- 
pose is to discover by a sort of referen- 
dum of return pledges whether the ad- 
vocates of war are willing to pay the 
price of war; whether the country is 
ready to be involved in a "dollar war" 
or a "war for humanity;" whether the 
rich are willing to bear the burdens of 
war with the poor. 

"If we have a war," appeals the com- 
mittee, "the burden of fighting must be 
carried by those who are physically 
strong and fit to fight. The burden of 
finance must be borne by those who are 
financially strong and able to give. 
Above all, the war must be paid for as 
it proceeds, in dollars as well as in lives. 
There must be no crushing legacy of 
bonded debt to be paid in taxes by the 
men who have done the fighting and 
their children. Let us make this a cash 
war, a pay-as-you-enter-war. Let all 
loyal citizens who have incomes above 
their immediate necessities volunteer 
their wealth." 

YOUTH AND SPRING ON THE 
STAGE 

UNDER the title, The Awakening 
of Spring, Frank Wedekind's cele- 
brated German play, Fruhlings Er- 
wachen, which deals with the peculiari- 
ties of adolescence and excoriates the 
conventional attitude toward imparting 
the facts of reproduction to the young, 
was given in New York city last week 
under the auspices of the Medical Re- 
view of Reviews. An audience com- 
posed largely of social workers and 
students of sex hygiene was kept waiting 
an hour while an injunction was being 
secured against the municipal authorities 
who were withholding permission to 
present the play. It was the first time 
a performance had been given in Eng- 
lish. Geoffrey C. Stein and his co- 
workers did the acting. 

Fruhlings Erwachen was written 
more than twenty years ago. It depicts 
in frank realism the morbidity, the 
dawning sex consciousness, the strange 



dreams and budding passion of youth. 
Through ignorance of the way children 
are born, a girl of fourteen becomes 
pregnant. One of the strong scenes of 
the drama occurs when the girl, first 



discovering this fact, reproaches her 
mother, whom she had often plied with 
questions, for not having "told her 
everything." 

Four years ago the Medical Review 




fUE FOR PF.TROGRAD 



At a mass meeting held under the auspices of the American Friends 
of Russian Freedom in Carnegie Hall, New York, it was announced 
that George Grey Barnard has offered that organization a duplicate 
(not replica) in bronze of his Lincoln statue, to be presented to the 
city of Petrograd. To judge from the applause with which Russians 
at the meeting greeted every mention of Lincoln's name, this gift 
will be received by the Russian people as a token of the lasting bond 
which unites them with America. In Faneuil Hall, Boston, 1,500 
persons, many of whom had lived in Russia under the old regime, 
met at the call of Civic Service House, and cabled to Prof. Paul 
N. Milyukov, minister of foreign affairs, a welcome to "the new- 
born republic of Russia, founded on liberty and dedicated to 
social progress." 



22 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



of Reviews produced similarly Brieux's 
Damaged Goods, and last year it staged 
The Unborn, a play written to show the 
evils of reproduction without regard to 
heredity or circumstance. In presenting 
Friihlings Erwachen, Dr. Frederic H. 
Robinson, editor of the Medical Review 
of Reviews, said : 

"The tragedy and danger of the ado- 
lescent period has been little understood 
in the past. In presenting Wedekind's 
great masterpiece, The Awakening of 
Spring, the committee of the Medical 
Review of Reviews feel that another 
step has been taken which will encour- 
age the full and free discussion of a 
burning problem which convention has 
clouded and hypocrisy obscured." 

A CITY PLAYGROUND IN THE 

MOUNTAINS 

TO provide at minimum cost a place 
where wholesome outdoor activities 
may be enjoyed, where boys, girls, adults 
— in fact, the whole family — may spend 
an outing in the high mountains, was 
the subject with which Los Angeles, six 
years ago, established its playground 
summer camp. This is a municipal rec- 
reation center transferred to a spot 
where opportunities are ideal, a demo- 
cratic institution where the crowded, un- 
healthy city life gives way to one of 
pleasure and contentment in intimate 
contact with nature in her most serene 
mood. For, this city playground away 




OFF FOR A HIKE 

from the city, looks out over deep ra- 
vines and beautiful streams, over boul- 
ders and giant pines, flowered meadows 
and distant hills. 

The camp is not for the poor alone. 
It stands on a plane with the public 
sthool; its popularity is that of the city 
park; and the question for the coming 
seventh summer of its administration is 



how to provide enough accommodation 
for all applicants. The Playground 
Commission has made a special point of 
keeping down charges so that citizens 
may enjoy the outing at a minimum cost. 
The mountain recreation center is too 
far removed from the city to encourage 
many day trips. The majority of its 
visitors stay for two weeks at a time. 
Their payments cover all salaries, food 
and transportation. The group ' of 
campers is looked upon as one big fam- 
ily, each member of which has a daily 
service to render for the good of the 
community. This work is so arranged 
that the dwellers of each cabin take 
turns in rotation, and none is excused. 
Thus the cost to the individual is re- 
duced. 

C. B. Raitt, superintendent of the 
Playground Commission of Los Angeles, 
recommends that such a summer camp, 
if planned by other cities, should be from 
thirty to seventy-five miles from the city, 
giving, if possible, an entire climatic 
change, preferably in the mountains. 
Cabins should be simply constructed, 
rustic in appearance, well ventilated, 
equipped with good beds, and, of course, 
not congested. An open-air dining- 
room with cemented floor is all that is 
needed for living quarters, in addition to 
a sanitary kitchen. In a large camp it 
is, of course, necessary to see to it that 
the sewage is properly handled so as not 
to pollute the stream, that modern flush 




SOME OF THE FORTY-SIX CABINS RUNNING UP THE HILLSIDE 

Photograph by the United States Forestry Department at a time when the municipal camp was occupied by a group of girls 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



23 




A TALE OF TWO 
FAMILIES 



Among 
436 descendants of Martin 
and his normal wife 

then? were 
mental defectives and 
criminals but 
MANY distinguished citizens 



THE WILD OATS 

At the outbreak of the Revo- 
lutionary war, Martin Kallikak, 
an American soldier, used to 
replenish his fighting spirit at 
a tavern in Trenton, N. J., in 
company with other militiamen. 
One day he met a feebleminded 
girl there. They had a son. 
The son also was feebleminded. 
He, in turn, had many feeble- 
minded children and since then 
this bad stock has been helping 
to fill almshouses, prisons and 
custodial asylums with degen- 
erates. See the percentage of 
mental defectives in the upper 
right-hand corner. 





THE NORMAL MARRIAGE 

But those were the soldier's 
days of wild oats. After the 
war he married a good and in- 
telligent woman and settled 
down. Their union was blessed 
with a fine progeny. Among 
the . descendants were clergy- 
men, artists, professional peo- 
ple — but not a mental defective 
or a criminal. One of the de- 
scendants of this normal mar- 
riage is now with an American 
ambulance corps in France. He 
has recently been decorated for 
conspicuous bravery. See the 
chance he had in the upper 
left-hand corner. 



toilets, lavatories, shower-baths and tub- 
baths are provided. A cemented swim- 
ming pool is a great attraction. 

An executive is required who should 
be an enthusiast and a person with an 
understanding of human nature. "The 
success of a camp," says Mr. Raitt, 
"rests almost entirely in the hands of 
the director in charge." Los Angeles 
provides this leader with a corps of 
specialized assistants, responsible for 
commissary, finances, clinic, store, ath- 
letics and hikes, entertainments, and 
care of grounds and equipment. It is 
these who organize the services rendered 
by the campers themselves. 

Of the success of the camp, Los An- 
geles citizens speak with enthusiasm. In 
the gathering around the campfire of 
hundreds of people from all walks of 
life, from all parts of the city, with no 
interest in common except that of their 
citizenship, the seed of a community 
spirit is sown which, transplanted from 
the ideal conditions of this nursery gar- 
den into the everyday conditions of the 
city itself has every hope of healthful 
growth. "More civic pride is developed 
around the campfire in five minutes," 
says Mr. Raitt, "than in the city in one 
year. Many friendships of a lasting 
nature are formed, and these evenings 
are lived over and over again around the 
hearth in the home." 



WHEN THE KALLIKAKS 
MOVED TO HARRISBURG 

WHEN the Pennsylvania legisla- 
ture of 1915 declared, in effect, 
that it could not find a single dollar out 
of the $70,000,000 revenue with which 
the state would be blessed in the follow- 
ing two years, to devote to the comple- 
tion, opening and maintenance of the 
state village for feebleminded women 
established two years before, some thou- 
sands of forward-looking men and 
women were suddenly awakened to a 
realization that educational work on the 
subject was imperatively needed in their 
state. Accordingly, under the leader- 
ship of the Public Charities Association 
of Pennsylvania, an exhibit on feeble- 
mindedness was prepared, setting forth 
crisply, graphically and concretely the 
facts of the problem. 

In Philadelphia, where it was first 
shown, a plan of extensive cooperation 
was worked out, which has since been 
followed in more than a score of com- 
munities in Pennsylvania. Business men 
were appealed to for aid in meeting the 
practical problems. One gave the use 
of a store building in the very heart of 
the business center; another donated 
lumber for the construction of booths ; 
a third contributed the services of car- 
penters ; a department store gave the use 
of tables and chairs; another provided 



the decorations and the service of expert 
decorators. 

Forty organizations of philanthropic 
and civic character — led by women's 
clubs — volunteered to provide guides 
and attendants for directing and assist- 
ing the visitors. The booths, each of 
which told one chapter of the story, 
were parceled out to the care of these 
organizations, so that before the two 
weeks were over more than 300 men 
and women, active and prominent in 
social and civic affairs in the city, had 
devoted time to telling uninformed visit- 
ors of the importance of the problem and 
to making certain that no vital point in 
the story was missed. 

Newspapers were brought into the 
campaign and publicitv was unprece- 
dented. More than 100,000 adult citi- 
zens visited the exhibit during the 110 
hours the rooms were open for inspec- 
tion. A nucleus of sentiment was cre- 
ated that immediately put the problem 
of the mental defective to the very fore* 
front of the public mind in Philadel- 
phia. 

Encouraged by this success, the asso- 
ciation set about extending the campaign 
throughout the state. A plan identical 
with the Philadelphia scheme of cooper- 
ation was set in motion. Local commit- 
tees were organized by correspondence ; 
the expense of transportation and ar- 



24 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



rangement was met by these committees 
through the same sort of appeal to pub- 
lic-spirited citizens that had proved so 
fruitful in Philadelphia; expert instruc- 
tion for the guides was given by cor- 
respondence and personal visits; scores 
of organizations in every community got 
back of the enterprise with enthusiasm. 

For a year the trail was followed al- 
most without interruption, and with 
singularly uniform success in every part 
of the state. Whether in store build- 
ings, dance halls, Y. M. C. A. buildings, 
courthouse or private homes, the exhibit 
brought its message and focused atten- 
tion upon a program of control. More 
than a quarter of a million people had 
visited the exhibit before it was taken to 
Harrisburg, for the special benefit of the 
members of the legislature. 

The legislature of Pennsylvania 
knows now the need for the village for 
feebleminded women ; it knows that pub- 
lic sentiment will justify appropriations 
to that end ; and it may even begin to sus- 
pect that public opinion will not long tol- 
erate neglect of so fundamental a project. 

NEW YORK'S NEW CITIZEN 
POLICE 

WITH the approach and convening 
of what the metropolitan press 
has for weeks been describing as a "war 
session" of Congress, cities and towns 
near New York have been actively seek- 
ing information about the Home Defense 
League in that city, and have been pre- 
paring to launch similar organizations 
of their own citizens. This league was 
formed some time after the outbreak of 
the European war to act as a reserve to 
the police force and today has an en- 
rollment of over 20,000 men. 

It exists to do in emergencies what- 
ever the regular police force does. Its 
members will, if called upon by the com- 
missioner of police, undertake to preserve 
the peace, prevent crime and enforce 
laws relating to the police, health and 
tenement house departments and to crim- 
inal procedure. They could be asked 
to preserve fire lines and to do other 
service in the event of great fires. It is 
expected that their chief opportunity will 
come at night, when most of them are 
best able to give time. 

The league is also organized for so- 
cial and civic duties not customarily done 
by the police. Already it has been called 
upon in three emergencies. Once it was 
asked for volunteers to help get recruits 
for the Red Cross, once to aid in local 
efforts to reduce street accidents, and 
during the epidemic of infantile paraly- 
sis last summer to help in the sanitary 
patrol of the city, block by block. 

A motor-boat division for water patrol 
has been created and thirty boats offered 
for use. Five hundred motor cars have 
been enrolled, and three cavalry squads 
formed of seventv horsemen each. Be- 
tween 10,000 and 11,000 of the mem- 



PROTEST BY CLEVE- 
LAND SETTLEMENTS 

rrr HEREAS the Board of Edu- 
rr cation of the city of Cleve- 
land has seen fit [the Survey, March 
24] to introduce military training into 
the public high schools of this city, 
and 

Whereas it has formally branded 
as immoral or cowardly the sincere 
opinions and activities of "peace so- 
cieties and others," and 

Whereas it has declared that "our 
children must be taught . . . that 
wrong . . . must be FOUGHT and 
must come to know the utter silliness 
of declining war if war be necessary to 
overcome evil and hold up high prin- 
ciples and ideals," and 

Whereas it has arranged for meet- 
ings in school buildings during or 
after school hours at which these 
opinions of the members of the board 
are to be presented to the children or 
to their parents, with the provision 
that "there must be no debate or 
questions at any meeting" 

Be it resolved, therefore, that we, 
the members of the Cleveland Settle- 
ment Union, residents and workers in 
the settlements of Cleveland, know- 
ing intimately in our daily lives and 
work the industrial classes of Cleve- 
land and their children, do hereby 
register our protest against the sub- 
tle inculcation of militaristic ideals 
through military training of imma- 
ture, impressionable lads of high 
school age; that we heartily dis- 
approve of the attempt to force upon 
the schools a point of view in matters 
of present and future public policy and 
a theory of international relations to 
which three of the seven members of 
the Board of Education itself could 
not entirely subscribe, and that we 
express our horror at the character- 
istic militarist determination to crush 
free speech by using the school 
buildings and the resources provided 
by public taxes for the purpose of 
presenting a theory of patriotic pub- 
lic policy, with the un-American 
provision that no debate, question or 
difference of opinion may be per- 
mitted as to what truly constitutes 
national honor, international mor- 
ality and democratic ideals. 



bers would, it is expected, actually re- 
spond to a call for service. 

Members of the league receive in- 
struction in elementary military drill 
and in the duties of police officers. They 
are organized by precincts and each local 
organization meets periodically for drill 
and exercise. The drill is conducted in 
armories, public halls, schoolhouses and 
similar places. 

The services of the league can be giv- 
en only when officially called for by the 
head of the police department. 

A statement issued by the secretary 
to the police commissioner declares that 
the league "is not armed, it is not a 
military body, and it is not related to the 
Plattsburg training camp." The fact 
that it is not armed, however, does not 
mean, says the statement, "that the mem- 
bers cannot shoot or ride. A great ma- 



jority of the members are in it because 
of the opportunity offered for service to 
the city and because they feel they could 
give a good account of themselves should 
they be called to render such service." 

Many members are declared to have 
had experience in the army or navy, mili- 
tia or naval reserve, as woodsmen on the 
plains, as railroad men and as baseball 
and football players. The membership 
is declared to be made up of "day labor- 
ers and men of means, business and pro- 
fessional men, actors and writers, men 
earning $4 a day and men whose income 
is big enough to support both town and 
country homes." 

Recruiting and preparations are in the 
hands of a special staff attached to police 
headquarters. At the head of this is 
Alexander M. White, of the banking 
firm of White, Weld and Co., recently 
appointed aide to the commissioner. 

JUVENILE CRIME THE NEME- 
SIS OF HATE 

"' I ^HE excessive excitement of the 
J_ childish imagination by the events 
of the war, especially as they are de- 
picted in trashy literature, is one of the 
brutalizing influences acting on our 
young people in war time. To inoculate 
the children with hate would breed lust 
for revenge, and could only bear evil 
fruit." 

Thus writes Albert Hellwig, a Ger- 
man police court judge, in a book which 
he has recently published, Der Krieg 
und die Kriminalitaet der Jugendlichen, 
reviewing the criminality of German 
children between the outbreak of the 
war and the end of June, 1916. 

The material for his study is com- 
posed of replies to a questionnaire sent 
to police authorities in several hundred 
towns and cities, from reports of insti- 
tutions and societies, and from news- 
paper clippings. His general conclusion 

HE AD WORKER — HOSPITAL 

SOCIAL SERVICE 

DEPARTMENT 

Competent headworker wanted for 
social service department in a large 
New York hospital ; organization in- 
cludes twelve paid workers, under- 
graduate pupil nurses, district phy- 
sicians, volunteer Auxiliary. Apply 
to Dr. S. S. Goldwater, 1 E. 100th 
St., N. Y. City. 

FOR RENT OR SALE 

Staten Island 

Small farm, near New Dorp. Situated on 
high land in centre of island. 14 acres, 3- 
story stone house, completely furnished, 12 
rooms, 2 baths, 3 toilets, veranda enclosed 
with glass. Annex adjoining containing 1 
large room. Telephone. 

Good barn, with cement cellar and gar- 
dener's living quarters above. City water in 
house and barn. Good kitchen garden. Fine 
orchard, yielding plentifully. 10 minutes 
from trolley. Has been occupied for the past 
2 years as a Home for Girls. For further 
information, apply to 

MRS. P. MALI, 8 Fifth Avenue. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



25 



is not given statistically, but he leaves 
no doubt that the increase in youthful 
delinquency, and especially in acts of 
violence, has been considerable. "From 
all these figures it is evident that crime 
among the young diminished in some 
places during the first months of the 
war. But afterward the increase was 
all the greater — at least in the larger 
cities and as regards crimes tried be- 
fore a judge and jury." 

This change is easily accounted for if 
we remember that during the first 
months of the war hundreds of thou- 
sands of youths under eighteen entered 
the army as volunteers or were drafted 
into other public service, whereas the 
new factors making for lawlessness 
worked with cumulative effectiveness. 
Dr. Hellwig explains the increase in 
crimes of violence by the change in eco- 
nomic conditions — poverty at first and 
high wages afterward ; and further by 
slackening school attendance and home 
control, "trashy war books and films," 
amnesty of juvenile criminals granted in 
the earlier days of the war, reduction of 
the police force through mobilization. 

But that these causes, important 
though they may seem, are not the pri- 
mary ones will appear from the follow- 
ing order of the Prussian government 
dated January 15, 1916: "The desire 
has been expressed recently that the 
teachers in our schools should combat 
by suitable instruction the spread and 
deepening of national hate and pave the 
way for the future reconciliation of civil- 
ized nations. Such endeavors should 
not, however, provide opportunities for 
the spread of a cosmopolitan propaganda 
and idle talk of peace." 

This change of heart, it would seem, 
is coming rather late in the day. In 
Berlin, in 1915, there were twice as 
many crimes by children as in 1914. In 
Munich, the number of young delin- 
quents for the first three months of 1915 
equaled the total for 1914. Frankfort 
reported a decrease of 55 per cent in 
the number of minor offenses — possibly 
because prosecution had slackened — with 
an increase in serious crime by 40 per 
cent. 

It would be easy to minimize the ap- 
parent lesson of these figures by pointing 
out that crimes of violence, both in the 
adult and in the juvenile population of 
Germany, have been on the increase for 
some time. Professor von Liszt, of Ber- 
lin University, in a lecture last year 
stated that the number of young people 
sentenced for offences and crimes in 
Prussia had increased from 30,719 in 
1882 to 54,949 in 1912, and was still 
rising year by year. But such statistics 
are of no value unless we know what 
changes have taken place in the law 
and in the practice of police courts. As 
was mentioned in the Survey for 
March 17, social workers in Germany 
are sufficiently impressed with the seri- 




Standards of Service 



In rural communities clusters 
of mail delivery boxes at the 
crossroads evidence Uncle 
Sam's postal service. Here the 
neighbors trudge from their 
homes — perhaps a few yards, 
perhaps a quarter mile or so — 
for their mail. 

Comprehensive as is the 
government postal system, still 
the service rendered by its mail 
carriers is necessarily restricted, 
as the country dweller knows. 

Long before rural delivery 
was established the Bell System 
began to link up the farmhouse 
with the neighboring towns and 



villages. One-fourth of the 
10,000,000 telephones in the 
Bell System are rural. They 
reach more places than there 
are post offices. Along the 
highways and private lanes the 
telephone poles lead straight up 
to the farmer's door. 

He need not stir from the 
cheerful hearth ablaze in winter, 
nor grope along dark roads at 
night for friendly news or aid 
in time of trouble. Right in the 
heart of his home is his tele- 
phone. It is the American 
farmer's key to the outside 
world, and in no other country 
is it found. 




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THE GROWTH OF A CREED 

An anti-theistic pamphlet 

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Price, prepaid, 5c. 



A Red Cross Training Course for Emergency 
Social Service — to prepare volunteer workers for 
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105 East 22 street, New York city. 



26 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



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ousness of the increase in juvenile crime 
since the beginning of the war to give 
their attention to special measures for 
mitigating the influences which make 
for it. It was largely due to their urgent 
protest against the spread of the gospel 
of hate through the schools that the 
Prussian ministerium was moved to issue 
the decree quoted above. 

If anyone would like to know why 
war should have this effect in Germany 
to so much greater an extent than in 
the allied countries he will find the ex- 
planation in abundance in a typical file 
of newspapers. At all times the bitter- 
ness of German partisan literature, of 
internal as well as external polemics, 
even of caricature, has been unequaled. 
During the war the seed of hatred has 
been sown even more broadcast on an 
even more responsive soil, and an un- 
expected and unwelcome crop was the 
result. 

VINDICATION FOR A CIVIC 
REFORMER 

THE Intermediate Court of Kana- 
wha county, West Virginia, has dis- 
missed the indictments brought in 
March, 1915, against A. Leo Weil. The 
case attracted widespread attention at 
the outset because of Mr. Weil's civic 
record in Pittsburgh, where as president 
of the Voters' League he was instrumen- 
tal in running down graft in the old 
Pittsburgh councils, leading to whole- 
sale confessions, indictments and prison 
sentences for men prominent both in 
municipal politics and in local banks. 
Political influence or wealth were no 
protection against his rigorous prosecu- 
tions. 

In the West Virginia case Mr. Weil, 
who had been acting as counsel for 
the Manufacturers' Light and Heat 
Company, was taken off the train at 
midnight, and the original sensational 
report of the arrest said that he was 
"charged with an attempt to bribe two 
of the public service commissioners of 
West Virginia." The actual- charge 
was that he authorized a statement to 
these commissioners that if they were 
called as witnesses in a suit pending in 
the United States District Court, and 
would testify to the truth as to the al- 
leged interference by the governor with 
the commission in its consideration of 
the case of his client, other positions 
would be obtained for them if the gov- 
ernor removed them. 

Mr. Weil emphatically denied that he 
authorized these proposals, much less 
an offer of bribery. But for two years 
he has been fighting for his liberty and 
to clear his name in a situation in which 
a person with less means, less knowledge 
of the law and of detective methods, 
would have been not only railroaded 
to jail overnight, but under an anti- 
quated West Virginia law kept there 



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I hygiene! 

IN 

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A Study of Sanitary and 
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An investigation by the Ex- 1 

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At all Booksellers 

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Have You This Book? 

The Word of theTruth 

The Divine Directions how to make 
life happy here, and joyful forever. 
The final answer to every question 
about Life and Destiny. 

A simple arrangement, in immedi- 
ately intelligible order, of the whole 
Will of God as declared in the New 
Testament; a concise statement of 
the whole Truth; the requirements 
of Faith; the way of Salvation; the 
conditions of Peace; — all presented 
in the easy, obvious original sense. 

Ample notes. Every-day English 
No denominational bias. No "new 
religion." Not any one's opinion, 
but, What God has said. 
A Popular Hand-book of Vital Truth 

Send a One Dollar bill with your address to 

The Truth Publishing Foundation - - Eufaula, Ala. 

Today ? 

SITUATIONS WANTED 



A WOMAN, formerly executive head of 
an organization, lecturer of ability, unusual 
experience (including work for and with 
boys), is available for Civic, Social Service 
or Philanthropic position. Address 2489 
Survey. 

CAMP DIRECTOR, also expert physical 
training instructor, seeks position where 
executive ability and knowledge are es- 
sential. Address 2490, Survey. 

HELP WANTED 

WANTED, in small social settlement, 
New York City, resident who will give 
part time service in return for board. Pos- 
sibility of her being retained as summer 
worker with salary. Address 2491 Survey. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



27 



pending trial, so as to seriously handi- 
cap him in fighting the forces arrayed 
against him. At one end was a political 
group which drew its strength from the 
feudal mountain counties of West Vir- 
ginia, where revenge is an active polit- 
ical motive and the ruthless use of courts 
and state departments for political ends 
is but a projection on a state scale of 
the bad blood and shooting by which 
some men get their way in the back 
country. At the other end of the scale 
were detectives identified with some of 
the most glaring examples of partnership 
between the police and the under- 
world in the middle West. The com- 
bination met its match in the civic re- 
former-attorney; but about two of the 
best years of his life have been absorbed 
in fighting the case. 

Late in February, T. C. Townsend, 
former prosecuting attorney, who orig- 
inally brought the charges, appeared be- 
fore the Intermediate Court of Kana- 
wha county and stated that investigation 
and recent developments had satisfied 
him "that there was not sufficient evi- 
dence to justify the state in bringing 
Mr. Weil to trial" ; while his successor, 
the present prosecuting attorney, fol- 
lowed with the statement that "no of- 
fense in fact had been committed. That 
if trial and conviction were to be based 
alone upon statements of such witnesses 
as one Guy Biddinger, upon whose evi- 
dence the state's case was predicated, and 
who is now under numerous indictments 
in the state of Illinois, Kanawha county 
for the next four years would have a 
minimum of criminal court work." 

THE LURE OF THE NORTH 
FOR NEGROES 

PHILADELPHIA'S Negro popula- 
tion, some 150,000 for the city and 
its environs by the last census, is growing 
at a pace and in a way that is little 
short of a folk migration. 

High wages have drawn to the city 
practically every Negro from one town 
in North Carolina; whole church con- 
gregations, headed by their pastors, from 
Virginia; a special train, with two en- 
gines, from southwestern Georgia. Of 
12,000 men brought up since July 1, 
1916, by the Pennsylvania railroad for 
work on its lines, only 2,500 are still 
with the company. The others are be- 
lieved to have drifted to Philadelphia 
and other large cities. 

To help adjust these immigrants to 
their new city environment, a commit- 
tee has been appointed as a result of a 
conference on migration called by the 
Philadelphia Round Table Conference 
for Work Among Colored People, at- 
tended by some 150 social workers, both 
colored and white. John Ihlder, of the 
Philadelphia Housing Association, is 
chairman of the committee, and John 
T. Emlen, of the Armstrong Association, 




Lingerie 
and Corsets 




■ at 




Reg. Trade Mark = 



Fine Lingerie of foreign and domestic manufac- 
ture for Spring and Summer wear is now on 
display at McCutcheon's in very full assort- 
ment. Included in the collection are some 
very attractive goods of Philippine make which 
are worthy of inspection. 

Gowns, $2.95, 3.25, 3.75, 4.85. 

French Chemises, 95c, #1.35, 1.50, 

i-75- 

Envelope Chemises, with Ribbon 

Straps, $1.75. 

Drawers, hand - embroidered, $1.00, 
1.75, 2.00. 

Corsets, new and- distinctive Spring models in 
both Gossard lace-in-front and Felicita back- 
lace. Made in the new fabrics — fine Batistes, 
Broches and Silk Brocades, both Flesh and 
White. 

Brassieres — A variety of handsome Cluny and 
Filet Laces combined with fine Linen, Silk and 
Nets from #1.25 to 13.50. Also a complete line 
of plain Bust Supporters, 50c to $4.50. 

Orders by Mail Given Special Attention 

James McCutcheon & Co. 

Fifth Avenue, 34th & 33d Streets, N. Y. 




MONROE, LOUISIANA, wants a 
trained Probation Officer immediately. 
State qualifications and salary expected. 
JUVENILE PROTECTIVE ASSOCIA- 
TION. 

FOR SALE OR FOR RENT 



RESIDENCE of Mrs. K. M. Stuart, 
Janesville, Wisconsin. 21 rooms. V\ 
acre, trees and shrubs. Elevation 120 
feet above center of city. Suitable for 
orphanage. Picture of home and par- 
ticulars sent upon application. Address, 
2492, Survey. 



DAY NURSERY CONFERENCE — 
Thursday, April 12 — Russell Sage Founda- 
tion. Morning session, 10:30 a. m.-12:30 
p. m.; addresses by Dr. S. J. Baker, Mrs. 
Arthur M. Dodge, Mr. Abraham Oseroff 
and other prominent authorities. After- 
noon session, 2 p. m.; two Round Tables: 
(1) Problems concerning governing bodies 
of day nurseries ; (2) Problems concern- 
ing superintendents and workers. 



BULLETINS: 



" Five-Cent Meals," 10c; "hood 
Values." I Oc; " Free-Hand Cook- 
ing." 10c; "The Up-To-Date Home, Labor Saving Ap- 
pliances," 15c; "The Profession of Home-Making, 
Home Study, Domestic Science Courses. 100 pp. free, 
American School of Home Economics. S19 We»t 69th St.Cbicaio 



28 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 




INVESTMENT SECURITIES 



The Survey accepts only the advertisements of reliable banking firms, brokers, 
trust companies, savings banks and other financial institutions. 



Corn Belt Farm Loans 

offered and recommended by The Merchants Loan 
and Trust Company — the Oldest Bank in Chicago. 

These loans are all secured by First Mortgages on 
improved farms of established value in the Corn Belt — the 
safest farm loan section in the United States. They are 
made only after thorough and exhaustive personal inves- 
tigation and never for more than one -half the value of 
the land alone. 

No investor purchasing these mortgages has ever failed 
to receive principal and interest when due. 

These loans are sold to net from 4^% to 5°fo. 

A detailed list and description of loans aggregating 
any amount you state, will be sent upon request. 

Our service includes the examination and 
approval of title by the Bank's own attorneys, an 
inspection of the property by our own salaried exam- 
iner, the certification that all taxes are paid as they 
mature, the collection and remittance of interest and 
principal, and the facilities for renewal or substitu- 
tion of mortgages at current rates, all without charge 
to the investor. 




Hrust 
Company 



FARM LOAN DEPARTMENT 

F. W. THOMPSON. Vice-President (in Charge) 
112 West Adams Street, Chicago 






XC 



Qvpital and "Surplus -Ten'Million Dolla&sJ 



-^ ^'11^5 



Diversified Investments 
For Your Present Funds 

Successful, experienced investors agree that for utmost safety it is advis- 
able to select investments secured by properties of varied character and 
location. 

We have an exceptionally broad list of diversified 5J4% and 6% securities 
in denominations of $100, $500 and $1,000 suitable to the most exacting require- 
ments. We offer and recommend for your present funds four bond issues 
secured by these different classes of property: 

Established Industrial Property — Company's earnings largely in ex- 
cess of principal and interest requirements. 

Farm Land — Well located and under profitable cultivation. 

Improved Chicago Real Estate — Large value, ample earnings and 

strong ownership. 

Natural Resources — Power plant in successful operation. Substantial 

cash investment behind the bonds. 
All these recommendations are based on long experience, complete in- 
vestigation by our experts and outright purchase. Write for circular No. 
9820-A, giving details. 



Peabody, Houghteling & Co. 



(Established 1865) 10 South La Salle Street 



CHICAGO 



secretary. There are sub-committees on 
receiving immigrants, education, housing 
and sanitation, employment, recreation, 
courts, relief and churches. City de- 
partments and philanthropic agencies are 
cooperating. 

The committee has found that many 
families are coming; of 2,500 arriving 
in Coatesville, near Philadelphia, about 
2,000 were men, the remainder women 
and children. They are not poor, for, 
besides the good wages for men and the 
eager openings in domestic service for 
women, many have brought with them 
sums ranging from $50 to $1,500 real- 
ized from selling their homes in the 
South. They wish to buy new homes 
in Philadelphia, but few are available 
for either purchase or rent. Real estate 
agents discourage their going into white 
neighborhoods and, on the other hand, 
the Negroes from small towns are not 
anxious to buy the regulation Philadel- 
phia row-houses or houses in alleys and 
courts. 

Resultant overcrowding, particularly 
in the lodging houses, has left women 
and children stranded in railroad sta- 
tions over night and has reached the 
stage of a public health problem. An 
increase in pneumonia is already evident, 
as it was in Newark [the Survey for 
February 17] among southern folk, in 
southern clothes, suddenly plunged into 
a northern winter. 

The schools are having difficulties 
with the children, partly because poor 
schools, held only a few months of the 
year, have retarded the youngsters so 
that big children from the South must 
go in to classes with much smaller Phila- 
delphia children. 

ONE POINT WHERE CALIFOR- 
NIA LAGS BEHIND 

NEWSBOYS and newspapers may 
complain, but the street trades 
amendment (Senate bill No. 101) to the 
California child labor law bids fair to 
be enacted. The proposed measure pro- 
hibits boys under fourteen and girls un- 
der eighteen years of age from engaging 
in street occupations in large cities. It 
permits, however, boys between fourteen 
and fifteen to work in cities of 23,000 
population and over outside of school 
hours between 5 a. m and 8 p. M. pro- 
vided a badge is secured annually from 
the superintendent of schools. The pur- 
chaser of a newspaper will thus be as- 
sured that the wearer of a badge is at 
least fourteen years old, that he is phys- 
ically able to work and has fulfilled 
certain educational requirements. 

The opposition is using the argument, 
time-worn in the East, that such a law 
would take the bread from the mouths 
of the widow and orphan. At a mass 
meeting of the boys, resolutions were 
passed denouncing the bill as interfering 
with parental authority, restricting a 
boy's pursuit of honest toil and encour- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



29 



aging "habits of idleness which lead to 
begging or worse," and as depriving 
boys of opportunities to contribute to the 
family support and to become self-sup- 
porting. 

In refutation of such statements the 
National Child Labor Committee, which 
is supporting the act, quotes from re- 
cent investigations of street trades made 
in several states. 

A Connecticut report on the subject 
shows that of the whole number of 
newsboys (74) from whom information 
was secured, only three were fatherless 
(two of these began before their fathers 
died) and two were motherless. Most 
of the boys said, according to this re- 
port, that they started selling through 
seeing some other boys sell. Not one 
said his parents sent him out. 

The twenty-fourth annual report of 
the Bureau of Statistics and Informa- 
tion of Maryland corroborates this testi- 
mony. It found that 1,776 newsboys, 
or 80 per cent of the total number in- 
vestigated, came from families with fos- 
ter parents living, while 345, or 15 per 
cent, represented families with the 
breadwinner dead or away or not con- 
tributing. Not one newsboy stood as 
the sole individual of earning capacity 
within the family. 

And again the sixth annual report of 
the Board of Public Welfare of Kansas 
City gives figures showing how paltry 
are the earnings of the average newsboy 
in that city. "Allowing for tips, 60 per 
cent of the 317 boys took in during the 
school days less than 26 cents, and 46 
per cent took in less than 21 cents. The 
suggestion that the newsboys would be 
deprived of a very important part of 
their support is not sustained by the 
facts obtained during this investigation." 

The proposed amendment in Califor- 
nia is supported by the Juvenile Protec- 
tive Association of San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia State Federation of Labor, Civic 
Section California Club (San Francis- 
co), Public Welfare Commission of the 
County of Los Angeles, Child's Welfare 
League of Almeda, many of the social 
organizations and a score of prominent 
women's clubs. These bodies are en- 
deavoring to have the bill amended so 
that the requirement of a badge shall 
apply to boys between fourteen and six- 
teen instead of fourteen and fifteen. 

SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS AND 
THE WAR 

WRITING as president of the Na- 
tional Federation of Settlements, 
"representing 170 settlements through- 
out the country, with a very large con- 
stituency of neighbors and co-workers 
with whom they are associated," Mary 
K. Simkhovitch, head resident of Green- 
wich House, New York city, stated her 
position with regard to the entrance of 
this country into the European war in 
a letter to the New York Evening Post. 




"Life Insurance 
Without Agents 
is a Distinct 

Public Service" 

■■■ 

Postal Life Methods Sanc- 
tioned by the United 
States Supreme Court 

Timely Talk on a Vital Subject 



(Scene: Pullman Smoking Com- 
partment. Judge Kirkland and 
Lawyer Roberts continuing a 
conversation begun at dinner.) 

Judge: "Well, this business of 
selling direct-by-mail through- 
out the country is surely very 
popular with the public." 

Lawyer: "Yes, but some of my 
clients say that in the interest 
of local merchants the States 
ought to find some way to 
check it." 

Judge: "I don't see why they 
should check it or how they 
can do it. Selling merchandise 
is an interstate business. I 
can sell and you can buy in. 
the best market wherever it is. 
What can any State do about 
it?" 

Lawyer: "You're probably right, 
I'll admit. The States can't 
very well put the 'kibosh' on 
legitimate interstate business." 

Judge: "Certainly no.t. The 
States cannot hold up arbi- 
trarily any direct-by-mail trans- 
action, such as the payment of 
life-insurance premiums by 
mail." 

Lawyer: "How's that?" 

Judge: "Policies are written for 
people, 'direct,' all over the 
country, and have been for 
years. The United States 
Supreme Court has decided 
unanimously that life-insurance 
premiums on such policies are 
exempt from State taxes. The 
usual license-fees and charges 
also do not apply. All this 
helps policyholders." 

Lawyer: "Oh, you refer to the 
Postal Life?" 



Judge: "Yes, that Company 
hasn't any agents and never 
has had. The applicant deals 
direct, personally or by letter. 
The method is good common 
sense as well as sanctioned by 
law." 

Lawyer (laughing): "Guess 
you're right. I wrote the Pos- 
tal once myself just to find 




out how the Company did 
business, but never followed it 
up." 

Judge (laughing) : "I go you one 
better; I not only wrote them, 
but took out a policy nine or 
ten years ago and have car- 
ried it ever since." 

Lawyer: "How's the cost?" 
Judge: "Lower than in other 
companies for the same kind 
of insurance — legal reserve — 
and besides that they give me 
a free medical examination 
each year just so I can keep 
in trim." 

Lawyer: "That's pretty good. 
You live in Idaho and deal 
with a New York company 
by mail. Did you ever look 
the Company up?" 

Judge: "Only to know that it is 
chartered and licensed by New 
York State, whose laws are 
very strict, but I called on 
them when I was East last 
year. They're now in their new 
building on Fifth Avenue." 

Lawyer: "So I heard. Believe 
I'll write them to figure on a 
policy for me." 

Judge: "Don't think you could 
do better. Life insurance 
without agents is a distinct 
public service. The point is 
made, and I think it is a good 
one, that the Company is sub- 
ject to the United States Pos- 
tal Authorities. The Postal 
simplifies the business, saves 
you money, safeguards your 
health and will treat you right 
in every way. I'd take an- 
other policy myself if I hadn't 
passed the age limit." 



That tells the story. Thoughtful insurers like Judge Kirkland 
take policies with the Postal and not only hold on to them 
but are disposed to take new insurance, while those like lawyer 
Roberts, who | at first write out of curiosity, at last find they 
can save^money by taking a Postal Policy, and they do it. 

Find Out What 
You Can Save 

You should take advantage of Postal benefits and economies. Call at the 
Company's office or simply write and say: 

"Mail insurance particulars as mentioned in The Survey for April 7th." 
In your letter be sure to give: 

1. ^YourTfulI name. 2. Your occupation 

3. The exact date of your birth 

You will receive full information based on official reports regularly filed 
with the New York State Insurance Department. Writing places you under 
no obligations and no agent will be sent to visit you. The resultant com- 
mission-savings go to you because you deal direct. 

POSTAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY 

WM. R. MALONE, President 
511 FifthJA venue, Corner 43rd Street, New York 




New Postal Life Building 



30 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



Recreation Equipment 

Playground and social center directors and leaders, park commissioners and superintendents, civic 
improvement committees, managers and trustees of childrens' institutions, social settlement work- 
ers, and manufacturers interested in employees' welfare will find this directory convenient and 
helpful when planning and ordering recreation equipment. 



ty/leck^€$^^ 



THE SPIRAL SLIDE is another recent Medart innovation. 
This winding slide caters to the "something new" longing which 
dominates every child heart. The easy spiral gives a winding 
sensation and the descent is extended over a longer route. 

THE SPIRAL SLIDE is listed in our catalog "W" in a 
variety of styles and sizes. This catalog covers other new 
Medart creations in Playground Equipment. 

All of our new inventions have been thoroughly tested and 
approved by leading authorities in this work. Medart reputation 
prohibits market- 
ing any untried 
piece of apparatus. 



Write for 
Catalog "W" 




nO 



Fred Medart Mfg. Co. 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Gymnasium Outfitters 
Steel Lockers 



L 




Patented 




Books on Physical Training and Games 

By WILLIAM A. STECHER, B. S. G. 

Director of Physical Education Public Schools of Philadelphia, Pa. 

The Theory and Practice of Educational Gymnastics 

S?o, Cloth (6x9 in.), 194 Pages, with 174 Illustrations. Net $1.50 

GAMES AND DANCES 

A selected collection of Games, Song-Games and Dances suitable for Schools, Playgrounds, Gym- 
nastic Associations, Boys' and Girls' Clubs, etc. 8vo, cloth. 2nd revised edition. Price[net,'$1.50 

A GUIDE TO TRACK and FIELD WORK, CONTESTS and KINDRED ACTIVITIES 

8vo, 48 Pages, Illustrated, Paper; Net 50 cents 

JOHN JOS. McVEY, PUBLISHER, 1229 ARCH ST., PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



To thill's Playground 
Apparatus 

Brightens the Mind 
Develops the Body 




Send for 
Catalogue 



W. S.TOTHILL, Pioneer Manufacturer 
1811 Webster Ave., Chicago, Ills. 



PALDING PLAY APPARATUS 



■Of Quality Unexcelled — 



s 

^ W Catalog Sent on Request 

A. G. Spalding & Bros., Inc., 




BUY YOUR BOOKS 

from 

THE BOOK DEPARTMENT 
of 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

We specialize in books on social, civic and 

economic subjects, but we handle 

all current publications 



" . . .As the months since the war 
began have marched by, to many of us 
has come more and more poignantly the 
conviction that American democracy is 
not secure or honorable unless it is con- 
sciously bound up with the fate of 
world-democracy. 

"But though democracy in many ways 
seemed championed by the allies, yet im- 
purity of motive, and action anything 
but democratic, so sullied the situation 
on both sides, that it was by no means 
clear to many of us that the world's fate 
demanded positive and national action 
on our part. 

"The Russian revolution, following 
the increased ruthlessness of Germany, 
resolved that doubt, and made it possi- 
ble, and, yes, imperative, for many of 
us to hesitate no longer. America for 
the world rather than America first is 
our motto. And in the interest of a 
democratic world America cannot hold 
aloof. Not for aggression, and not even 
for defence, but for world democracy, 
is America justified at this hour no 
longer to stand apart, but rather to die 
that the world may live. . . . 

"It is not in the districts where the 
settlements are situated that disloyalty 
is shown. And let us see to it that the 
burden of the war does not fall too 
heavily on those least able to bear it. 
Workers in industry and agriculture 
must not be decimated for a still un- 
estimated military need ; or rather, they 
are the very props on which such need 
must rest. 

"Artemus Ward was willing to sac- 
rifice his wife's relations on the altar of 
his country. But we must see that con- 
temporaneous Artemus Wards do not 
sacrifice the property and income of their 
wife's relations on the altar of their 
country, rather than their own. The 
settlements therefore desire to express 
their conviction that to break down the 
standard of living of the workers and to 
neglect the social safeguards which sur- 
round the youth of our cities would re- 
sult in neglecting a most vital element 
in national service. 

"In the first year of the war the settle- 
ments in Canada gave up their regular 
work of community organization and 
neighborly social service for what 
seemed more immediate. But now they 
have gone back to their neighborhood 
tasks as the most important patriotic 
service they can render. 

"The settlements offer themselves to 
the nation at this crisis in the hope for, 
and the belief in, a democratic world. 
They will seek in their own neighbor- 
hoods to bring about in war time, as they 
have continuously sought for twenty-five 
years in peace, cooperation, fellowship 
and common loyalty among all their 
neighbors of whatever race or creed. For 
Americanization can never be effective 
if it does not take place through the close 
personal fellowship arising from daily 
association." 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 



7, I9H 



31 



TO 



o: 



PROTECT AMERICAN 
IDEALS 

iURS is a democracy. It would 

_'not be worth our while going into 
the conflict if, when we come out of it, 
we do not still have a democracy." 

In these words, William B. Wilson, 
secretary of Labor, put in a sentence the 
thought that was in the mind of nearly 
everyone at a meeting of the committee 
on labor of the Council of National De- 
fense which met last Monday at the 
headquarters of the American Federation 
of Labor in Washington. The com- 
mittee, consisting of about 150 labor 
men, employers, health experts and stu- 
dents of labor questions, was appointed 
by Samuel Gompers, who is a member 
of the advisory commission of the Coun- 
cil of National Defense. 

The entire day and the evening were 
spent in discussing how national effi- 
ciency could be promoted, the welfare 
of workers conserved and the principles 
of democracy left intact. The senti- 
ment most earnestly expressed was that 
we are setting out not just to win a war, 
but to win a war for justice ; hence there 
must be no weakening of adherence to 
fundamental American principles of 
liberty. 

"I love the United States not because 
it has that name," said Samuel Gom- 
pers. "It is the ideals for which our 
country stands that makes it dear to us. 
That is what makes it worth fighting 
for. If those ideals were to change we 
would not care to fight for it." 

There was a strong tendency to op- 
pose the idea that has already found ex- 
pression, that hours of labor should be 
extended indefinitely and other standards 
broken down. Prof. Felix Frankfurter, 
of the Harvard Law School, offered a 
motion requesting the Council of Na- 
tional Defense to urge the various state 
legislatures not to break down standards, 
as has been recently proposed in New 
York, except on recommendation of the 
council. This resolution was referred to 
the executive committee which is to or- 
ganize the work of the general com- 
mittee. 

It is proposed that sub-committees be 
appointed as follows: education, sanita- 
tion, housing, recreation, equalization 
and conciliation, wages and hours, 
standards, fatigue and physical welfare, 
publicity. 

Frederick L. Hoffman suggested that 
there should be a committee on statistics 
and information, and one on health. 
Professor Frankfurter urged the crea- 
tion of a body similar to the English 
Committee on the Health of Munition 
Workers. These suggestions and oth- 
ers are to be considered by the execu- 
tive committee and a program of action 
is to be presented at the next meeting of 
the general committee which was ad- 
journed subject to the call of the chair- 
man. 



Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy 

1917 SUMMER SESSION, JUNE 20-JULY 27 

General Course for Social Workers 

Four Credit Courses: First Year— Methods in Social Work; Social Economics. 
Second Year — Principles of Case Work; Municipal Problems. 
Field Work with one of the social agencies of Chicago. 
Visits of Inspection to the important social institutions in or near 
Chicago. 
Open Lecture Course — Social Agencies in a Modern City. 

Special Course for Playground Workers 

Folk Dancing, Gymnastics, Games, Story-telling, and other technical 
classes held at Hull-House 



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Summer Institutes 

Round table conferences for intensive study of practical social problems. 
Membership is by invitation of the conductor. 

INSTITUTE FOR TUBERCULOSIS WORKERS 
May 14— June 2 

PHILIP P. JACOBS. Conductor 

INSTITUTE IN CHILD WELFARE 
June 13 — July 3 

HENRY W. THURSTON, Conductor 

INSTITUTE IN FAMILY WELFARE 
June 13 — July 3 

PORTER R. LEE, Conductor 
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UNEXPECTED demand has exhausted our supply of the Survey for March 17. If 
those who do not bind their issues will return this one to us, it will help to complete 
library files and to supply Canadians with the first article in thd series on the Patriotic 
Fund. 

The Survey, 112 East 19 Street, New York 



32 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 7, 1917 



Home and Institutional Economics 

FOR OUR READERS INTERESTED IN HOME ECONOMICS, 
HOME MAKING AND INSTITUTION MANAGEMENT. 



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April 14, 1917 



CONTENTS for APRIL 14, 1917 The GIST of IT 



Volume XXXVIII, No. 2 
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

The Law of the Land. Minimum Wages for Women and Shorter 

Hours for Men - ....33 

Standardizing War Relief ------ winthrop D. lane 34 

Tools as Well as Guns ------- arthur d. dean 35 

SUBJECT INDEX 



I NDUSTRY 

Minimum Wage and Shorter Hours 

Laws Upheld 33 

Working Boys for Military Training 35 
Efforts to Retain Labor Standards 

during War 37 

Unions in the Colorado Coal Mines. . 40 
Labor Groups Watching Sanitary 

Standards 41 

What It Means to Be a White Wing 42 
Warnings Against Child Labor in 

Wartime 44 

INTERNATIONAL 

Why Men Fight — a book review.... 45 

HEALTH 

Pooling Medicines and Bandages... 34 

Keeping Up Health Standards Dur- 
ing War 37 

A Division of Industrial Hygiene 
Among Employes 41 

Death and Disease Among Street- 
cleaners 42 

Hospitals for War Horses 43 



EDUCATION 

Mixing Military and Vocational 
Training 35 

Demand for Undiminished Compul- 
sory Education 44 

Boston's Tangled School System 44 

CIVICS AND RECREATION 

Appointments Under Illinois Civil 

Code 40 

Minneapolis Housing Law 41 

Reform Laws in Arkansas 42 

Votes for Women in Russia 43 

LIVELIHOOD 

Feeding the Nation During War. ... 38 

Prohibition for Preparedness 38 

Training Soldiers of the Plow 39 

Old Age and Dependency in Massa- 
chusetts 44 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, President 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Secretary FRANK TUCKER, Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICJS 

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PRICE 

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is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1917, by Survey Associates, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act 
of March 3, 1879. 



WAR AND CHILDREN 

SOCIAL work and social workers have ahead of them a tremendous task 
in seeing to it that the pressing heeds of war do not break down stand- 
ards and sacrifice the social point of view. A statement of it, in definite 
terms, for the field of child welfare, has been made by Julia C. Lathrop, chief 
of the Federal Children's Bureau, for 

An Early Issue of the Survey 



WAR has been declared and we are rushing 
to prepare. The Council of National De- 
fense believes that protective labor laws 
should not be broken down except upon its 
own recommendation. The National Con- 
sumers' League believes they should not be 
lowered for any cause— real preparedness 
means enforcing them to the letter. Page 37. 

PREPAREDNESS includes prohibition, says 
Mrs. Tilton, and calls upon the dry gov- 
ernors to support her. Page 38. 

HOOVER, of Belgium, may be called on to 
take charge of our food supply and cut out 
the slip 'twixt the farm and the lip. Nothing 
short of government control, it is believed in 
Washington, will keep American stomachs 
filled. Page 38. 



FARM LABOR is where the present shortage 
is felt. The University of Illinois has a plan 
for sending recruited men to the farmers for 
work under orders in the fields just as they 
are sent to military camps for drill. Page 39. 

OREGON'S radical minimum wage law for 
women and its ten-hour law for men were 
both upheld by the federal Supreme Court on 
Monday — a thumping day's work. The de- 
cisions on these two laws, the Adamson eight- 
hour law for railroad men, the Webb-Ken- 
yon prohibition law and the Mann white 
slave law, all since January 9, give social 
legislation for 1917 a white stone the size 
of Gibraltar. Page 33. 



EVERY STEP in the giving, collecting, pack- 
ing, shipping and delivering of medical sup- 
piles and of comforts for the troops has been 
organized by the Red Cross. The plan is 
devised to handle them with a smooth effi- 
ciency like that which picks up odd bits of 
metal on a m&ving platform and suddenly 
delivers a honking Ford car to the smiling 
purchaser. Page 34. 



■VOCATIONAL training may get a great 
boost from the military training law for 
school boys in New York state. Office boys 
and messengers and the kids in "dead end" 
trades will have to tote guns, but mechanics- 
in-the-making may serve the state with the 
tools of their trades. Page 35. 



BUSINESS men have been put in charge of 
the reorganized state service of Illinois under 
the new civil code. Charles H. Thorne en- 
lists as commissioner of public welfare, in 
charge of all the charitable and correctional 
institutions, as "a welcome opportunity to do 
my bit for my country." Page 40. 



THE United Mine Workers have signed up 
with their bitterest opponent in the late Colo- 
rado coal strike — the Victor-American Fuel 
Company. Page 40. 



MINNEAPOLIS has a new housing code, 
secured through the cooperation of housing 
reformers and real estate men, that may 
make it a model city. Page 41. 



UNION printers and the Department of 
Health have joined forces for a health cam- 
paign in New York city. Page 41. 



EIGHTY per cent of the New York "white 
wings" — the street cleaners — are disabled 
every year by sickness, losing an average of 
a week each. Page 42. 



ARKANSAS went bone dry, gave votes to 
women — a nick in the solid South — ap- 
pointed a State Charities Commission and 
improved its education laws at the recent 
session of the legislature. Page 42. 



""«**»*» 




4\ \ \> 




The Law of the Land 

Minimum Wages for Women and Shorter Hours for Men 



TWO decisions of greatest national importance were 
announced by the Supreme Court of the United States 
on April 9. The text is not yet at hand, but it is 
possible nevertheless to some extent to gauge their 
significance. 

One ended the long suspense over the status of minimum 
wage laws by upholding the constitutionality of the compul- 
sory Oregon law, giving the Welfare Commission power to 
fix minimum wages for women. 

The other gave a new aspect to the power of state legisla- 
tures to regulate hours of labor for adult men, a power that 
has been exceedingly questionable since the Supreme Court 
twelve years ago, in the famous case of Lochner vs. New York, 
declared unconstitutional a law limiting the working day of 
bakers in New York to ten hours. 

The hours-of-labor case came before the court in the form 
of an Oregon law which limits the working hours of male 
employes in "mills, factories and manufacturing establish- 
ments" to ten hours in each twenty-four. This is a more 
sweeping provision than any other legislation of similar char- 
acter that has ever come before the court. An eight-hour law 
for miners has been upheld because the court believed mining 
to be an unhealthful occupation. A sixteen-hour law apply- 
ing to men in railway train service has been held to be valid 
because such a limitation has a direct relation to public safety. 
But the ten-hour law for bakers, in the opinion of the court 
as constituted in 1905, had neither of these merits, and there- 
fore was void, as an unwarranted interference with freedom 
of contract. 

That the court should now uphold a general ten-hour law 
is evidence of a significant change in judicial opinion. The 
Oregon law covers trades in general, regardless of special 
hazard either to f he public or to the employes. It cover- even 
bake-shops, which twelve years ago. the court said specifically 
no legislature had the power to do. 

The effect of this decision, whatever the grounds on which 
it is based, must be to encourage the enactment of laws regu- 
lating hours for men, as well as women and children, wherever 
such regulation seems socially desirable. 

The decision in the minimum wage case will be felt imme- 
diately in ten states where minimum wage laws for women 
have been enacted, but where watchful waiting for the attitude 
of the Supreme Court has hindered efficient enforcement. It 
will also stimulate legislation insuring the minima of decent 



living for workers in those states which have hesitated to adopt 
minimum wage legislation while a test case was pending. 
Finally it places a broader interpretation upon the police power 
of the state than has ever been admitted before. 

By its act the Supreme Court concedes that the state should 
interfere not only with long hours and injurious conditions 
of labor because public health is affected, but with wage 
payments. When Louis D. Brandeis appeared before the 
Supreme Court in December, 1914, as attorney for the de- 
fense, he based his argument on the cost to the state of under- 
paid, under-nourished workers. This cost he reckoned up 
with the aid of Josephine Goldmark of the National Con- 
sumers' League in an 800-page brief presenting conditions 
found in Oregon among working women by the Industrial 
Welfare Commission and confirmed by investigations in vari- 
ous states. 

No decision was rendered at that time and on account of 
the reconstruction of the Supreme Court the case was ordered 
reopened in January, 1917. Mr. Brandeis, who had mean- 
time been appointed as a member of the court, could not par- 
take in the argument or sit in the case. But Felix Frank- 
furter, counsel of the National Consumers' League, who made 
the oral argument for the state of Oregon, again stressed the 
fact that the "grave consequences to the public health [of low 
wages], the general lowering of standards, the resultant drain 
on the taxing resources of the government gave indubitable 
grounds for state action." In a new brief, compiled by Miss 
Goldmark, the world experience supporting these assertions 
was brought down to date. This brief is the latest in a list 
of fifteen prepared by the National Consumers' League, 
which since 1908 have played a successful part in upholding 
the constitutionality of labor laws in state and federal courts 
of last resort. 

In upholding the law four justices decided in favor, four 
voted in the negative and Mr. Justice Brandeis was disquali- 
fied from voting. Under the rules of the court no opinion was 
rendered, as there was no majority ; it is simply announced 
that the decision of the Oregon Supreme Court in this case 
is sustained. 

At a time when attempts are being made to break down 
working standards, at a time when industrial strain will be 
tense and at a time when the cost of living mounts up each 
day — these two decisions of the Supreme Court stand as 
bulwarks. 

33 



Standardizing War Relief 

The Red Cross Plans for Reducing Misery 
By JVinthrop D. Lane 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



JUST as skilled surgeons, eager to dress the wounds of 
men hurt in battle, are of little use away from the bed- 
sides of their patients, so medical supplies, though high- 
ly desirable, are of no avail unless at hand when 
wanted. Money, comforts, dressings — gifts and supplies of 
all kinds — are necessary for the relief and convalescence of men 
in the army and navy, but they are of about as much value 
as good intentions unless they can be conveyed promptly and 
in adequate quantities to the people for whom they are 
meant. 

On the basis of these simple truths, the American Red Cross 
has just organized to render a new service. This step will 
constitute, perhaps, one of the most important efforts made 
in this country for the prevention of undue misery in war 
since the reorganization of the Red Cross sixteen months ago, 
when the departments of military and civilian relief were made 
distinct and base hospitals, hospital units, emergency nursing 
corps and other devices were begun to be organized by the 
military department. 

The executive committee of the Red Cross created within 
the Department of Military Relief on March 21 the bureau 
of Red Cross Supply Service. Plans for the organization of 
this bureau had already been drawn up by W. Frank Persons, 
director of general work of the New York Charity Organiza- 
tion Society, who was loaned to the Red Cross two months 
ago. Mr. Persons becomes the first director of the new 
bureau, with headquarters in Washington, and Thomas W. 
Farnam, vice-president of the New Haven Bank, of New- 
Haven, Conn., becomes associate director. Branches will be 
established in the principal cities of the United States. Men 
of national reputation have volunteered to aid in the work 
during the present war. 

Objects of New Service 

The supply and movements of surgeons, nurses and other 
personnel have been organized by the devices mentioned above. 
The new bureau has to do only with supplies intended for 
the comfort and relief of soldiers and sailors. Stated suc- 
cinctly, its objects are: 

1. To afford full information of the standard, kind and quality of 
all supplies for military relief. 

2. To collect, inspect and store until needed supplies produced for 
that purpose. 

3. To distribute supplies of the right kind and quantity at the right 
place at the right time, and to have the ability to do so upon any and 
every request of the army and navy. 

4. To stimulate the production of useful, standardized material, 
not only by chapters and members of the Red Cross, but by all in- 
terested organizations and by citizens generally. 

When the naval and military forces of the United States 
are engaged in actual fighting, the American people will re- 
spond with overwhelming generosity for the relief and com- 
fort of those who are in battle. Individuals everywhere and 
organizations of every description will at once want to con- 
tribute money and supplies of all kinds. Women's clubs will 
make surgical dressings, lodges will provide hospital comforts, 
churches will makes clothes for convalescents, local chapters 

34 



of the patriotic societies will produce bandages, Sunday school 
classes will send games, commercial houses and others will 
send delicacies to eat, novels, tobacco, and a multitude of 
articles intended to add to the happiness of men in hospitals, 
on the decks of ships, in training camps and in trenches. 

All of this motley material will have to be collected, trans- 
ported and distributed. Who will know where it is most 
needed? How will confusion, waste and delay be avoided in 
getting it there? What guarantee will be furnished that it 
is of standard quality and that much of it will not be useless 
when it arrives? It is to answer these questions and to meet 
these needs that Red Cross Supply Service has been organized. 

Let us see, now, how the new bureau will do its work. 
Red Cross Supply Service will receive from the army and 
navy promptly and, when possible, in advance of actual needs, 
specific information concerning the amount and kind of sup- 
plies needed, and the place of delivery. The director of each 
branch will be assigned specific territory. He will be responsi- 
ble for the collection and purchase of supplies within that 
territory and for starting them, upon orders from the central 
office, upon the road to their destination. 

Suppose a case of surgical dressings has been produced by 
a Sunday school in Marshalltown, Iowa. It is turned over 
to the Red Cross chapter in that city, if there is one. If not, 
the secretary of the nearest chapter, let us say in Des Moines, 
is advised of the existence of the case of dressings. He 
adopts appropriate means (possibly by securing a sample) of 
assuring himself that the supplies named are of suitable kind 
and quality to warrant their being received for distribution. 
He then authorizes the shipment of the case from Marshall- 
town to Des Moines. This may be done at the expense of the 
consignor, but when the case of supplies has passed into the 
possession of Red Cross Supply Service it will be sent on its 
further journey without expense to the producer. Its first 
journey will be to the branch warehouse in Chicago, -there to 
form part of a larger shipment, or, upon orders from the 
Chicago office, it may be sent direct from Des Moines to the 
place where needed for immediate use. 

To Stimulate Giving 

The case may be marked with the name of the Sunday 
school if desired. It will be marked also with a description 
of its contents. If various kinds of supplies are in the package 
they will be removed and each kind placed with larger quan- 
tities of similar articles at the committee's warehouse, to be 
repacked. This will still permit the larger packages to con- 
tain smaller bundles marked with the names of the agencies 
making them, if this is des'ired. 

In announcing the new bureau the Red Cross is anxious to 
make clear that its sole purpose is to afford an efficient means 
of standardizing, collecting and distributing supplies. It has 
no purpose to control or to dominate their production. Every 
opportunity will be left free to others to produce in any); 
quantity they desire, so long as products conform to desirable 
standards. 

The organization of the new bureau gives effect to th 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, 1917 



35 



proclamation issued by President Taft in 1911 characterizing 
the Red Cross as "the only volunteer society now authorized 
by this government to render aid to its land and naval forces 
in time of war," and declaring that any other society desiring 
to render similar assistance must do so through the Red Cross. 

In line with this proclamation President Wilson issued a 
letter last week in which he declared that "recent experience 
has made it more clear than ever that a multiplicity of relief 
agencies tends to bring about confusion, duplication, delay and 
waste." Herbert C. Hoover, chairman of the Commission 
for Relief in Belgium, in endorsing the Red Cross plan, said 
that "every country in Europe has gone through an era of dis- 
integrated, overlapping effort, the multiplying of thousands of 
committees and tons of useless, inapropos, and wrongly des- 
tined material. In general," he said, "the one fundamental 
factor in war organization is centralization of executive, and 
such centralization cannot be effected if there are a lot of 
national semi-independent boards or organizations operating 
outside, or partially outside, the direct control of the Red 
Cross Executive." 

Branch offices have been opened in Boston, New York city, 
Chicago, New Orleans, Denver and San Francisco, with a 
director in charge of each. A small informal committee of 
prominent business men is to aid each director of a branch. 

The director of the New York branch is Otto T. Bannard, of the 
New York Trust Company. Mr. Bannard will give practically his 
entire time to this work, and he will be assisted by an advisory 
committee consisting of Henry James, chairman of the executive com- 
mittee of the New York County Chapter of the American Red Cross; 
Irving T. Bush, of the Bush Terminal Company; Newcomb Carlton, 
president of the Western Union Telegraph Company; A. L. Salt, 
vice-president of the Western Electric Company; Charles D. Norton, 
vice-president, First National Bank, and others. 



Thirty thousand square feet of warehouse space has been donated 
to Red Cross Supply Service in New York city by Mr. Bush. Excel- 
lent shipping facilities by both water and rail are provided, and 
the New York warehouses are likely to serve as the central dis- 
tributing point for supplies for any American forces, naval or mili- 
tary, sent abroad. Mr. Bannard has established his office on the 
thirty-fourth floor of the Metropolitan Tower. 

In Boston, direction of Red Cross Supply Service headquarters has 
been assumed by Henry S. Dennison, president of the Dennison Man- 
ufacturing Company. Associated on the Boston committee are 
Allston Burr, chairman of the Boston Chapter of the American Red 
Cross; John W. Hallowell, of Stone & Webster; A. C. Ratshesky, 
president of the United States Trust Company; J. Franklin McEl- 
wain, and others. Warehouses and offices are located at 1000 Wash- 
ington street. 

The Chicago committee is headed by A. A. Sprague, 2nd, president 
of Sprague, Warner & Company. Among the members are the fol- 
lowing: James Simpson, president of Marshall Field & Company; 
John W. Scott, of Carson, Pirie, Scott & Company; Robert J. Thorne, 
president, Montgomery Ward & Company; William Hibbard, presi- 
dent, Hibbard, Spencer, Bartlett & Company; and Homer Stillwell, 
of Butler Brothers. Offices are at 112 West Adams street, and the 
warehouse at 225 East Illinois street. 

Directing the New Orleans branch will be H. R. Labouisse, a re- 
tired banker, assisted by Frank B. Hayne, William Mason Smith, and 
William E. Stauffer. Offices will be at 316 Carondelet street, and 
the warehouses at the United States Mint. 

The San Francisco branch will be in charge of A. B. C. Dohr- 
mann, head of a large mercantile firm. Offices will be at 502 Cali- 
fornia street. 

Headquarters have been opened in Denver at 1612 Fifteenth street 
with William G. Evans as director. The warehouse is at the same 
address. 

The expenses of Red Cross Supply Service at the central 
office in Washington and at each of the branch offices will be 
paid from the national fund of the Red Cross. It is expected 
also that donations will be made by local people to meet the 
cost of each branch manager's office and warehouse. 



Tools as Well as Guns 

Vocational Education as the Equivalent of Military Training 

By Arthur D. Dean 

CHIEF OF THE DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS, NEW YORK STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT 



THERE is deep educational significance, especially for 
the future of vocational education, in the revised 
Welsh-Slater bill recently signed by the Governor 
of New York and now law in that state, and in the 
annual appropriation bill that has already passed both branches 
of the legislature. 

It will be remembered that the Welsh-Slater bill as passed 
last year created a Military Training Commission and com- 
pelled all boys between sixteen and nineteen years of age, 
except those at work, to take such military training as the 
commission might prescribe. It affected only about 22,000 
boys of the specified ages, since it was practically limited to 
boys at school. The revised law strikes out the exemption. 
It therefore extends compulsory military training to all boys 
sixteen, seventeen or eighteen years old. The number of these 
in the state is estimated at about 220,000. Thus the new law 
multiplies by ten the number who will receive such training. 
In taking this action the legislature seems to have responded 
to the very strong feeling, not only in New York, but else- 
where, that school boys should not be selected as the only 
ones to receive military training. 

The revised law goes much farther than this, however. In 
the first place, it creates three significant bureaus. The names 



of these and the amounts allotted to each in the annual appro- 
priation bill, in round numbers, are as follows: Bureau of 
Physical Training, $60,000; Bureau of Technical Military 
Training, $150,000; Bureau of Vocational Training, $90,000. 
The first bureau is to have the supervision of the compulsory 
physical training in the schools for all male and female pupils 
above the age of eight, during periods which shall average 
at least twenty minutes in each school day. The second 
bureau is to be charged with the specific military part of the 
program for all boys above the age of sixteen years and not 
over the age of nineteen years for periods aggregating not 
more than three hours in each week between September first 
of each year and the fifteenth day of June next ensuing. The 
third bureau will interpret and administer the following sen- 
tence in the revised law: 

"Such requirement as to military training, herein prescribed, 
may in the discretion of the commission, be met in part by 
such vocational training or vocational experience as will, in 
the opinion of the commission, specifically prepare boys of 
the ages named for service useful to the state, in the mainte- 
nance of defense, in the promotion of public safety, in the 
conservation and development of the state's resources, or in 
the construction and maintenance of public improvements." 

This provision is a very forward and interesting step. It 



36 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, 1917 



is likely to have a far-reaching effect on the number and char- 
acter of vocational schools in New York state, and on the 
kind of work for which boys fit themselves. In commenting on 
the revised law, John H. Finley, state commissioner of educa- 
tion and a member of the Military Training Commission, 
said: "For the post of chief of the Bureau of Vocational 
Training we must get the very best man we can — it's a $5,000 
place, but a $25,000 job. I think it will offer the right man 
one of the largest conceivable opportunities for a piece of truly 
constructive work for the state." 

It is evident that this bureau must sift out such vocational 
opportunities as fit boys for service "directly useful to the 
state." It must make recommendations to the commission 
that will guide it in interpreting those activities in which boys 
are engaged that may be directly useful in the maintenance 
of defense, in the promotion of public safety, in the con- 
servation and development of the state's resources or in the 
construction and maintenance of public improvements. It 
offers opportunities for a very constructive plan of effort. It 
anticipates in a scheme of military preparedness a line of action 
that draws its cue from the exempting provisions that have 
been recently a part of the plan of conscription service of 
England. It is drawn from the experience of France which 
has had to come to the point of recognizing that men must 
be taken from the front for service behind the lines. It is 
based upon the procedure of Germany, who found it necessary 
in the midst of war to organize her entire "man power." 

Effect on Vocational Education 

Commissioner Finley said further: 

"Obviously the program puts the maintenance of defense 
as the first opportunity, but it recognizes the factors which 
make sudden and effective mobilization for that purpose pos- 
sible, and, beyond that, it foresightedly sees that the plan has 
in it elements which will make it of value in other than times 
of war or peril of war. It is a program whose realization 
should be immensely valuable in the development of material 
resources and even more valuable in identifying as patriotic 
service all such activities as this program includes, and in 
cultivating civic and patriotic spirit through that very service, 
and in training for it." 

No one knows how far its effect upon the vocational edu- 
cation system of New York will reach. It may modify the 
present system or it may attempt to fit in with the present 
system, or the present system may be made to fit in with the 
"military equivalent" idea of the commission. Vocational train- 
ing, from the standpoint of contributing to a military equiva- 
lent, and a military equivalent, from the standpoint of voca- 
tional preparation, are not incompatible. No one knows ; but 
I personally should say that the proposal would do a great 
deal toward promoting the development of day part-time and 
continuation schools and evening trade schools. The boys 
who are at work will obviously enroll in evening vocational 
schools in order to meet in a large measure that training that 
will specifically prepare them for service directly useful to 
the state, and in this way will be excused from the major 
part of the required military service. It may be confidently 
expected that the establishment of part-time schools (on, per- 
haps, the Fitchburg and Cincinnati plans) will be greatly 
stimulated. 

It is not likely that boys so enrolled will be completely 
excused from any military training. Personally it would seem 
to me that they should be brought together once in a while 
to receive some direct lesson which will make it clear to 
them that they are, through this indirect preparation for 
military service, really serving directly the state, for otherwise 



these boys would gain the idea that they were simply learn- 
ing trades for their own ends, and this is not the fact. They 
are learning these trades and are excused in part from attend- 
ance upon military training because the trade which they are 
learning is of service to the state in time of war. 

The plan will have some tendency to develop day voca- 
tional instruction for those boys who are already in school 
and are subject to military training. For here will be an 
opportunity for a boy to "kill two birds with one stone." He 
may learn a trade which will fit him for profitable employ- 
ment and he may meet, in part at least, the military training 
requirement. Of course, there will be school boys who are 
not in attendance upon vocational schools who will expect 
to be excused from military drill on the basis that they are 
taking a few periods of a week in a manual training shop 
making tabourets, coat-hangers and sleeve-boards. It is to 
be hoped that the military commission will accept the defini- 
tion of vocational training as laid down in the Smith-Hughes 
bill and in the laws or practice of such states, for example, 
as New York, Indiana and Massachusetts. 

Do Bell-hops Serve the State? 

One of the most far-reaching results will be to show boys, 
parents and the public that a good many of the occupations 
in which boys are engaged are not in themselves directly useful 
to the state, either in the maintenance of defense or promotion 
of public service, in the conservation of the state's resources 
or in the construction and maintenance of public improve- 
ments. For the "experience" which these boys acquire through 
work (for the law implies that the occupation of the boy may 
be a military equivalent) in unskilled occupations is not within 
the field of military preparedness. On the other hand, many 
of the skilled industries in which boys are engaged do serve 
the interests of the state. It is clear that industries dealing 
with metals, machinery and conveyances (for example, manu- 
facturing implements and tools, sheet-iron work, forging, 
structural iron work, rolling-mill work, firearms, railway 
equipment, engines and boilers, electrical apparatus, boats and 
boat-building and agricultural machinery) are in the class 
which is directly useful in the maintenance of defense. It is 
equally clear that boys who are delivering messages, carrying 
bundles, driving grocery wagons, picking fruit in the canning 
sections, working in cotton mills or mines, and so on, would 
not be considered as performing service which brought "ex- 
perience" that would specifically prepare for any state service. 

Of course, there are occupations which stand between 
these two extremes, and the question of whether or not they 
contribute to state service under one of the four heads is for 
the commission to decide. But what an eye-opener it will be 
to young people and to employers to learn that a state com- 
mission with full power has decided that many occupations 
open to children are not recognized as coming under "experi- 
ence" contributory to the four heads; that what these children 
do does not promote public safety or conserve state resources 
or contribute to the maintenance of public improvements or 
are of little, if any, service directly useful in the maintenance 
of defense. 

Some deadly parallels are bound to be drawn. The em- 
ployed boy who is learning the trade of machinist has his 
"experience" recognized, while his pal who is the bell-hop must 
attend military drills or enroll in a vocational school.' The 
young agriculturist of the country vocational school who 
has his home projects in farm crops may play ball at a time 
when his schoolmate of classical inclinations shoulders his 
gun for the weekly drill. Thus do the ploughshare and the 
sword each serve the state and this is as it should be. 



0092820: 




WAR AND LAWS OF SAFETY 
AND HEALTH 

WHEN by a vote of 373 to 50 in 
the House of Representatives and 
82 to 6 in the Senate, the Congress of 
the United States last week declared 
this country to be in a state of war with 
the German imperial government, it 
opened up the necessity for a host of new 
adjustments, not all of which are mili- 
tary. The question of financing is one 
of them. Reference was made in the 
Survey last week to the proposals of 
the American Committee on War 
Finance, which involve a heavy increase 
in the tax on incomes of $5,000 and 
over. News from Washington indicates 
that in the fiscal plans now under con- 
sideration the possibilities of the income 
tax are not to be overlooked. 

Another question of immediate im- 
portance is the matter of industrial un- 
rest and the standards of labor that are 
to prevail in the manufacture of supplies 
for the government. As in England at 
the beginning of the war, there is a de- 
mand just now for such modifications in 
health and labor laws as will mean for 
the time being their virtual abrogation. 
Many people believe, despite the experi- 
ence of England to the contrary, that 
unlimited overtime and seven-day labor 
will result in maximum efficiency in out- 
put. 

Last week at the meeting of the Labor 
Committee of the Council of National 
Defense the opinion was expressed that 
there should be concessions in the inter- 
est of harmony, but that standards, so 
far as possible, should be maintained. 
That opinion has found further expres- 
sion in some recommendations drawn 
up by the executive committee of the 
Labor Committee and adopted by the 
Council of Defense. These recommen- 
dations are as follows: 

"The defense and safety of the nation 
must be the first consideration of all 
patriotic citizens. To avoid confusion 
and to facilitate the preparation for na- 
tional defense and give a stable basis 
upon which the representatives of the 
government may operate during the war, 
we recommend : 

"1. That the Council of National 
Defense should issue a statement to em- 
ployers and employes in our industrial 



plants and transportation systems advis- 
ing that neither employers nor employes 
shall endeavor to take advantage of the 
country's necessities to change existing 
standards. When economic or other 
emergencies arise requiring changes of 
standards, the same should be made only 
after such proposed changes have been 
investigated and approved by the Coun- 
cil of National Defense. 

"2. That the Council of National 
Defense urge upon the legislatures of the 
states, as well as all administrative 
agencies charged with the enforcement 
of labor and health laws, the great duty 
of rigorously maintaining the existing 
safeguards as to the health and welfare 
of workers, and that no departure from 
such present standards in state laws, or 
state rulings affecting labor should be 
taken without declaration of the Council 
of National Defense that such departure 
is essential for the effective pursuit of 
the national defense. 

"3. That the Council of National 
Defense urge upon the legislatures of 
the several states that before final ad- 
journment they delegate to the governors 
of their respective states the power to 
suspend or modify restrictions contained 
in their labor laws when such suspen- 




TWO IN ONE 

From "United Hospitals" to be 
published occasionally fey the 
United Hospital Fund of New 
York city, an organisation of 
46 private hospitals which last 
year cared for 132,615 bed pa- 
tients and 560,146 dispensary cases. 



IM 



sion or modification shall be requested by 
the Council of National Defense and 
such a suspension or modification, when 
made, shall continue for a specified 
period and not longer than the duration 
of the war." 

Samuel Gompers is chairman of the 
Labor Committee and of the executive 
committee of that body as well. The 
other members of the executive commit- 
tee are William B. Wilson, secretary of 
labor; V. Everit Macy, president of the 
National Civic Federation; James Lord, 
president of the Mining Department, 
American Federation of Labor; Elisha 
Lee, general manager Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company; Warren S. Stone, 
grand chief International Brotherhood 
of Locomotive Engineers; Frank Morri- 
son, secretary American Federation of 
Labor; Lee K. Frankel, third vice-pres- 
ident, Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company; James O'Connell, president 
Metal Trades Department, American 
Federation of Labor; A. Parker Nevin, 
National Association of Manufacturers; 
Louis B. Schram, chairman Industrial 
Accident Prevention Department, the 
National Civic Federation. 

OF similar import is a vigorous let- 
ter issued by Florence Kelley, gen- 
eral secretary, and Pauline Goldmark, 
research secretary, of the National Con- 
sumers' League. "America today is in 
danger of the fate of the runner who, 
by a spurt at the beginning of the race, 
sacrifices the staying power that makes 
for victory. Labor laws can be re- 
pealed, but not the laws of physiology," 
it reads. 

The letter is addressed particularly 
to officers of the National League for 
Woman's Service, the New York State 
Woman Suffrage Party, the National 
Council of Women, the woman's sec- 
tion of the Woman's National Service 
School, all of which have offered the 
services of their members to state or 
federal government. 

"The universal impulse to sacrifice 
prompts eager men and women to give 
their all — sons, fortunes, strength, home, 
efforts of every kind — to the country in 
war time. In their zeal and haste, there 
is danger that the safeguards of the life, 
health and vigor of working people will 
be lost, upon which success depends. 

37 



38 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, 1917 



"In the whole industrial history of 
the country we have never faced so crit- 
ical a moment. The United States is 
being prepared on a colossal scale and 
the wage-earners are called on to exert 
their fullest working capacity. They 
will respond to the call. It is of su- 
preme importance for the efficiency of 
the nation as a whole that the energies 
of this army should be kept at their 
highest pitch. Now as never before 
we must remember that output and 
health are inseparable. If the human 
resources of the nation are to be pre- 
served, our own experience and that 
of other warring nations must not be 
ignored." 

The letter recites the bitter experience 
of England in permitting long hours, 
night work and other exhausting ex- 
emptions from existing labor laws, and 
shows that already similar proposals 
have been made in this country — an at- 
tempt to abrogate the fifty-four-hour law 
for women in New York state engaged 
in the manufacture of any supplies for 
army and navy, and an exemption to the 
one-day-of-rest-in-seven law, which has 
been allowed the Curtis Aeroplane Com- 
pany by the State Industrial Commis- 
sion for an unlimited length of time. 

The letter concludes as follows: 

"The present crisis in the United 
States calls for the best thought and 
effort of all our citizens. It calls for 
renewed and persistent exertions to pre- 
serve the hard-won safeguards of legis- 
lation for labor and public health. Will 
you not join us in the effort to 

"Preserve short working hours wher- 
ever they exist; 

"Maintain the present minimum of 
sanitation and safety; 

"Keep the children in school, by means 
of scholarships where necessary ; 

"Uphold the standard of living for 
the family, whether the chief wage- 
earner is a soldier at the front, or work- 
ing on national supplies at home? 

"We cannot believe that the people 
of the United States are willing to sac- 
rifice all the difficult achievements of 
social progress in the impulse to defend 
their country without thought of the 
future, or even of the present need of 
the highest industrial efficiency. For 
this efficiency can only be secured by 
holding to the protective laws proved by 
science to be essential to health and well- 
being. 

"In this common strain upon the na- 
tion the workers will bear the heaviest 
part. It is for us to see that they shall 
not be uselessly sacrificed." 

FEDERAL FOOD CONTROL 
PROPOSED 

DEMANDS for an efficient federal 
control of the distribution of food, 
as a means not only to reduce the retail 
cost to consumers, but also to assure a 
market for increased crops, are raining in 
upon Congress. The Council of Nation- 



PROHIBITION FOR 

PREPAREDNESS 

C* OCIAL workers, you must all 
*J know what liquor means in war 
time — leakage in health, leakage in 
efficiency, more prostitution and con- 
sequently more disease. I have just 
come from making a survey of four 
cities under prohibition, Charleston, 
Richmond, Columbia and Savannah. 
Forced against their will to go dry, 
these cities are now making such a 
remarkable showing in reduction of 
wreckage that, with the exception of 
Charleston, they are strong for pro- 
hibition. 

But I found women distressed that 
their boys were to be ordered North 
into wet states. "The North is full 
of preparedness talk, but does it 
really think hundreds of open saloons 
make for preparedness?" was their 
question to me. 

Social workers of dry states, you 
should ask the governors of the 
twenty-five dry states to call on the 
twenty-three wet states to close the 
saloons. 

Social workers of wet states, you 
should not lose a minute in demand- 
ing that your state immediately close 
its saloons. 

Prohibition in war time is a well- 
proven bit of preparedness. It means 
more health, more efficiency, less 
prostitution in the field and infinitely 
better conditions in the home. 

Up to now you have not really 
done your part against the saloon. 
But now is your great chance. I beg 
of you to be leaders in prohibition- 
preparedness. 

ELIZABETH TILTON 



al Defense is considering the matter. 
Howard Coffin, its adviser on munitions, 
predicts that a fpod control will be es- 
tablished within six months. 

It is reported that the White House 
is considering the naming of a man of 
broad experience in the feeding of large 
numbers of people to take charge of this 
great task, and Herbert C. Hoover, di- 
rector of the Belgian Relief Commission, 
is mentioned as the most likely selection. 
His achievements in organizing and 
maintaining the work of Belgian relief 
during the war in. Europe are thought 
to assure him of the ready support of 
Congress in any plan which he may 
work out for the more economical vic- 
tualing of the United States during the 
remainder of the war. 

That the country is facing a danger- 
ous shortage of food and that this short- 
age, under present legal conditions, will 
be aggravated by high retail prices and 
by wasteful methods of marketing the 
crops, is the first fear of experts in the 
Department of Agriculture. "Agricul- 
tural preparedness" is the theme of a 
campaign which the department is now 
conducting, through the press and 
through speeches and letters of appeal 
to organized farmers everywhere. The 
farmers are asked to raise more food- 
stuffs this year, for patriotic as well as 



for financial reasons. They are in- 
formed that the winter wheat yield for 
1917 is estimated at 71.1 per cent — the 
worst condition ever recorded by the 
crop experts. They are shown that the 
stocks of potatoes, oats, corn and other 
staples are light, and that wheat is 
scarce in all countries. David Lubin, 
American representative at the Inter- 
national Institute of Agriculture in 
Rome, has sent word to President Wil- 
son that the world's store of food has 
never been so low as at present. 

Nevertheless the farmers are reported 
not to have responded enthusiastically. 
They want a guarantee of a favorable 
price and a safe market. Such a guar- 
antee can only be given through federal 
control of the distribution of food sup- 
plies. The Council of National Defense 
is understood to incline to the idea that 
a food controller, vested with full au- 
thority to organize and run the machin- 
ery of such control, would do more to 
establish the farmers' confidence in a 
good market than would any reorganiza- 
tion of existing branches of the govern- 
ment. 

On the side of the consumers, the case 
is more serious. The rise in wages dur- 
ing the last ten years has perceptibly 
lagged behind that of retail prices. At 
the headquarters of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor in Washington the 
statement is made that there is no likeli- 
hood this year of any such increase in 
wages, applying to the vast majority of 
workers, as would meet the expected 
further increase in cost of food. Hence 
the labor movement is keenly interested 
in the reduction, or in any event, the 
regulation, of food prices. 

Suggested duties of a food controller 
— a man of the type of Goethals or 
Hoover, used to carrying big projects 
through to detailed completion — are 
many. He would take an emergency 
census of the food and livestock through- 
out the country, using present federal 
agents for this work. He would take 
stock of the transportation facilities, the 
condition of roads, the possibilities of 
local milling, canning, storage, drying 
and other preparation of foods. He 
would secure from Congress authority 
to organize the various services in the 
Department of Agriculture, the Post 
Office Department, the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission and other branches of 
the government to create a complete sys- 
tem of daily intelligence as to the need 
for delivery of food in every town and 
section of the United States. 

The same intelligence system would 
direct the shipping of all foodstuffs ready 
for market. Transportation would be 
economized. Local supply would be 
stimulated. Adaptation of local mar- 
kets to local production would be en- 
couraged. Waste through duplication 
of delivery would be penalized, as the 
system developed, until the food con- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, IQI7 



19 



troller would bring about the elimina- 
tion of unnecessary charges. 

RECRUITING OUR SOLDIERS 
OF SUSTENANCE 

BEFORE the Chicago Association of 
Commerce, the Agricultural Col- 
lege and the department of economics 
of the University of Illinois launched 
their "civil-military service" scheme for 
the national mobilization of food pro- 
duction. Dean Eugene Davenport, who 
presented it, based the plan upon the 
following facts: 

Food production in the United States 
is not now increasing in proportion to 
the increase in population. The produc- 
tion of food is our strongest war asset, 
in view of the reduced production in 
Canada and western Europe. Without 
regard to the disturbance of basic indus- 
trial conditions, even to the production 
of the food of the people, every nation 
in going to war puts men into active 
military service ; indiscriminate enlist- 
ment from the farms, with no plan for 
labor replacement, is certain to reduce 
food production below the level of posi- 
tive need. 

Enlistment for food production in this 
military plan of mobilization must be as 
definite as for service at the front, if 
an adequate food supply is to be as- 
sured, and the War Department must 
as rigorously protect food production as 
any other means of national defense. 
With land enough, if properly culti- 
vated, to feed both herself and western 
Europe, America need not limit the food 
of her people, as more men would be 



required to enforce a police restriction 
of food than would be required to turn 
scarcity into abundance. The farmer 
has reached the limit in the use of ma- 
chinery and in the employment of his 
children to replace the hired help that 
has gone to the city. Military enlist- 
ment from the country must not only 
be offset, but the farmers' present labor 
supply must be increased. 

To meet all these ends, the following 
procedure is proposed : To register 
every farm owner, tenant or manager, 
the number of acres in tillable, pasture 
and timber land, and the number of men 
usually employed or that would be need- 
ed to insure maximum crops; to enlist 
in the civil-military service and under 
military pay, men of military age or old- 
er who may be permanently or tempo- 
rarily unfit for service at the front, and 
also boys from fourteen to sixteen years 
old in country and city; to establish 
training camp farms on land suitable 
for intensive farming, rented at con- 
venient points by the government, where 
enlisted men not otherwise employed 
may be gathered, housed and employed 
in raising crops requiring a maximum 
amount of hand labor, such as vegeta- 
bles, small fruits, cotton and tobacco; to 
erect at these centers facilities for dry- 
ing and canning such food products, 
for preservation and transportation. 

As the largest asset for food produc- 
tion is the thousands of farms already 
organized under the management of ex- 
perienced farmers, independently oper- 
ated through established channels of 
trade, most of the enlisted men would 



be assigned to work them. When em- 
ployed by the farmers these en: 
men would be regarded as on furlough 
and off government pay, receiving from 
the farmer the going wage of the local- 
ity, which is above the pay of soldiers. 
Men dissatisfied with these conditions 
of employment might return to the 
camp at the lower wage, and also in 
case of discharge for unsatisfactory 
service. Enlisted men not employed on 
private farms would be under military 
discipline at the camp farm, but under 
agricultural leadership, devoting their 
first attention to the production of food 
under the direction of an agricultural 
officer. Time for regular military drill 
would be reserved. Men of military age 
and above, without farm experience, 
would be quartered in regions engaged 
in intensive farming where oversight is 
possible. New enlistments would sys- 
tematically replenish the numbers at the 
camp when depleted by men entering 
active military service. Enlistment for 
civil-military service would not only be 
considered as a patriotic duty, but 
would be made attractive through such 
formal recognition as uniforms, use of 
special organizations, ranks and degrees 
of efficiency, promotion and commissions. 
Shortage of crops the world round 
gave timeliness to this mobilizing plan 
of the great prairie state of Illinois, as 
it does to the governor's initiative in 
calling a conference of the governors of 
all the great agricultural states to formu- 
late a plan of concerted action for the 
conservation and production of the na- 
tion's food supply. 



Drawn by Michael Kopsco for the American-Hungar inn "People's Voite" 




THE FIRST LINE OF DEF1 



40 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, 1917 



Dean Davenport warns the United 
States against the mistake made by every 
warring nation in Europe, of paying lit- 
tle or no attention to the production 
of food until its limitation is suddenly 
found to be necessary. America's power 
to produce food, he says, "far exceeds 
her strength at any other point in the 
struggle for mastery. If America is to 
win in the great war," he concludes, 
"she must mobilize her forces for food 
production as definitely as her fighting." 

EFFICIENCY IN ILLINOIS' 
STATE SERVICE 

GOVERNOR LOWDEN'S first 
appointments under the new civil 
code of Illinois, reported in detail in the 
Survey for March 10, are held to ful- 
fill amply his pledge to reconstitute the 
state service on the basis of efficiency 
without political preferment. 

The governor's choice of five of the 
nine department directors was based on 
their business experience. For director 
of finance he appointed Omar H. 
Wright, president of the Second Na- 
tional Bank of Belvidere, member of 
the executive council of the State Bank- 
ers' Association, former councilman and 
president of the Board of Education of 
his home town. The director of the 
Department of Public Works and 
Buildings, charged with letting con- 
tracts, furnishing supplies, maintaining 
the upkeep and erecting buildings for all 
state institutions, is Leslie D. Puter- 
baugh, of Peoria, who has been judge 
in the probate, circuit and appellate 
courts, a director of two banks and pres- 
ident of the board of trustees of Bradley 
Polytechnic Institute. William H. 
Stead, of Ottawa, attorney-general of 
Illinois from 1905 to 1913, and a man 
of large executive experience, heads the 



Department of Trade and Commerce. 
To the directorship of the Department 
of Public Health, Dr. C. St. Clair 
Drake has been promoted from the sec- 
retaryship of the State Board of Health. 
In that office, as in the Health Depart- 
ment of the city of Chicago, he has a 
creditable record for service covering 
twenty-two years. 

The department for which the gov- 
ernor found it most difficult to select a 
director was that of public welfare, 
under which all the charitable and cor- 
rectional institutions of the state are 
now placed. Disappointed in not secur- 
ing Col. C. B. Adams, recently ap- 
pointed commissioner of prisons in 
Massachusetts, Governor Lowden ap- 
pointed Charles H. Thorne, of Chicago, 
long head of Montgomery Ward and 
Company's mail order house, from which 
he had retired some time ago. A man 
of means and leisure, he accepted this 
public responsibility with the statement 
that "duty to the state under present 
conditions is paramount to whatever 
considerations stand in the way of its 
performance," and that the proffer of 
this position afforded him "a welcome 
opportunity to do my bit for my coun- 
try." He gives his entire time to the 
work. 

Albert D. Early, of Rockford, brings 
to the presidency of the State Civil 
Service Commission his experience as an 
active member of the Illinois Civil Serv- 
ice Reform Association, the presidency 
of the Illinois State Bar Association and 
his trusteeship of Northwestern Uni- 
versity and the Rockford Public Library. 

Governor Lowden has assured each 
director either the nomination or veto 
of every appointment to be made in his 
department, which is not in the classi- 
fied list of the civil service. 



The selection of the departmental 
staffs will be awaited with interest, espe- 
cially that of the Department of Public 
Welfare, which is now open to the 
choice of the best available specialists 
as assistant director, superintendent of 
charities, criminologist, superintendent 
of prisons, superintendent of pardons and 
parole, alienist, and the board of five 
public welfare commissioners. Only 
such changes in the superintendency of 
state institutions are contemplated as 
may be required to improve the service. 

UNIONS IN THE COLORADO 
COAL MINES 

TWO years and four months after 
the end of the Colorado coal strike 
of 1913-14, word comes that the United 
Mine Workers of America have signed 
an agreement with the Victor-American 
Fuel Company, the second largest coal 
company in Colorado, involving full 
recognition of the union, the check-off 
for union' dues and provision for check 
weighmen on the scales. 

To appreciate the significance of this 
development it must be recalled that of 
all the companies involved in the strike, 
the Victor-American Fuel Company was 
regarded as the most implacable foe of 
unionism. Wherever there were "closed" 
camps, those of the Victor-American 
were closed the tightest. Wherever men 
who talked unionism were sent "down 
the canyon," they were sent a little fast- 
er and a little further from the camps 
of this company than from any other. 

Commenting on this bit of news from 
Colorado the United Mine Workers' 
Journal, the official organ of the union, 
says: "The spirit for organization that 
brought about the settlement with the 
Victor-American Company is not con- 
fined to the miners of this company 




January 

225 




FLIES AND BABY DEATHS 

r T 1 HAT the largest number of infant deaths occur dur- 
■*- ing the fly season is diagrammed by the Pennsyl- 
vania State Department of Health. Heat, wrong food, 
tun heavy clothing all play their part, but evidence exists 
that flies aid in transmitting typhoid, cholera, dysentery, 
diarrhea, ophthalmia and perhaps poliomyelitis. Tuber- 
culosis bacilli have been found upon a fly's feet, also in 
his digestive tract fifteen days after he was marked in 
a patient's room. The only sure way to avoid the fly is 
to give him nothing /<> live on. He breeds chiefly in 
11:, mure and garbage. Clean stables, clean houses, clean 
yards are death to the fly. 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 14, igj 7 



41 



only. The employes of the Colorado 
Fuel and Iron Company [the Rocke- 
feller company] openly announce that 
they are members of our union and de- 
mand agreements through the organiza- 
tion, instead of the 'almost as good' 
Rockefeller method of adjusting wages 
and grievances." 

ADVANCED HOUSING LAW 
FOR MINNEAPOLIS 

AS a result of five years' agitation 
and effort by the Minneapolis 
Civic and Commerce Association, sup- 
ported in the end by the Minneapolis 
Real Estate Board, Builders' Exchange, 
Minnesota Chapter of Architects and 
the Central Trades and Labor Assem- 
bly, the legislature of Minnesota has 
passed a housing code for Minneapolis 
which, combined with the new building 
code secured by that city last year, will 
place it among the foremost American 
cities in insuring adequate light and ven- 
tilation, decent sanitary conveniences, 
safety from fire and proper privacy for 
every family. 

The movement for better housing in 
Minneapolis is another interesting in- 
stance of the modern trend in civic and 
commercial agencies. The Minneapolis 
business and professional men's organiza- 
tion, called the Civic and Commerce 
Association, has given much emphasis to 
the civic side of its work from its incep- 
tion. At the very start it secured as one 
of its secretaries Otto W. Davis, who 
had accomplished the passage in Colum- 
bus, Ohio, of a housing code which at 
that time was the first code in this coun- 
try to apply to the one- and two-family 
houses regulations similar to those which 
had hitherto been applied only to tene- 
ment houses. Such regulation has now 
become an accepted principle. 

Minneapolis at that time was resting 



Donchey in the Cleveland Plain Dealer 




THE SHACKLES BROKEN 



in quiet confidence that it had no hous- 
ing problems. The Civic and Commerce 
Association undertook an investigation 
to find out the facts and soon uncovered 
a half dozen embryo slums containing 
every variety of housing evil, many of 
them of a character that had long -ago 
been prohibited in other cities. For- 
tunately the quantity of such evils was 
found to be small. 

Four thousand copies of a liberally 
illustrated report describing these con- 
ditions were circulated by the associa- 
tion. The Minneapolis newspapers gave 
whole pages to the matter and were uni- 
ted in their demand for the passage of 
laws that would prevent any increase in 
housing ills. The new code is the result. 

One of the interesting features of the 



movement in Minneapolis has been the 
cooperation obtained from other bodies, 
particularly from the Real Estate Board, 
which appointed a strong committee of 
twenty-five members and held regular 
weekly meetings, going over the code in 
detail for nearly a year. Fred ( J. Smith, 
chairman of the Real Estate Board 
Housing Committee, became so inter- 
ested that he was instrumental in get- 
ting the National Real Estate Associa- 
tion to appoint a housing committee of 
which he is chairman. This committee 
is endeavoring to awaken the interest of 
real estate men throughout the coun- 
try to the importance of cooperating with 
other agencies in securing better hous- 
ing. 

Interesting features of the Minneapo- 
lis code are a provision limiting the 
height of dwellings (except hotels) to 
six stories and basement or seventy-five 
feet, and a provision requiring side 
yards proportionate to the height of the 
building. 

UNIONS ORGANIZING 
AGAINST DISEASE 

MOBILIZATION of the trade 
unions to resist the invasions of 
disease is one of the latest moves for 
public defense. Dr. Eouis I. Harris, 
head of the Division of Industrial Hy- 
giene in the New York city Department 
of Health, met recently at the Eabor 
Forum a large delegation of men and 
women representing various unions, and 
with them planned this cooperative effort 
to check occupational disease. 

For some time Dr. Harris has been 
working with individual unions. With 
the assistance of the furriers' union he 
made a study of disease hazards in han- 
dling skins and furs. With Typograph- 
ical Union No. 6, popularly known as 
"Big Six," he has arranged to have offi- 




— Baltimore Ercning Sun 



THE CHILDREN H CRUSADE 



THIRTY-FOUR states have plans already under way f r baby week. The first week of May is the u. 
1 upon bv the General Federation of Women's Clubs, but Nebraska, Massachusetts, California and Pennsylvania 
will observe it earlier to avoid possible risk of poliomyelitis. The importance of complete birth records has been 
chosen as their special study by Washington, Illinois, Iowa, New Hampshire and Ohio. Delaware Will discuss the 
prevention of infant paralysis; North Dakota, the needs of children below school age; Kansas, which had last year 
the largest number of local celebrations, will emphasize birth registration, instructing mothers in tnfant care, the 
care of expectant mothers. The federal Children's Bureau at Washington has published a bulletin to assist com- 
mittees in preparing for baby week. It refers to many agencies from xvhich bulletins, list of exhibit material and 

other assistance may be had for the asking. 



42 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 14, 1 9 17 



daily designated members report to him 
on unhealthful conditions in composing 
rooms. This is the beginning of a dem- 
ocratic system of self-inspection, and of 
the necessary education for it. It means, 
says Dr. Harris, that representatives 
from all laboring groups in the city act 
as a vigilance committee guarding san- 
itary standards; that they have oppor- 
tunity to confer upon their needs direct- 
ly with the official sanitary agencies of 
the city, and to have a personal share in 
disseminating among workers the need- 
ed information. More than seventy 
members have already been appointed by 
their unions to serve on a committee un- 
der the direction of the Division of In- 
dustrial Hygiene. 

In addition to securing the point of 
view of practical tradesmen, prompt 
notice of conditions inimical to health, 
and widely diffusing advice on indus- 
trial disease and personal hygiene, this 
cooperative plan has a definitely eco- 
nomical value from the administrative 
angle. For employes' reports give fre- 
quently valuable information to the in- 
spector and save his time and effort in 
investigations when he goes to check 
them up. If the delegates report condi- 
tions as satisfactory, there seems to be 
no need of inspecting that plant immedi- 
ately. It is important to avoid wasting 
energy when a limited staff tries to over- 
see fully 50,000 work places in the city. 
The successful cooperation with "Big 
Six" promises a wider solution of the 
problem of health and sanitation in oc- 
cupations. 

SOME HAZARD OF CITY 
HOUSE CLEANING 

STREET-CLEANING does not ap- 
pear to be a particularly hazardous 
occupation, yet every year eight out of 
ten "white wings" are physically disabled 
from causes in their occupation, accord- 
ing to a recent study by Dr. S. I. Rain- 
forth, chief physician of the Department 
of Street Cleaning of New York city, 
discussed by Dr. Creighton Barker as 
follows : 

For $2.50 a day 6,000 of these street- 
cleaners, mostly aliens, work ten hours 
and remove refuse and dirt from 1,500 
miles of street. This is equivalent to a 
road sixty feet broad extending from 
New York to Kansas City. In a year 
there are nearly 813,000 cubic yards of 
"sweepings" collected. All days and 
every day this work must be done — on 
pasty asphalt under the scorching August 
sun, in driving rain, in sleet and snow. 
It is not remarkable that 80 per cent 
of them are disabled each year. Dr. 
Rainforth's figures show that there are 
5,484 cases of disability each year, caus- 
ing a loss of approximately 56,000 days. 
The incidence of certain types of dis- 
eases is interesting to note. Accidents, 
including freezing and sunstroke, lead 
the list, causing 18 per cent of the dis- 



abilities. Conditions resulting from im- 
proper and intemperate living, such as 
gout and chronic arthritis, alcoholism, 
diseases of liver, kidneys and digestive 
tract, cause 16 per cent. This gives 
a fair idea of the type of labor em- 
ployed. Myalgia, neuralgia and neuri- 
tis, results of great physical exertion, are 
responsible for 14 per cent. Diseases 
resulting from exposure to cold and 
lowered vitality, such as pneumonia, 
bronchitis and influenza, but not includ- 
ing tuberculosis, cause 9 per cent of the 
cases of disability. 

It might be supposed that the tuber- 
culosis incidence would be high, consid- 
ering the constant inhalation of street 
dust and the exposure to severe weather 
conditions. The fact is, however, that 
all forms of tuberculosis caused b*ut 
1.4 per cent of all disabilities. 

A morbidity rate of 80 per cent is 
extremely high. To combat it the city 
of New York gives free medical atten- 
tion to all employes and requires a com- 
plete physical examination once each 
year. In the Department of Street 
Cleaning seven physicians give their full 
time to this service. By this means, 
the average time lost per man compares 
favorably with the per capita loss of 
time because of illness in normal groups. 
The time lost by -employes of the De- 
partment of Street Cleaning averages 
7.8 days per man, a slightly higher per- 
centage than that found by Frankel and 
Dublin in their North Carolina sick- 
ness survey. There white males (in all 
occupations) lost 7.6 days a year; Ne- 
groes, 7.4 days. 

Certain preventive measures have been 
adopted also, to lower the personal haz- 
ard. Most unique among these is the 
practice of sweeping "against the traf- 
fic," that is, sweeping in the opposite 
direction to which the traffic is going. 
This simple measure has done much to 
lower the number of accidents caused 
by vehicles. First-aid kits are con- 
veniently placed in all stables and docks ; 
and the application of tincture of iodine 
to all wounds as soon as possible has 
perceptibly lessened the number of days 
lost because of infected wounds. 

MAKING OVER ARKANSAS IN 
SIXTY DAYS 

MANY constructive measures for 
social reform were passed by the 
Arkansas legislature during its sixty-day 
session ending March 8. An act that 
stimulated especial interest was that call- 
ing for a constitutional convention which 
will be held in Little Rock Novem- 
ber 19. 

For the first time Arkansas will have 
compulsory education, requiring all 
children from seven to fifteen, inclusive, 
to attend school. A compulsory attend- 
ance law was passed in the state several 
years ago, but the counties having a 
large Negro population were exempt, and 



this left over half of the state without 
any such attendance law. Heretofore 
there have been no uniform textbooks, 
but they were changed indiscriminately, 
making a hardship, especially for those 
children who come from poor families. 
Now a commission is created which will 
make contracts for textbooks and ar- 
range for their uniformity. The act 
also provides that school boards shall 
furnish books to children who are unable 
to buy them. Moreover, a commission 
composed of nine members appointed by 
the governor is to investigate means of 
eliminating illiteracy in this state. 

The University of Arkansas and the 
normal schools have heretofore been in 
politics, since those interested in the 
university found it necessary to lobby at 
the state capitol in order that the legis- 
lature vote a sufficient appropriation. 
The new law will remove these educa- 
tional institutions from politics by the 
levying of a tax of one-eighth mill to pay 
the interest on the common school bonds 
held by the state. Another educational 
measure passed will enable the state to 
secure federal aid for teaching vocational 
subjects in public schools. 

The solid South has at last been brok- 
en into by the suffragists, the Arkansas 
legislature having passed an act permit- 
ting women to vote in the primary elec- 
tions. Practically this gives almost full 
suffrage, for the primaries in Arkansas 
virtually determine the election. An- 
other act permits women who pass the 
examination to practice law in the state 
courts and two additional acts remov- 
ing disability of married women regard- 
ing property were passed. 

A free state employment bureau was 
created to be operated in connection 
with the state labor commissioner's of- 
fice. 

Following the decision by the Supreme 
Court that the Webb-Kenyon bill is 
constitutional, Arkansas was the first 
state to pass the bone dry law prohibit- 
ing shipments of liquor into the state. 

And there was also created a state 
general hospital to be located in Little 
Rock. For this purpose $200,000 was 
appropriated, the money to come from 
the sale of state land adjoining the state 
school for deaf mutes. And most im- 
portant is the creation of a school for 
the feebleminded, the proceeds of the 
sale of one-fourth of the land above 
mentioned to be used for this purpose. 

Another act provides for an industrial 
school for delinquent girls, and the re- 
moval of the state reform school for 
boys to another site on good tillable 
land where they can have outdoor em- 
ployment. This is not adequate, but is 
an encouraging beginning. To study 
the charitable and penal institutions, 
public and private, and to act in an ad- 
visory capacity to those in charge of 
these institutions, there was appointed 
a State Charities Commission. Reports 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, igiy 



43 



AUX CHEVAUX BLESSES 
, dapres'The Sphere" 




CARING FOR WOUNDED HORSES IN FRANCE 

The American Red Star Animal Relief has been organized with a corps of trained 
veterinarians and is to be equipped with all necessary supplies, field and base hospitals 
and ambulances to give first aid in the field to wounded horses and mules and to look 
after the health of animals bought by the government for field service. Similar organ- 
izations are connected with the Dutch and British armies. The picture shows British 
Red Star workers caring for wouv.ded horses in France. Since the beginning of the 
war, this organization has spent half a million dollars, and it is recognized by the" 
government as the principal agency for the conservation of army animals. The Amer- 
ican Red Star is busy organizing a similar service, requiring the enlistment of two 
hundred veterinarians who must pass the examination of the surgeon-general for army 
veterinarians. It is expected that many officers of anti-cruelty societies will avail 
themselves of this opportunity to serve the country and that these societies themselves 
will be active in the collection of the necessary funds 



are to be made to the governor and state 
legislature biennially. 

Through the activities of the State 
Federation of Women's Clubs a mother's 
pension bill was passed authorizing each 
county to allow pensions to indigent 
widowed mothers with children under 
fourteen. Fifty-one counties were ex- 
empt from its provision, however, so the 
law applies to practically only one-third 
of the state. The wisdom of this law 
is questioned, since the county judges 
under the present law can and do give 
outdoor poor relief and the law itself 
does not qualify this relief. Therefore, 
even without the passage of this law, 
county judges can grant pensions if they 
choose, and since the law is not man- 
datory they are not obligated any more 
than formerly. 

EQUAL SUFFRAGE FOR RUS- 
SIA? 

RUSSIA'S constitutional convention 
will be chosen by women as well as 
men voters and will establish equal suf- 
frage as a fundamental principle of the 
new form of government, in the opinion 
of J. G. Ohsol, who was a member from 
the city of Riga in the second Duma. It 
was this Duma which set the high-water 
mark for radicalism in Russia and which 



was dissolved on the ground that some 
of its members were plotting revolution. 

Mr. Ohsol, who lives now in Wash- 
ington, suggests that since women have 
borne a leading part in every revolu- 
tionary and educational movement in 
modern Russia, the workingmen's coun- 
cil and all other radical elements will 
insist that they be enfranchised at once. 
They have the example of full suffrage 
in Finland, and of long established par- 
ticipation by women in the counsels of 
the village communes, while the present 
war has brought them into industry and 
the professions quite as fully in Russia 
as in England. 

Woman suffrage in the peasant com- 
munes, he explains, is on this basis: The 
head of the family speaks for it in com- 
munal meeting. If the men of the 
house be unable to take part, due to ab- 
sence from home or from sickness, the 
woman goes to the meeting. She exer- 
cises the right to speak and vote exactly 
as though she were the man of the fam- 
ily. Again, when her husband is men- 
tally her inferior, she accompanies him 
to the meeting and instructs him as to 
his vote. With this political custom in 
the peasant commune, Russia has wel- 
comed her women into every political re- 
form group. Indeed, a large part of the 



revolutionary activity of the past decade 
has been financed by women, while girls 
have distributed much of the forbidden 
literature of discontent. 

With "Babushka" Breskovsky — who 
has arrived in Moscow — there are 
coming from exile and from prison more 
than 150,000 political offenders, of 
whom thousands are women. To deny 
to these women, even temporarily, the 
right to vote on the future of Russia 
will not be tolerated by the masses. 

Mr. Ohsol sees in the forthcoming 
convention three principal issues upon 
which the influence of the modern Rus- 
sian woman will be powerfully exerted. 
These are the creation of a democratic 
republic rather than a constitutional 
monarchy; the separation, both political 
and financial, of the Orthodox Greek 
Church from the state, and the breaking 
up of the vast private holdings of land 
for distribution among the peasants. He 
cites the demands of the peasant revolu- 
tionist elements in 1903-7 as emphasiz- 
ing the cry of the peasants for land. 
Throughout the present war the peas- 
ants have appealed for "bread and 
peace" in their demonstrations, but these 
were but expressions of immediate suf- 
ferring; the peasants' land-hunger is the 
one great Russian problem, he says. 



44 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, i9'7 



BOSTON'S TANGLED SCHOOL 
SYSTEM 

FOR months Boston has been torn 
by an educational controversy in- 
volving some far-reaching questions of 
school control and of the relation of 
the educational function to democracy. 
The matter is now before the School 
Committee of Boston, a board elected by 
the people and therefore representing 
the people's interests in school affairs. 

Two years ago the mayor requested 
the Finance Commission to investigate 
the school system. This commission ap- 
pointed a survey committee with James 
H. Van Sickle, superintendent of schools 
of Springfield, Mass., at its head. The 
committee made a report dealing with 
various phases of educational policy and 
practice, and especially emphasizing the 
need for a reorganization of the central 
administrative system of the Boston 
schools. 

This system consists of the superin- 
tendent ; the board of superintendents, 
consisting of the superintendent and six 
assistant superintendents and in which 
the superintendent has no greater au- 
thority than any other member; the sec- 
retary ; the business agent ; and the 
schoolhouse custodian. Each of these is 
supreme in his or its respective depart- 
ment and accountable only to the School 
Committee. In addition there are sev- 
eral other independent units such as the 
janitor's trial board, the salary board, 
and the board of apportionment. The 
superintendent is only a member of the 
two latter boards and is not the guiding 
or supreme authority in any of them. 

The gist of the report, concerning or- 
ganization, is that this system should be 
so changed as to make the superintendent 
the chief executive officer, responsible to 
the School Committee for the entire ad- 
ministration of the schools in all their 
branches and departments. This recom- 
mendation is based on modern business 
practice and organization. 

The board of superintendents has tak- 
en sharp issue with this conclusion and 
has printed a pamphlet setting forth its 
objections to the proposed change. The 
board thinks that the public school sys- 
tem is a far more complicated mechanism 
than an ordinary business concern and 
that there would be great danger, if the 
recommendations were adopted, that the 
superintendent of schools, who is to be 
made the sole administrator of the sys- 
tem, would tend more and more to be- 
come a business executive and less and 
less an educator. 

The whole controversy has been 
brought to a head by the report of the 
Finance Commission to the mayor, which 
urges strongly the recommendations of 
the survey committee. This now puts 
the situation up to the School Com- 
mittee, which is practically supreme in 
the whole field of public school finance 
and administration and is responsible 



only to the electorate for the discharge 
of its duties. 

Meanwhile citizens of Boston are en- 
gaged in animated and even acrimonious 
discussion of the matter. One of the 
interesting questions being asked is the 
possible effect upon the School Commit- 
tee itself of the centralization of so 
much administrative power in the hands 
of the superintendent. In Boston the 
election of the School Committee has 
generally elicited much popular interest 
and has been the means of a good deal 
of education to the people on school 
problems. Each year some member of 
the committee has gone out to the elec- 
torate and thus a practical test has often 
been provided to determine whether the 
community believes the present policies 
of the committee are sound. This sys- 
tem serves also to give the people a sense 
of personal responsibility for the man- 
agement of the schools that they might 
not otherwise get. 

OLD AGE AND DEPENDENCY 
IN MASSACHUSETTS 

MASSACHUSETTS, as a prelim- 
inary to her struggle with the 
problem of old age pensions, has been 
making a survey of numbers and cost. 
The State Bureau of Statistics has made 
an exhaustive canvass of all the avail- 
able data relating to the number of 
persons 65 years of age and over, to- 
gether with statistics of present outlays 
for the support of aged persons. 

The director finds that of the 189,047 
persons 65 years of age or over, 34,496 
were dependent to some degree upon 
either public or private charity. The 
total amount of aid paid them in the 
year ending March 31, 1915, exclusive 
of federal pensions, but including all aid 
given by public correctional institutions, 
hospitals for the insane, state pauper in- 
stitutions, overseers of the poor, state 
and military aid, soldiers' relief, and pri- 
vate charitable aid rendered by benev- 
olent "homes" and other organizations 
and institutions, was $3,233,949. 

As a further classification, it was 
found that 26,403 of the total aided re- 
ceived some form of public relief, the 
aggregate of which was $2,250,686. The 
average for each person in the total out- 
lay, public and private, was $93.75. The 
bureau also finds that 73.02 per cent of 
the persons covered by the inquiry re- 
ceived aid amounting to less than $100 
in each case, while only 2.77 per cent 
received aid amounting to $300 or over. 

Thirty-one per cent of the total popu- 
lation of Massachusetts is foreign-born. 
The report finds that of the 189,047 per- 
sons 65 years of age or over, 39.4 per 
cent were foreign-born ; while of the 
34,496 in that group who received aid 
last year, 52.2 per cent were foreign- 
born. But in spite of this proportion so 
greatly in excess of the proportion of 
the foreign-born in the general popula- 



tion, it was further found that practi- 
cally 95 per cent of the entire group of 
persons 65 years of age or over had been 
residents of Massachusetts for ten years 
or over, while there were figures to in- 
dicate that probably about 80 per cent 
of all the persons thus aged who received 
aid in 1915 had been residents of Massa- 
chusetts for 30 years or more. Two- 
thirds of all the aged dependent women 
were widows while something over one- 
third of all the aged male dependents 
were widowers. 

In its interpretation of these facts the 
Massachusetts legislature must reckon 
with the further finding that the total 
disbursements for the relief of persons 
of all ages in the state in 1915 from 
public sources and from all private 
sources represented by the 805 incorpo- 
rated charitable agencies was $23,365,- 
138. 

Governor McCall in his last inau- 
gural message said: "I am of opinion 
that an annuity should be paid by the 
state and its subordinate governments, 
without contribution, to its deserving cit- 
izens seventy or more years of age who 
do not have children able to support 
them nor an income more than $200 a 
year, and who have been residents of the 
commonwealth at least ten years." 

Hence the issue. 

ON GUARD FOR THE RISING 
GENERATION 

"V¥7E must not forget the children." 
VV As America enters the war the 
National Child Labor Committee warns 
its members to oppose the breakdown of 
school and labor laws and cites the dis- 
astrous results of such relaxation in Eng- 
land and Germany. 

Compulsory education laws must be 
enforced ; school funds should not be cut 
down, says the committee. The usual 
local and national social agencies — set- 
tlements, recreation centers, health 
boards, juvenile protective associations, 
child welfare and child labor commit- 
tees, and all other organizations which 
it has taken years to build — must not be 
destroyed. "The appropriation for the 
enforcement of the federal child labor 
law was not passed by the last Con- 
gress. This Congress must pass it," 
urges the pamphlet, "if, at this time, 
when children are more likely than ever 
to be exploited in industry, we are to 
be assured of the federal government's 
protection for working children." 

"Those of us," says Owen R. Love- 
joy, secretary, "who have dedicated our- 
selves to the protection of these defense- 
less ones must keep our heads clear and 
our motives unmixed, determining that 
whatever happens all other forms of 
treasure, all other forms of wealth, all 
other methods of defense shall be sacri- 
ficed before we compel the children of 
America to pass through the fire." 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 14, 1917 



45 



I 



Book Reviews 




Why Men Fight 

By Bertrand Russell. Century Company. 
272 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of the Sur- 
vey, $1.60. 

This is unquestion- 
ably one of the most 
outstanding books of 
the war. It is not 
complete in form or 
perfect in internal 
structure. It is the 
forerunner of the 
great revaluation of 
political concepts in 
the light of recent his- 
tory which Bertrand 
Russell is the best 
qualified contemporary 
to undertake, rather 
than that work itself. Yet we are thank- 
ful that the publication of these lectures has 
not been postponed, that the message which 
this great English philosopher was pre- 
vented by his government from delivering in 
person to America, has none the less reached 
us now, at a time when ideas are in the flux 
and serious men and women everywhere are 
anxious, as they have never been before, to 
learn the truth about the forces that make 
for war and the forces that make for world 
federation and progress. 

With singular courage and utter disregard 
of his personal standing in the community 
and in the hierarchy of learning, Russell has 
set before the world a program which takes 
nothing for granted and lays bare the hid- 
den sources of evil in our political, industrial 
and social organization, not omitting the edu- 
cational system, formal religion, and the in- 
stitution of marriage. To him it is the re- 
pression of healthy impulse, the restriction 
imposed upon spirit by the state as organ- 
ized today, by the tyranny of accepted tradi- 
tions, by property, by industrial despotism, 
which finds its outlet in the one form of un- 
restrained fervor sanctioned by society — 
militant patriotism, the mainspring of war. 
Summarized in one sentence, "It is not the 
weakening of impulse that is to be desired, 
but the direction of impulse towards life and 
growth rather than towards death and de- 
cay." 

He desires freedom as a condition of 
growth in every relationship of life. He 
takes issue with every doctrine which would 
oppose the liberation of the soul, whether it 
be the erroneous commonplace that human 
nature cannot be changed or the exagger- 
ated, because exclusive, love of country 
which excites false patriotic pride, jealousy, 
and warlike spirit. The power of the ma- 
jority in a democracy and the power of pub- 
lic opinion may be exercised in such a way 
as to repress the most vita] instincts and de- 
sires in the nation. There is no safeguard 
against oppression except in a deeply in- 
grained reverence for life. International ag- 
gression must persist so long as the desire for 
power is made subservient to the ends of 
individual, class, nation or race. 

Patriotism is no safeguard. "A world full 
of patriots may be a world full of strife. 
The more intensely a nation believes in its 
patriotism the more fanatically indifferent 
it will become to the damage suffered by 
other nations. When once men have learned 
to subordinate their own good to the good 
of a larger whole, there can be no valid 
reason for stopping short of the human 



race." It is the admixture of national pride 
that poisons patriotism "and makes it in- 
ferior, as a religion, to beliefs which aim at 
the salvation of all mankind." The author 
admits that it is natural to love one's coun- 
try more than other countries, one's family 
more than the community. He preaches no 
loose cosmopolitanism or brotherhood of man 
based upon a sense of absolute equality in 
claims upon the devotion of the individual. 
Indeed, it is difficult, within a brief space, 
to do justice to the commonsense and sound 
recognition of biological laws which under- 
lies Russell's fervent advocacy of a more lib- 
eral state and world policy. But as family 
affection does not preclude good citizenship, 
so patriotism must no longer be allowed to 
stand in the way of international good-will. 

"It is sheer cant to speak of a contest of 
might against right and at the same time to 
hope for a victory of the right. If the con- 
test is really between might and right, that 
means that right will be beaten." Thus, in 
this present European conflict, or in any dis- 
pute, it is idle to dream of a conservation of 
righteousness by the use of force. Indeed, it 
is only the educated men in any country, says 
Russell, who can desire war at ordinary 
times, since for the mass of humanity knowl- 
edge of the world is so circumscribed as to 
leave it entirely in the dark concerning the 
aspirations of other countries or the part 
which their own might play in the affairs of 
the world. But though there can be no de- 
sire for war in a democracy, there is the in- 
stinct for war, the instinct for power and 
triumph denied most men in their humdrum 
lives, the instinct for adventure without risk 
of social opprobrium, the instinct for de- 
struction where there is no hope of enjoy- 
ment. 

Thus, an analysis of the psychological 
causes of war brings us to a recognition of 
the social maladjustment which is at their 
root. So long as the worship of money and 
the desire for respectability based on prop- 
erty hold society together, so long must so- 
ciety be endangered by outbursts of war 
fever. Therefore, the task of constructive 
statesmanship must be directed to the equali- 
zation of opportunity, of security and of re- 
sponsibility. The industrial system, espe- 
cially, must be made to provide abundant 
occasion for the participation of all in the 
economic processes of society. This, the 
author contends, can best be brought about 
not by a Marxian state socialism, but by an 
extension and mutual complementation of 
voluntary cooperation and syndicalism. 

But reorganization of the material rela- 
tionships is only the outer aspect of the task 
which civilized humanity has to face. Far 
more important is the integration of society 
in mind and impulse which requires that the 
common purposes of men and women, wheth- 
er conscious or not, shall both absorb and 
vitalize their creative activities. "The su- 
preme principle, both in politics and in pri- 
vate life, should be to promote all that is 
creative, and so as to diminish the impulses 
and desires that center round possession." 
"Dominant impulses directed to objective 
ends" must take the place of the subjectivism 
which makes life fragmentary and isolated. 

It may be that critics will find little that 
is new in Russell's philosophy and in his po- 
litical program. The freshness of both is 
derived from a new emphasis, a realignment 
of ideas formulated, manv of them, by others 




and at other times. And more than this, to 
have said these things now, to have given 
fearless and eloquent utterance to idi.is 
vaguely formulated and uncoordinated in 
other minds, has given to Bertrand Russell 
an intellectual leadership which will win 
him crowns both of laurel and of thorn. 
Bruno Lasker. 

A Layman's Handbook of Medicine 
By Richard C. Cabot, M. D. Houghton, 
Mifflin. Co. 524 pp. Price $2; by mail of 
the Survey, $!.]>;. 

This is a book writ- 
ten for one class of 
laymen especially, the 
social workers, and 
doubtless it will re- 
ceive from them the 
welcome it deserves. 
Social workers are 
obliged to know more 
about medical matters 
than does the ordinary 
layman, because so 
many problems they 
meet are in the last 
analysis medical prob- 
lems. Usually they recognize that fact, but 
they do not know where to turn for guidance. 
Most of the social workers I know who have 
sought such guidance have suffered many 
things of many physicians and been nothing 
bettered, for the usual medical man has the 
habit of ex cathedra statement, and clings to 
it even when speaking about those parts of 
the science which are still growing and 
changing; so that the intelligent layman is 
bewildered by pronouncements that vary 
radically from year to year and yet are al- 
ways authoritative. 

Dr. Cabot's book distinguishes between 
those things that are known and those that 
are believed, and when, as is often the case, 
he differs in his belief from other medical 
men he says so plainly. No book written for 
laymen can quite escape the danger of firmly 
fixing ideas that are still sub judice, and per- 
haps Dr. Cabot will be obliged to bring out 
revised editions of his book at short inter- 
vals to keep up with the development of 
medical knowledge. But as the book stands, 
the social worker may pin his faith to it 
with no fear of going astray on any impor- 
tant matter. 

The arrangement of the book is logical 
and refreshingly simple; the space devoted 
to anatomy is quite sufficient, though only the 
absolute essentials are given; and there is no 
tiresome elaboration of facts that are known 
to any ordinarily intelligent person. In- 
deed-, Dr. Cabot saves time and space very 
gratifyingly by assuming that his readers 
will have average knowledge and common 
sense, an assumption rarely made bv the 
scientist when he speaks to the lay public. 

The sections on heart disease, on diet, on 
the diseases of the nervous system, and on 
infectious diseases, will be especially valu- 
able to social workers, clearing up many dif- 
ficult problems in the practical handling of 
cases. In a book destined to be widely read 
by those we hate to hear called "uplifters," 
it is a good thing to find a clear statement 
about the unimportance of pure food as 
compared with nutritious food. For years 
we have been spending money and effort on 
a campaign against harmless adulterants, 
and only very slowly are we learning that 
food adulteration is an economic problem, 
not a health problem. 

The chapter on diseases of the generative 
D has probably more points on which 
other physicians would take issue with Dr. 
Cabot than has anv other. To me the sec- 
tion on industrial diseases i« the least satis- 
factory and the subsection "industrial over- 
strain" the most unsatisfactory part of it, but 
probably that is because industrial disease 



46 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, 1917 



is my hobby and a hobby is a little like an 
only child — outsiders can hardly be expected 
to do it justice. 

Alice Hamilton, M. D. 

Prison Reform 

By Corinne Bacon. The H. H. Wilson 

Company. 309 pp. Price, $1 ; by mail of 

the Survey, $1.12. 

This handbook is brought out by the pub- 
lishers of the Reader's Guide to Periodical 
Literature, and may be regarded as an ex- 
tension of the section of that guide on prison 
reform without the limitations of date and 
space, and with the additional feature of 
actual reproduction of the articles referred 
to. There is no original contribution in the 
volume except a short article of general na- 
ture by Thomas M. Osborne. The bibliog- 
raphy is of the same general nature. The 
critical student will find nothing helpful in 
the volume. It may aid school debaters and 
people of leisure with a general interest in 
the ephemeral aspects of the problem. The 
selection of articles was evidently made with 
an eye to these latter groups. 

Philip Klein. 

Readings in Social Problems 

By Albert Benedict Wolfe. Ginn and 

Company. 804 pp. Price, $2.80; by mail 

of the Survey, $3.00. 

What Manly, Newcomer and Gayley have 
done for students in English literature, Pro- 
fessor Wolfe has done for his classes in 
economics and sociology in the University 
of Texas. For this book is a collection from 
various sources of material, illustrating not 
only the historical development of thinking 
on social problems, but also the various 
points of view represented by the thinkers. 
The entire collection is prefaced by an essay 
indicating the author's philosophy of his 
choice. Each group of readings also is in- 
troduced by a brief note upon the particular 
selections. 

Professor Wolfe, as a sociologist, of 
course, sees population as the great question 
of all nations, complicated in the United 
States by the further questions of immigra- 
tion and of race. He gives readings on 
the woman problem from the first declara- 
tion of "womea's rights" down to the latest 
plea for birth control. 

The book has an evident value in its pro- 
fessed field, but its value extends beyond this 
specific limit. Many a teacher of English 
composition, who has grappled with the task 
of finding a subject which shall stimulate 
clear thinking and vigorous expression, may 
turn with relief to himself and to his stu- 
dents from the tepid interest of My Summer 
Vacation and A Glimpse of a Village Street 
to some of the more real and important mat- 
ters suggested in this book. 

G. S. 

Hymns of the United Church 

Edited by Charles Clayton Morrison and 
Herbert L. Willett. The Christian Cen- 
tury Press. Chicago. 501 pp. Price $1.15, 
cloth; by mail of the Survey $1.27. 
The distinctively contemporaneousj note 
struck by the book is the emphasis it lays 
upon "human service and brotherhood," "the 
nation," "peace among the nations" and "so- 
cial aspiration and progress," classifications 
under which many hymns, old and new, may 
be put to larger use. 

Democracy, justice and fellowship for 
those of all classes and races breathe through 
these brotherhood hymns. The eleven na- 
tional hymns include the un-hymn-like Star 
Spangled Banner and are supplemented by 
seven peace hymns, the best of which is John 
Haynes Holmes' "God of the Nations Near 
and Far." The compilers credit the "in- 
valuable pioneer work" of the Survey asso- 
ciates and Mabel Hay Barrows Mussey in 
collecting and publishing Social Hymns (A. 



S. Barnes Company), and in suggesting "not 
only a department of social hymns, but a 
hymnal whose whole atmosphere we believe 
to be charged with the social idealism char- 
acteristic of the Christianity of our time." 

G. T. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



THE IDEAL PATRIOT 
To the Editor: There are some words of 
Chesterton's, dashed off a dozen years ago in 
his Daily Neius column, that deserve to be 
inscribed in the memories of us all, whether 
in the ordinary eveiy-day struggle against 
adverse popular opinion, or at those tragic 
moments in the national life of every land, 
when we have to see wrong triumphant, and 
our well-loved co-workers ranged on the 
other side. I should be glad if you would 
reprint them: 

"The ideal patriot is he who sees the 
faults of his fatherland with an eye clearer 
than any eye of hatred, the eye of an irra- 
tional and irrevocable love." 

Alice Henry. 
Dorchester, Mass. 

TO EDUCATORS 

To the Editor: Is there any good reason 
for sex hygiene as a separate study for the 
young or indeed for anyone but a specialist? 
Years ago I saw a sexless manikin in a 
school. Now it seems to be that the manikins 
shall be all sex. 

Hygiene has been shockingly neglected, 
and is an all-important study for children. 
They should know all functions of the body, 
but is it not more scientific and mentally 
wholesome to study the body as a whole? 
Ignorance of sex and preoccupation of sex 
could thus, it seems to me, best be avoided. 

I ask this question desiring information 
from educators. It is, I believe, of the ut- 
most importance in introducing a new study 
to put it exactly in the right place. Balance 
and the relative importance of subjects 
studied are surely to be considered as much 
as the actual knowledge acquired. 

Mary McMurtrie. 

Philadelphia. | 

THE MILLS-COFFEY BILL 

To the Editor: A highly gratifying indi- 
cation of the steadily growing interest in 
health insurance in the United States is the 
number of pamphlets that are appearing crit- 
icizing details of the Mills bill, now before 
the New York legislature. This bill, as Sur- 
vey readers will recall, provides medical 
care, a cash benefit equal to two-thirds of 
wages during twenty-six weeks of illness, 
and a funeral benefit of $100. 

Among the opposition pamphlets, perhaps 
the ablest is the statement on compulsory 
health insurance, prepared by the legislative 
committee of the Social Insurance Depart- 
ment of the National Civic Federation. In 
looking over this memorandum, the principal 
characteristic that is impressed upon the 
reader is the extremely negative attitude as- 
sumed. This seems to justify the query 
whether the chairman of the committee, Lee 
K. Frankel, still favors a comprehensive sys- 
tem of health insurance or has changed the 
opinion which he expressed as recently as 
November 10, 1915, when he stated before 
the National Association for the Study and 
Prevention of Infant Mortality that "the 
need for sickness insurance can no longer be 
denied. The next decade will probably see, 
in the United States, the development of a 
comprehensive system which will protect the 



worker against the contingencies of sickness 
and invalidity due to sickness." 

If these sentences still accurately describe 
the views of the chairman of this influential 
committee, may not the friends of the best 
possible health insurance law for New York 
hope that its critical memorandum on the 
Mills bill will be supplemented by aggressive 
efforts to secure the appointment of a state 
commission to investigate the whole subject 
on behalf of the wage-earners of the state? 
The assistance of the National Civic Feder- 
ation and of the Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, which Dr. Frankel so ably repre- 
sents, as well as of all other organizations 
and individuals who have at heart the bet- 
terment of labor and social conditions in the 
United States, would help greatly toward this 
desirable outcome. Readers of the Survey 
can hardly render a better public service 
than by writing at once to their representa- 
tives at Albany in support of the Mills-Cof- 
fey bill, which provides for the appointment 
of such a commission. 

Henry R. Seager. 
[Chairman, Social Insurance Committee, 
American Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion.] 
New York. 

A CALL FOR SPEAKERS 

To the Editor: For some years I have 
been interested in the work for which your 
journal stands. I am heading a movement 
here for a great Chautauqua. We plan an 
assembly period in July, and I am writing 
to know whom you would suggest as worth- 
while people to bring across the continent 
to our program. If you would give me a 
few suggestions or an indication of the par- 
ticular skill and capacity of each individual, 
I would be greatly obliged to you. Most 
celebrated people come this way at some 
time and we are often able to bring them 
to a platform that affords them good oppor- 
tunity, if only we know of their coming. 
So I am seeking to tie our office to out- 
standing characters throughout North Amer- 
ica and the world. 

We plan to build our Chautauqua so as 
to meet the next necessity of the different 
professions and callings in life as nearly 
as may be. 

William M. Bell. 

[World's Social Progress Council.] 

227 West 51 street, Los Angeles. 

THE ADAMSON LAW 

To the Editor: In your issue of March 3, 
Mr. Fitch expresses regret that the decision 
of the Supreme Court sustaining the con- 
stitutionality of the Adamson law "estab- 
lishes no precedent that can be depended 
upon to justify legislation carefully and 
thoughtfully drafted for the purpose of 
destroying industrial evils or promoting so- 
cial progress." This boils down to a lament 
that the court decided only the question 
before it. 

The judges did not have before them a 
statute "carefully and thoughtfully drafted 
for the purpose of destroying industrial evils 
or promoting social progress." They had 
before them a statute hastily drafted in an 
emergency for the purpose of preventing a 
great public calamity. And that statute 
they upheld. 

To regret that the decision did not settle 
broader questions than it did is to regret 
that the case before the court did not in- 
volve broader questions than it did. To 
call the decision "disappointing from the 
standpoint of social advance through legis- 
lation" is to ask the court to declare itself 
on questions which were not before it. The 
sounder criticism on the opinions in the case 
is that they contained too much that was 
irrelevant, not too little. 

The opinion of the chief justice proceeds 
on the theory that in order to determine the 
precise nature of the question before the 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 14, 1 9 , 7 



47 



court, account must be taken of the facts 
of the situation which prompted the statute. 
Mr. Fitch, it would seem, would have the 
court disregard those facts in determining 
the nature of the question before it. He 
places himself in the position of agreeing 
with the dissenting opinion of Justice Pit- 
ney as to the immateriality of the facts. 
The learned justice concedes that the Adam- 
son law removed an obstruction to inter- 
state commerce. But this, he says, though 
true in fact, is immaterial in law. The ma- 
jority acted on the theory that what was 
true in fact was material in law. 

It is not to be assumed that Mr. Fitch 
would have the court disregard the facts 
in deciding whether the statute was a proper 
exercise of legislative power. Yet he would 
have them disregard the facts in determin- 
ing what was the question presented for de- 
cision. When so much depends on educat- 
ing the judiciary to appreciate the relevancy 
of social facts in applying such broad lan- 
guage as "due process of law," it seems a 
pity to criticize a court for appreciating the 
relevancy of social facts in ascertaining the 
precise nature of the question presented for 
decision. 

Thomas Reed Powell. 

New York. 

To the Editor: Mr. Powell is a lawyer 
and I am not. If we disagree on points of 
law and judicial procedure, it is to be as- 
sumed therefore that he is right. Conse- 
quently it is with all due humility that I at- 
tempt to state what, from my layman's view- 
point, the situation seems to be. 

The social facts underlying the Adam- 
son law included more than the strike 
threat. They included the facts concerning 
hours and wages and social relationships. 
These underlying facts seem to me to have 
furnished the real reasons for passing the 
Adamson law. The court tacitly recognized 
them in upholding that part of the law deal- 
ing with hours. It dismissed that phase of 
the subject before it without discussion as 
having been completely settled in an earlier 
decision where the reasoning was based on 
considerations of human welfare. That is, 
it justified a regulation of hours because 
there is a relation between a limitation of 
the working day and the health and well- 
being of society. 

But when, in considering the Adamson 
law, the court turned to the sections involv- 
ing a wage regulation, it abandoned all con- 
sideration of the permanent underlying so- 
cial facts and turned to the outstanding, tem- 
porary social phenomenon of a threat of in- 
terruption of interstate commerce. Thus the 
court took cognizance of only one fact out 
of the group of facts before it. 

Mr. Powell would not deny the existence 
of the basic social facts back of the wage 
demand which led to the passage of the 
wage law. In holding that the court ought 
not to have considered them, he seems to 
me to commit the very sin that he lays at my 
door. While "true in fact" he regards them 
as "immaterial in law." I still feel that 
these facts were both true and material. 

John A. Fitch. 

New York. 



the interesting facts of every-day life across 
the Pacific, and by showing the important 
share which especially China and Japan 
play in our national life. 



JOTTINGS 



FOURTEEN social agencies of Syracuse, N. 
Y., have formed a committee to organize a 
social service federation, inspired by an ad- 
dress by Rabbi M. C. Currick, president of 
the Erie, Pa., federation. 

RESOLUTIONS adopted at its recent Kan- 
sas City meeting put the Department of Su- 
perintendents of the National Education As- 
sociation on record as disapproving mili- 
tary training in public schools. The reso- 
lutions were based on the report of a com- 
mittee appointed a year ago. Two state 
commissions — in Massachusetts and New Jer- 
sey — have also condemned military training 
in the schools. 



THE Districting Committee of the City Plan 
Commission of St. Louis has learned from 
its past experience and that of other cities 
that it is wise to secure suggestions before 
framing a law on the height of buildings 
and zoning regulations, rather than have to 
meet a storm of indignation afterward. It 
is accordingly circulating a schedule to se- 
cure the consensus of competent judgment 
as to what is practicable and desirable to 
prevent congested and erratic building in 
the future. 



THE Texas Town and City Planning Asso- 
ciation met recently at Sherman, where it 
had been organized two years ago by Dr. O. 
C. Ahlers, who realized that the smaller 
towns and cities of Texas shared the same 
problems of neglect and unregulated growth, 
and that reformers in all of them had to 
overcome the same apathy. The trouble of 
the smaller city is too frequently that its 
more influential citizens move away to some 
larger center to retire. The association en- 
deavors to stimulate an active interest in the 
smaller cities and their needs. The principal 
speaker at the convention was George E. 
Kessler, whose audience of 200 delegates in- 
cluded many city officials from every part 
of Texas and from southern Oklahoma. 



ASIA, the journal of the American Asiatic 
Association, published since 1898, is now 
coming out as a large, finely illustrated 
monthly magazine which aims at a closer 
binding of Occident and orient by bringing 



THE campaign against the cigarette in Kan- 
sas [the Survey, January 27] has re- 
sulted in the enactment of a law that not 
only makes it unlawful for anyone to "sell 
or give away cigarettes or cigarette papers 
or any disguise or subterfuge of either of 
these," but also to advertise them in any way 
in Kansas. It makes it unlawful to sell cig- 
arettes, cigars, cigarette papers, tobacco or 
"any other such materials connected with 
the smoking of tobacco" to persons under 
twenty-one years of age. William A. Mc- 
Keever, head of the department of child wel- 
fare of the state university, calls it "the most 
radical and sweeping measure of the kind 
ever passed by any legislature," and adds, 
"we are slowly but certainly developing a 
state-wide movement for the enforcement of 
this law." 

BROADSIDES are the favorite weapon of 
the People's Campaign League, formed in 
New York city for the purpose of taking up 
on a national scale one issue after another in 
behalf of the people. At present the league 
is specializing in an attack on capital pun- 
ishment. It has issued five broadsides, the 
first an announcement of its program, and the 
others open letters from Frederic C. Howe, 
commissioner of immigration at the port of 
New York, from Charles M. Lincoln, man- 
aging editor of the New York JPorlti, from 
Frederic L. Hoffman, statistician of the Pru- 
dential Insurance Company, and from Sam- 
uel Williams Cooper, member of the Penn- 
sylvania bar. Grace Humiston, attorney, is 
president; Pierrepont Grannis, vice-presi- 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotel* and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travel, Real Estate', 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," "Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



SOCIAL WORKERS' EMPLOYMENT 
EXCHANGE: The Department for Social 
Workers of the Intercollegiate Bureau of 
Occupations registers men and women for 
positions in social and civic work, the 
qualifications for registration being a de- 
gree from an accredited college, a year's 
course in a professional school training for 
social or civic work, or experience which 
has given at least equivalent preparation. 
Needs of organizations seeking workers 
are given careful and prompt attention. 
EMELYN PECK, Manager, 130 East 22d 
St., New York City. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

MAX AND WIFE, thoroughly versed in 
modern institution methods, seek appoint- 
ment as Superintendent and Matron of 
Orphanage located in country. Address 
2493 Survi 

YOUNG COUPLE, college graduates, 
both employed; 5 years' experience in dif- 
ferent lines of social work, desire positions 
in civic or welfare work, not necessarily 
with same organization. Address 2494 
Survey. 

YOUNG WOMAN with wide experi- 
ence in foremost juvenile court desires 
position as probation officer or with child- 
caring agency. Address 2495 Survey. 

COLLEGE GRADUATE, speaks Yid- 
dish, thoroughly experienced case worker, 
excellent references, desires position, possi- 
bility executive work. Address 2497 

Survey. 

HELP WANTED 

HEAD WORKER— HOSPITAL 
SOCIAL SERVICE 
DEPARTMENT 
Competent headworker wanted for 
social service department in a large 
New York hospital ; organization in- 
cludes twelve paid workers, under- 
graduate pupil nurses, district phy- 
sicians, volunteer Auxiliary. Apply 
to Dr. S. S. Goldwater, 1 E. 100th 
St., N. Y. City. 

WANTED — Man and wife with experi- 
ence to organize and take charge of County 
Detention Home. Address * Boys' Work 
Secretary, Y. M. C. A., Tampa, Florida. 

WANTED experienced man for Super- 
intendent Home for Crippled Children, 
Connecticut Children's Aid Society, 60 
Brown Thompson Building, Hartford, Conn. 

THE POSITION" OF GIRLS' WORKER 

in a large, well-equipped social settlement 
will be open June 15th. Must be mature 
and have had some experience in social 
work. Jewess preferred. Give full in- 
formation in your application as to experi- 
ence, salary expected, references, etc. Ad- 
dress 2496 Survey. 



48 



THE SURFEY FOR APRIL 14, igi 7 



NOW READY 



The Social Teachings 



of the 

Prophets and Jesus 

By Prof. CharlesfcFoster Kent, Ph. D.,[Litt D. 

377 pages. 12mo cloth. $1.50 

This book answers clearly and directly the vital questions that 
thoughtful men are asking. 

Has Christianity failed to solve the problems of human society 
or have men failed to appreciate and apply its social principles? 

Is it true that in the utter breakdown of the present materialistic 
civilization the religion of the prophets and Jesus alone remains? 

What was their contribution to the solution of such social problems 
as poverty, the living wage, the programme of Socialism, the rights 
and duties of capital and labor, the responsibilities of public officials, 
the private ownership of property, the divorce question, the treatment 
of criminals, the practical interpretation of democracy, the right and 
wrong of war, and the basis of an enduring peace? 

Are their teachings too idealistic to meet modern conditions or 
are they alone practical? 

These live social problems, in both their ancient and modern 
aspects, are treated in this book frankly and constructively. Written 
in a clear, fascinating style, this volume has a compelling message for 
the business man, for parents, for teachers, for pastors, for social 
workers, for men in public life, and for all who are striving to become 
intelligent and efficient citizens in the new social order. 



CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

597 Fifth Avenue, New York 



Summer Institutes 

Round table conferences for intensive study of practical social problems. 
Membership is by invitation of the conductor. 

INSTITUTE FOR TUBERCULOSIS WORKERS 
May 14 — June 2 

PHILIP P. JACOBS, Conductor 

INSTITUTE IN CHILD WELFARE 
June 13 — July 3 

HENRY W. THURSTON, Conductor 

INSTITUTE IN FAMILY WELFARE 
June 13 — July 3 

PORTER R. LEE, Conductor 
If you are interested please write 

THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF PHILANTHROPY 
105 East Twenty-second Street New York City 



dent; Mabel Coldin, secretary, and Spencer 
Miller, Jr., formerly assistant to Thomas 
Mott Osborne at Sing Sing, treasurer. 

ANNOUNCING the selection of Alvin E. 
Dodd as its director, the Retail Research 
Association emphasizes the educational aspect 
of the work it plans to do. Mr. Dodd has 
for several years been secretary of the Na- 
tional Society for the Promotion of Industrial 
Education, which has taken a leading part 
in drafting legislation for vocational training 
in a number of states. The Retail Research 
Association is a combination of eighteen 
stores to study various problems relating to 
retail distribution. Some of the stores are 
William Filene's Sons Company, Boston; Jo- 
seph Home Company, Pittsburgh; L. S. 
Ayres & Co., Indianapolis; L. Bamberger & 
Co., Newark; the Bon Marche, Seattle; D. 
H. Holmes Co., New Orleans, and others. 
The association hopes to make educational 
studies that will be of service both to the 
public schools and to private and corpora- 
tion schools. Mr. Dodd will remain as a 
member of the board of directors of the na- 
tional society. 



personal and 
Professional 



ROGER N. BALDWIN, secretary of the St. 
Louis Civic League and an active worker in 
many social agencies, has joined the staff of 
the American Union Against Militarism, in 
New York city, as a volunteer. 



J. W. MAGRUDER, secretary of the Balti- 
more Federated Charities, has been appointed 
an associate of Ernest P. Bicknell, director 
of civilian relief of the American Red Cross, 
with headquarters at Washington. 



CHARLOTTE RUMBOLD, formerly of St. 
Louis, has joined the staff of the Cleveland 
Chamber of Commerce as an assistant secre- 
tary working with the committees on city 
planning, housing, sanitation and public 
recreation. 



GEORGE H. CRAZE, a member of the staff 
of the National Housing Association for 
nearly five years, has been appointed assist- 
ant to the chief of the Bureau of Housing of 
the Pennsylvania State Department of 
Health at Harrisburg. 



DAVID M. BRESSLER has resigned as gen- 
eral manager of the Industrial Removal Of- 
fice, New York city, which he has held for 
sixteen years, to go into business. A testi- 
monial dinner to his work in the distribution 
of Jewish immigrants is to be given on 
April 16. 



E. M. BARROWS, who has had editorial 
charge of the Bulletin of the National Con- 
ference on Community Workers, has recent- 
ly been made secretary of the National Com- 
mittee on Films for Young People, which is 
affiliated with the National Board of Re- 
view on Motion Pictures. Seventy communi- 
ties have applied for affiliation since Janu- 
ary, and the committee is in correspondence 
with 250 others. 



THE Board of Education of New York city 
has appointed to the new office of executive 
manager Leo Arnstein, formerly in the office 
of the president of Manhattan when George 
McAneny filled that position, and recently 
chairman of the board's finance committee. 
The position carries a salary of $10,000 and 



49 



was created after considerable discussion of ^[| 
the waste and duplication in the school sys- 
tem and the need of business-like coordina- 
tion among its parts. 

RUDOLPH MATZ, of Chicago, whose acci- 
dental death costs the bar of that city and 
the cause of civic justice one of its sturdiest 
leaders, was the senior member in the firm 
of Matz, Fisher & Boyden, with which Wal- 
ter L. Fisher, formerly secretary of the in- 
terior, has long been associated. For many 
years he bore the burden of the initiative, 
leadership and support of the Legal Aid So- 
ciety of Chicago, which he served as presi- 
dent for the past seven years, and as its most 
active director through all its earlier years. 
At every annual conference of the National 
Alliance of Legal Aid Societies, Mr. Mate 
was foremost in its administrative councils 
and in its public discussions. He gave the 
last hard work of his life to framing and 
promoting the bill pending in the Illinois 
legislature to deal effectively with the loan- 
shark evil. 



m 



Handkerchiefs 



= at 




Rig. Trade Mark 



STATEMENT OF THE OWNERSHIP, MAN- 
VGEMENT, CIRCULATION ETC. REQyiRED 
BY THE ACT OK CONGRESS Ob AUGUST 24, 
1912, of the Survey, published weekly at New York, 
N. Y., for April 1. 1917. 

State of New York, county of New York, ss 
Before me, a notary public in and for the state and 
countv aforesaid, personally appeared Arthur P. 
Kellogg, who, having been duly sworn according to 
law, deposes and says that he is the secretary 
of the Survey Associates, Inc., publishers of the 
Survey, and that the following is, to the best of 
his knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the 
circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publication for 
the date shown in the above caption, required by 
the act of August 24, 1912, embodied m section 
443, postal laws and regulations, printed on the 
reverse of this form, to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business man- 
agers are: Publisher, Survey Associates, Inc., 112 
East 19th St., New York city; editor, Paul U. Kel- 
logg, 112 East 19th St., New York city; managing 
editor, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 19th St., New 
York city; business managers, none. 

2. That the owners are: (Give names and ad- 
dresses of individual owners, or, if a corporation, 
give its name and the names and addresses of 
stockholders owning or holding 1 per cent or more 
of the total amount of stock.) Survey Associates, 
Inc., 112 East 19th St., New York city, a non- 
commercial corporation under the laws of the state 
of New York with over 1,000 members. It has 
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Forest. 30 Broad St., New York city; vice-president, 
John M. Gl<-nn. 130 East 22nd St., New York city; 
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York citv: secretary, Arthur P. Kellogg, 112 East 
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Note. This statement must be made in duplicate 
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the new books advertised on this page 









survey 




Civilian Relief Work 

Tomorrow's Public Health 

Canada's Man-Power Inventory 

English Experience with Output and Hours 

Farms, Farmers, and Farm-Hands 

Breweries versus Bakeries 

Beer and Temperance 



Price 10 Cents A P ril 21 > ]i)] 



CONTENTS for APRIL 21, 1917 The GIST of IT 



Volume XXXVIII, No. 3 
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

Output and Hours ------- HENRIETTA R. WALTER 

The Task of Civilian War Relief. 1. - - - 

To Simon .V Patten, a Poem GUY nearing 

A Canadian City in War Time. V — Recruiting and the Man-Power 

Inventory paul u. kellogc 

The New Public Health. 111. - - 

ALICE HAMILTON, M.D., AND GERTRUDE SEYMOUR 

"Turning Oh" the Spigot." A Reply to Mrs. Tilton - - HUGH r. FOX 
Breweries vs. Bakeries. A Rejoinder to Mr. Fox - - ELIZABETH TILTON 



51 
53 
55 

56 

59 

62 
65 



INDUSTRY 

Output of Munitions Factories In- 
creased by Shortening Hours 51 

Industrial Upheaval in War Time. . 53 
Inventory of Man-Power in Canada 56 

Shortage of Farm Labor 67 

Women and Children for Plowboys. 67 
Civilian Work for Conscientious Ob- 
jectors 

Dismissal of the Case against John 
Lawson, Leader of the Colorado 
Miners 



CRIME 



Intemperance, Immorality and De- 
linquency of Soldiers' Families... 53 

Murders and Drunkenness in Wet 

and Dry States 62, 65 

End of the Murder Cases from the 

Colorado Coal Strike 72 



70 EDUCATION 



72 
HEALTH 

Fatigue and Industrial Poisons from 
Long Hours in Munitions Plants. . 51 

Child-Birth, Sickness, Nursing, Medi- 
cal Care of Soldiers' Families 53 

Boards of Health, Their Officers and 
Powers 59 

Alcohol and Disease 62, 65 

Uncle Sam Now Quarantine Officer 
at Every Port 72 

How the Audience Takes the Health 
Campaign in China 73 

CIVICS 

Better Housing for English Munition 

Workers 51 

Recreation Must Not Be Sacrificed to 

War 53 

Organization of Health Boards, Elected 

Officers Preferred over Appointed 

Officers 59 

Enforcement of Prohibition Laws. . . .62, 65 
Food Control the Pressing Need... 67 

LIVELIHOOD 

To Maintain Standards of Living the 

Task of Civilian War Relief 53 

Food Values Wasted in Alcohol 62 

Relief Work Pledged by the Churches 70 



Schooling and Discipline of Soldiers' 

Children 53 

Special Training tor Health Officers 59 
Professor Patten to be Retired from 

Pennsylvania 55 

Schoolboys for Farm Helpers 67 

Where Jails are Better Than Schools 66 
Illinois' University Plan for Increas- 
ing Food Approved by Sir Horace 

Plunkett 69 

Scott Nearing's Resignation from 
Toledo Not Accepted 72 

INTERNATIONAL 

Unfavorable Experience with Long 

Working Days and Weeks in 

England 51 

Canadian Care for Families of 

Soldiers Overseas 53 

Recruiting and Man-Power Inventory 

in Canada 56 

Prohibition and Temperance Reform 

Abroad 62,65 

School and Child Labor Laws Broken 

Down by War in England 68 

Sir Horace Plunkett on the Illinois 

Food- Plan 69 

Chinese Women at a Health Meeting 73 
Five Books from England on the 

War, Its Causes and Results 73 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers 

ROBERT W. DE FOREST, President 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGi ecretary FRANK TUCKER, Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

112 East 19 street, New York 2559 Michigan ave., Chicago 

PRICE 

Single copies of this issue, 10 cents. Cooperating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular subscriptions 
weekly edition $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.50 extra. Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscription once- 
a-month edition $2 a year. Foreign postage 60 cents extra. Canadian 35 rents. Changes of address 
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing practice, when payment 
is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1917. by Survey Associates, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act 
of March 3, 1ST'). 



Ask for the Index 



TTIE index for Volume XXXVII of the SURVEY (October, 1916-March, 
1917), is now in press. It will be sent free on request. Libraries and 
others on our index mailing list for other volumes will receive this one with- 
out further request. Volume, stoutly bound in red cloth with leather 
corners, $2.50; subscribers' copies bound at $1.50; carriage extra 



WAR comes to us with almost three years' 
experience to draw on from abroad; not only 
military experience, hut social — in industry, 
health, civics, education, crime, relief. We 
needn't bungle unless we insist on it. 



ENGLAND, for instance, has been all 
through the gigantic blunder of trying to 
make munitions in feverish haste. Muscles 
and nerves break down almost as easily as 
powder explodes. The British have increased 
their output by cutting out seven-day work 
and overtime. Page 51. 



CHARITY workers know from long prac- 
tice how to put into effect Baden-Powell's 
statement that the true victory will come in 
the conservation of children. Civilian relief 
at its task of maintaining the standard of 
living among soldiers' families. Page 53. 



BY MEANS of a man-power inventory and 
an occupational survey, the National Service 
Board is bringing into Canadian recruiting 
some of the system with which an insurance 
company goes after prospects. It is laying 
the groundwork for organizing the human 
resources of the country for production 
during the war and reconstruction afterward. 
Not conscription, but selective volunteering 
is the Canadian plan. Page 56. 



HEALTH needs of country and city are 
increased rather than changed by war. 
Health may be bought, we have been told. 
First payments should be for an officer 
trained for public health service, a board 
with police powers, the vision and vim to 
apply scientific truth unflinchingly. Page 59. 



SPEAKING officially for the brewers, Mr. 
Fox challenges Mrs. Tilton's prohibition facts 
and figures and outlines their own program 
of reform. They would have a federal com- 
mission study the subject and they propose 
that saloons shall serve both food and drink, 
to women and children as well as men. 
Page 62. 



WE'VE come to a choice between food and 
drink — the waste of grain in making alcohol 
must be stopped at once, replies Mrs. Tilton. 
Prohibition must be enacted as part of our 
preparedness. The brewers can help. Page 65. 



AT THE HEART of the food problem, dis- 
cussed by evervone from the President to the 
least of us, are three demands: abundant 
production, just and economical distribution, 
wise conservation. Mr. Hoover must sift the 
myriad suggestions made. Right now the 
pressing need is for farm laborers. Sir 
Horace Plunkett, the distinguished Irish 
agriculturist, heartily endorses the plan of 
Dean Davenport, of the University of Illi- 
nois, for "civil-military service" under the 
farmers who own the land and hold the key 
to the whole situation. Pages 67-69. 



CONSCIENTIOUS objectors to the number 
of some hundreds of thousands — mostly 
Quakers and their kin — propose a "farm 
labor league" which will both ease con- 
sciences and grow food. Page 70. 



WHAT the church has to offer the nation 
set forth by the Federal Council of Churches. 
Page 70. 



SCOTT NEARING'S resignation for "the 
good of the university" has been declined 
by the trustees of Toledo. Page 72. But 
the Pennsylvania trustees, who fired Nearing, 
are retiring Dr. Patten promptly on his sixty- 
fifth birthday. Page 55. 




%) Vs 




Output and Hours 

A Summary of the 
English Experience 1 

Zfy Henriette R. Walter 

DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL STUDIES, RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION 



WITH the shadow of war upon the nation, de- 
mands are growing more and more pressing on 
every side for more guns, more shells, more 
armor plate, more ships, more workers to man 
our plants, and turn out the great quantities of supplies which 
are needed by the Allies and by the large army we are to raise. 
In this acute demand, however, there is a very real danger that 
we who are profiting by so much of the experience of the 
nations already at war, may disregard one lesson which Eng- 
land, in particular, has learned at a great cost of time and 
strength. 

Already we hear of steps being taken to break down the 
safeguards raised by years of effort for the protection and 
welfare of industrial workers. Even before the actual declara- 
tion of war the eight-hour day had been suspended by order 
of the President for workers on government naval contracts ; 
the New York State Federation of Labor, in a burst of patrio- 
tic fervor, had declared in favor of relaxing laws which re- 
strict hours of work ; and a bill, later withdrawn, had been in- 
tioduced into the New York legislature which waived all re- 
striction of hours and night work and day-of-rest for women 
and children over sixteen in factories making supplies for the 
army or navy. A bill giving power to the State Industrial 
Commission to suspend or modify provisions of the labor law 
in "times of national crisis" has now been proposed in New 
York. Resolutions are being passed and pressure is being 
brought to bear on various state legislatures to relax the limita- 
tions of their labor laws. The Council of National Defense is 
urging that governors be vested with authority to suspend or 
modify legal restrictions at the recommendation of the council. 
The same emotional disregard of experience which swept over 
England in the opening year of the war appears to have this 
country in its grasp. To throw aside in a moment the accumu- 
lated knowledge of basic principles of industrial efficiency 
would be folly in the face of England's industrial historv since 
August, 1914. 



J A full summary of the English reports may be found in a pamphlet just 
issued by the Division of Industrial Studies of the Russell Sage Foundation, 
130 East 22 street, New York city (No. IS-6, price 20 cents). 



Beyond doubt the production of all the necessaries of war 
will have to be pushed now and pushed to the utmost. The 
important question, however, is how this speeding-up can be 
most effectively accomplished. Shall it be by relaxing labor 
laws, letting workers toil twelve or fourteen hours a day, 
permitting a seven-day week and night work for women and 
children, and endangering the labor force of the nation through 
failure to maintain proper safeguards against fatigue, indus- 
trial disease and accident? British experience answers em- 
phatically in the negative. 

England began, as we seem likely to begin, sacrificing all 
standards in industry in an effort to secure an adequate supply 
of munitions. Excessive overtime prevailed; seven-day work 
became the rule ; night work for women as well as men was 
revived after nearly a century of disuse; thousands of emer- 
gency orders were issued, relaxing restrictions; many employers 
assuming labor laws to be in abeyance disregarded all limita- 
tions without even securing permits. 

For nearly a year conditions were allowed to be thus de- 
moralized, with the result that the supply of munitions lagged 
dangerously behind the tremendous demand. Workers were 
exhausted by overwork, and despite their patriotic enthusiasm 
could not put forth their best efforts. Almost inevitably evi- 
dences of industrial unrest appeared. Then attention turned 
to the effecting of strong governmental control and organiza- 
tion of the production of munitions, which, during the first 
months of the war, had been left largely to unorganized pri- 
vate initiative. Privately owned munition plants were placed 
under government control ; employers' profits limited ; trade 
unions persuaded to abandon their most cherished rights and 
rules; and campaigns for recruiting new workers pushed. A 
Ministry of Munitions came into being with the formation 
of the coalition cabinet in May, 1915. 

But even these measures did not achieve a sufficient output 
of munitions. 

With control centralized in a responsible authority came 
;; realization of the reckless waste of human strength that had 
been permitted. The science and experience which in time 
of peace had built up laws for the welfare of workers were 

51 



32 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21 



1 9 1 7 



recalled, and a Committee on the Health of Munition Work- 
ers was appointed in September, 1915, by Lloyd George, then 
minister of munitions, with Sir George Newman as chairman. 
This committee was created not with any idea of sentimental- 
izing over the hardships of the workers, but for the very practi- 
cal purpose of finding out how maximum output could be se- 
cured and maintained over a long period. After more than a 
year of war, it was realized that the reserve supply of labor 
was too small to risk the exhaustion of the existing force. 

All Work Makes Jack — Unproductive 

The question of the relation of output to working hours 
Was then the primary problem for the committee to solve. 
The first studies which it made were of a general charac- 
ter based on visits to factories and talks with managers and 
workers. It found that the more enlightened and observ- 
ant employers were by that time detecting evidences of indus- 
trial fatigue and in some cases voluntarily curtailing the hours 
of work. But, for the most part, seven-day work, excessive 
overtime and night work had been universally adopted, and 
the vitality and efficiency of the labor force had been allowed 
to reach a low ebb. Many workers who in ordinary times 
would have stayed away from work because of illness, now 
from a desire to "do their bit," stuck to their jobs, and thus 
a permanent undermining of health was resulting. Many 
others from sheer exhaustion and fatigue were forced to be 
absent from work at frequent intervals, and a large amount 
of "broken time," as a consequence decreased output. During 
the overlong working hours it was found that there was slack- 
ing in the rate of production, sometimes conscious, as when a 
crew nurses its strength over a long course, sometimes uncon- 
scious as an automatic measure for self-protection. 

The most immediate need, in the opinion of the committee, 
was for the restoration of a weekly day of rest. It was abso- 
lutely essential that the workers have some opportunity to re- 
cuperate from the accumulated fatigue of a 70 or 80-hour 
week. Moreover, many employers were beginning to see that 
a seven-day week was false economy. One large firm found 
that when, after running its plant seven days a week over a 
considerable period, the Sunday holiday was restored, without 
any change in the daily schedule, the men worked a greater 
number of hours in the six days than they had in seven, be- 
cause of a consequent falling off in the amount of "broken 
time." As a result of the committee's investigation and the 
support which the Ministry of Munitions has given to its 
findings, Sunday work has now been almost entirely abolished 
except for occasional repair work. In some plants crews of 
"week-end workers" have been recruited from the leisure class 
to release the regular workers for rest and yet keep the fac- 
tories running. 

The next plea of the committee was directed toward a re- 
duction in overtime. That men and women could not work 
twelve to fifteen hours a day for weeks and months on end 
and maintain output seemed self-evident. But not content 
with general inquiries into the effect of these hours on pro- 
ductive capacity it instituted intensive scientific studies of 
the exact relation between the volume of production and the 
period of work. The output of groups of workers, both men 
and women, engaged in light work and in heavy work was 
followed over periods of from four to six months, during which 
several changes in working hours were put into effect. For 
example, a reduction from 68.2 to 59.7 in the average weekly 
hours worked by a group of 100 women engaged in the heavy 
work of turning fuse bodies resulted in a 23 per cent increase 
in hourly output and an actual rise of 8 per cent in total 
weekly output. Further decrease in hours to 56 a week and 



even less showed not only an equally large product but also 
a decided improvement in regularity of attendance by the 
women. This case is typical of the findings of the investi- 
gators. 

These results, which point to increased output in shorter 
hours, were substantiated by detailed studies of fatigue under- 
taken for the Home Office by Prof. A. F. Stanley Kent. He 
found that the total daily output may be actually diminished 
by introducing overtime, because increased fatigue affects the 
production not only of the actual overtime period but of the 
regular working hours as well. An absolute increase of over 5 
per cent was effected in the output of one group of workers by 
reducing their working day from 12 to 10 hours. Studies of 
both individual and group output proved that the interests 
of production are best served when industrial standards are 
maintained. 

As a further result of the studies of the Health of Muni- 
tion Workers Committee, the necessity was brought out for 
adapting hours of labor to the age and sex of the workers and 
the nature of the process to be performed. In line with this 
principle the committee gave certain maximum hours for dif- 
ferent types of work and workers beyond which output can- 
not be increased, but was emphatic in declaring that even 
these were war maxima, involving too great a strain for any 
but the strongest to bear. For men on very heavy work, the 
maximum hours should be no more than 56, for men on mod- 
erately heavy work 60, for men on light work 70, for women 
on heavy work 56, and on light work about 60. Not only 
should there be such adaptation of hours to groups of workers, 
but the reaction of individuals to their hours and other condi- 
tions of work should be carefully watched. 

To reduce the amount of overtime worked in munition 
plants and yet meet emergency demands, the committee advo- 
cates wherever possible the institution of double or triple shifts, 
for even night work with all its evils is considered more de- 
sirable than excessive hours of work. It is urged, however, 
that women be employed at night only in the most extreme 
cases of shortage of male labor. When this necessity does 
arise, women should not be allowed to work more than eight 
hours and adequate rest periods should be provided. Night 
work for children under sixteen should be absolutely prohib- 
ited. Eight-hour shifts are of course recommended for men 
as well as women, though because of the scarcity of male labor 
they are more difficult to arrange. The introduction of short 
rest pauses in the long spells of work were also found to be 
an effective method of maintaining or even speeding up the 
rate of production. 

Trade Sickness and Accidents 

Not only have the immediate effects of excessive hours on 
output been studied by the committee, but also their more last- 
ing results on the efficiency of workers in lowered resistance to 
industrial disease and other illness and the greater risk of ac- 
cident. In munitions manufacture, workers are exposed to a 
formidable array of industrial poisons, ranging from the com- 
monly known lead to the newly discovered "dope" used in 
varnishing wings of aeroplanes and the highly poisonous and 
explosive "T.N.T." The lowered vitality of the workers 
due to overtime, night work and seven-day labor has made 
them doubly susceptible to the industrial diseases caused by 
these poisons, and the committee has urged careful precautions 
and, especially, periodic medical examination. 

An increase in both sickness-rate and accident-rate in muni- 
tion plants has also accompanied the demoralized industrial 
conditions. The accident rate in one large plant, which was 
100 per thousand employed under normal conditions before 



T HE SURVEY FOR APRIL 



i 'j i 7 



53 



the war, for a corresponding period in 1915, rose to 292 per 
thousand on the day shift and 508 per thousand on the night 
shift. Similar increases in the sickness-rate were noted. 

Other matters which came within the committee's scrutiny 
and which were held to be important for conserving the effi- 
ciency of the workers, were ventilation, lighting, washing fa- 
cilities and sanitary factory environment ; the provision of in- 
dustrial canteens where workers might get the nourishing food 
necessary to sustain them ; improvement of housing and transit 
facilities; and the appointment of welfare supervisors to give 
special attention to women and children in relation to whose 
increased employment special problems had arisen. 

Practically all the important recommendations of the Health 
of Munitions Workers' Committee have received some degree 
of support from administrative authorities. Canteens have 



been established in .ill government I and in m< I 

trolled" plants; a special Welfare Department, und 
Rowntree, has been established in the Ministn of Munitions 
to stimulate the development of welfare worl ; impn 
in housing conditions have been accomplished; and, more im- 
portant than any of these, seven-day work has disappeared 
from both "controlled" and government factories, while the 
eight-hour day has been established for women in all Mate- 
owned plants, and overtime has even where been decreased. 

This is a remarkable record of achievement tor little more 
than a year of work. England can well be proud that in a 
time when the most judicious lose their sense ot proportion, 
she has had the ability, in spite of blunders, to regain her bal- 
ance and see the truth of the homely adage that haste makes 
waste. We in America will do well not to forget it. 



The Task of Civilian War Relief 



This is the first of a series of articles based upon a course of lectures upon civilian relief noiv being 
delivered in New York with the sanction of the American Red Cross by Porter R. Lee of the staff 
of the New York School of Philanthropy. These lectures are supplementing three full days of 
field work a week which the class of more than one hundred persons is doing under the supervision 
of several of the social agencies of the city. Those who are enrolled in this course have volunteered 
for service with the Civilian Relief Department of the Red Cross. The articles are being written by 
Karl de Schweinitz, secretary of the Committee on Cooperation and District Work, New York 

Charity Organization Society. 



o 



w 

5 



HEN do you think the war will end?" 

This, the most frequent question of current 
history, Sir Baden-Powell answers in the first 
annual report of the Canadian Patriotic Fund. 

"The war will be decided in 1935. 

"The true victory," he explains, "will lie not so much in 
the actual tactical gains on the battlefield today as in the 
quality of the men who have to carry on the work of the 
country after the war. War kills off the best of a nation's 
manhood ; therefore, extra care must be exercised to save every 
child — not for its own sake or for its parents' sake, but for the 
sake of the nation. It has got to be saved — saved from infant 
mortality, then from ill health, and finally from drifting into 
being waste human material. We must economize our hu- 
man material. Each individual must be made ( 1 ) healthy 
and strong, (2) endowed with character, for becoming a valu- 
able citizen for the state." 

The problem of Canada and of all the other nations at 
war has now become our problem. Like Canada, we must 
fight this war in terms of the next generation. From this 
point of view all our plans and policies must be directed, and 
particularly those plans and policies that have to do with 
civilian relief. 

No matter how carefully the recruiting of a large army and 
navy is conducted, it is almost certain to cause a large number 
of families to suffer economic and social distress unless some 
preventive measures are taken. Men old enough to enlist 
are also of an age when whether married or single they are 
usually contributing to the income and domestic life of the 
household. The homes from which they have gone will be 
the less able to meet a rising cost of living, a change in condi- 
tions of employment, and other vicissitudes of war times. 
Even now the New York Civilian Relief Committee of the 
Red Cross is giving assistance to a number of families. 

Later there will return from the front men disabled beyond 
all hope of ever becoming self-supporting, for whom some 
provision will have to be made, and men handicapped by 



wounds from engaging in former occupations, who will have 
to be adapted to other work. It is not inconceivable that 
disasters may occur in this country which will add non-com- 
batant victims to the list of military casualties. 

Superficially the answer to all these problems is an allow- 
ance from the government. But government allowances have 
not solved the problem in Canada or in any other of the war- 
ring countries. 

To consider an allowance as the solution of the difficulty 
is to regard the enlisting man merely as a source of income 
when, in fact, he is also a brother or a father or a son. The 
absence of the head of the family is the absence of one of the 
most important members of the household firm, often indeed 
the senior partner. He it is who has arranged for the insur- 
ance and general overhead expenditures of the household. In 
all of the important questions — the location of the home, the 
amount to be paid for rent, the extent of the children's school- 
ing and their place of work — he has shared the responsibility 
for decision. As the children grow older, his part in the disci- 
pline of the home increases. 

Regard the family merely as an economic unit and the ab- 
sence of the father is the absence of an administrator; recog- 
nize also the educational importance of the family and there 
is taken away a teacher, and a guide in the development of 
character. In addition to the loss here, there is one that is 
more subtle, and perhaps even more vital — the loss of com- 
panionship. "It is not merely the work I have to do," said a 
woman whose husband had died, "it is not merely that I have 
to be responsible alone for the care of the children, but there 
is nobody who comes home at night." 

In many homes the absence of a son or a brother who may 
have been the head of the family involves a hardship second 
only to that of the absence of the husband. Any deprivation 
of advice and sympathy is a heavy handicap to a household, 
even in times of peace. During war such a loss may be so 
serious as to threaten the normal development of the family 
life. 



54 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1917 



Who has not felt the unsettling effect of war times ? There 
is a tension and an excitement that make concentration upon 
■daily routine difficult. Magazine editors, for example, have 
found that people will not sit down to the reading of long or 
serious articles except they be on war topics. The demand for 
brevity and interest has never been so great as now. Similarly 
in work at home or in the factory it is more difficult than be- 
fore to be steady. 

Meanwhile the cost of living rises. The need for judg- 
ment and care in adjusting the budget is greater than before. 
It may become necessary for the women in the household to 
add to even the most liberal allowance by securing employ- 
ment. On the other hand, they may be called into industry 
to replace men who have gone to the front. Amusements that 
before were within their means must be given up, and yet a 
certain amount of recreation must be had lest the life of the 
family move sluggishly. 

The growing scarcity of certain foodstuffs will for many 
homes necessitate a change of diet. Substitutes that are 
cheaper, much as we dislike the idea of the substitute, will have 
to be introduced — and nothing requires more delicate adjust- 
ment than a new dietary, especially among families whose 
range of food has always been limited. If potatoes and onions 
have been the only garden products used in the household, it 
is much more difficult to give them up and to use something 
else than if they have been merely two of a dozen varieties 
of vegetable. 

Perhaps war's greatest characteristic is change. Nothing 
remains stationary. Government, thought, customs are revo- 
lutionized. Industry dees not escape the universal upheaval, 
and the home and its workers must be prepared to adapt them- 
selves to new conditions of employment. A job that three 
months ago may have appeared to offer a life tenure may three 
months hence cease to exist. 

Add to all these uncertainties the misfortunes of everyday 
life — sickness, death, domestic troubles — and the problem of 
making up the deficit in family life, caused by the enlistment 
of a soldier, becomes far too difficult to solve simply by the 
award of a separation allowance. 

Upsets in Canadian Families 

The implications of this problem have been appreciated in 
Canada as the work of the Patriotic Fund shows. Recent 
issues of the Survey have described how more than seven hun- 
dred volunteer visitors in Montreal alone have been engaged 
in assisting families to meet difficulties beyond the power of 



REQUIRED READING FOR THE 
COURSE 

The Normal Life, by Edward T. Devine, $1.00. 

The Good Neighbor, by Mary E. Richmond, 60 cents, 
cloth; 80 cents, leather; 4 cents postage. 

Social Work in Hospitals, by Ida M. Cannon, $1.50. 

San Francisco Relief Survey, Parts I, 2, 5, and 6, $3.50. 

Social Work with Families and Individuals, by Porter R. 
Lee, 5 cents. 

The Family, a pamphlet containing two addresses, one by 
Prof. James Hayden Tufts and the other by the Rev. Samuel 
M. Crothers, 25 cents. These two addresses appear also in 
the proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and 
Correction for 1915. 

The Survey of March 17, 24 and 31, containing articles by 
Paul U. Kellogg, describing the work of the Canadian 
Patriotic Fund in Montreal. One of these issues is out of 
stock. A reprint of the three may be had with a new sub- 
scription to the Survey, to be sent to the subscriber or any- 
one he may elect; copies are not for sale. 



an allowance to remove. In one year in the households under 
their care there were 604 births, 347 deaths, 99 serious acci- 
dents, 404 cases of intemperance, 246 instances of immorality, 
20 of bigamy, 182 of desertion, 93 of fraud, 2,566 families in 
which there were debts that proved to be a serious burden, 579 
cases of illiteracy, 1,622 cases of chronic disease, and 1,008 
cases of acute illness. When you consider how the arrival 
of a baby in a home disarranges the whole household or how, 
when one member falls ill, the responsibilities of every other 
member are increased, you begin to realize the great service 
which the Canadian volunteers have been called upon to per- 
form. 

Some German Experience 

Likewise in Germany has the mere award of an allowance 
proved to be inadequate. The German Red Cross has corps 
of women workers who care for the health of babies which 
do not thrive and who see that mothers have the services of 
milk stations, hospitals, day nurseries. The means of obtain- 
ing an education has been guaranteed to the younger boys in 
the families with men at the front. Guardianship has been 
arranged for those who have been orphaned, and sanatorium 
care has been made possible for tuberculous children or those 
who have been exposed to the disease. 

There is no way of registering in statistical form the help 
in the solution of domestic problems, the advice, the sympathy 
and the companionship which the visitors of the Red Cross 
in the warring countries have given to the families of the men 
at the front. It has been a work much like that which the 
American Red Cross has done in catastrophes such as the San 
Francisco earthquake or the sinking of the Titanic. 

The story of what was accomplished for the family of a 
man who was drowned in the great steamship disaster illus- 
trates what is meant when the need of personal service in 
relief work is urged and also what may indeed be the kind 
of situation to develop in the course of civilian relief work dur- 
ing the present war. 

This man had been employed as an oil operator by an Eng- 
lish company. He was returning to his home in Canada after 
an absence of two years. The committee of the Red Cross 
learned quickly by correspondence that he was survived by a 
wife who was twenty-nine years old and by three daughters. 
The eldest, a girl of thirteen, was crippled with hip disease ; 
the second was a delicate child who was suspected of having 
tuberculosis of the larynx; and the third had recently been 
attacked by poliomyelitis, which had paralyzed one of her 
ankles. The need of the family was so evident that a check 
for $250 was sent to them at once. 

The Red Cross, however, realized that nothing of a con- 
structive or permanent character could be accomplished by 
letter. Accordingly, one of the workers of the committee 
was sent to visit the family. She found that the reason why 
correspondence had been so unsatisfactory was because the 
wife did not know how to write. She was only a child when 
she was married and had never had much schooling. She was 
an attractive young woman and so intelligent that the visitor 
soon recognized that, given an opportunity, she would be able 
to do much for her children and for herself. 

Her own inclination and the circumstance of the invalidism 
of her daughters made nursing seem to be an appropriate ca- 
reer. She was, therefore, sent to a sanatorium to take train- 
ing as a nurse. The Red Cross visitor found that the widow 
had many friends and a number of relatives who, though with- 
out means, were willing to look after the children while their 
mother was away. The best medical attention available was 
secured for the three girls. Their ill health had kept them 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21 



1 g 1 7 



55 



back in school so that it would be a long time before they 
could help to support the family. The mother, with her 
training as a practical nurse, would be able to earn from eight 
to ten dollars a week and still have time to give to her daugh- 
ters. The husband's life insurance was $1,300. To this the 
Red Cross added money enough to bring the total to $5,000, 
which they placed in the hands of local trustees, who agreed 
to disburse it to the widow in quarterly payments of $125. 
During the ten years or more that these payments continue, 
the children will have time to prepare for some occupation 
adapted to their physical handicaps. 

Had the Red Cross simply sent the woman a lump sum or 
a monthly check she would doubtless have remained unlet- 
tered and unskilled. The health of the children would prob- 
ably have deteriorated, and, when the pension ceased, they 
would have been obliged to depend upon the charity of their 
neighbors. The death of the father would have resulted in a 
lower standard of living for the family. 

There, indeed, is the real object of civilian relief, not merely 
to offset the loss of income that the absence of the head of 
the family involves, but to make possible the same standard 
of living that during his presence was in force. More than 
this, when the standard of living is low it is the duty and 
the opportunity of the civilian relief visitor to raise the 
standard. 

The problem of civilian relief is a problem in safeguarding 



the normal interests of those families whose lives have be 
disorganized by the exigencies of war. Sometimes the family 
itself, assisted by pension or grant from a relief fund, is in- 
finitely better able to accomplish this than any outsider, how- 
ever much skill and delicacy such an outsider may bring to 
bear. More often the loss of the husband and father leaves 
a home with problems that are too great for the strength and 
resourcefulness of the mother. In such cases we owe it to 
those who have made the war's greatest sacrifice to bring to 
them the fullest measure of personal, sympathetic, skillful help- 
fulness. This is a task which can be performed only by those 
who appreciate the subtle values of family life and know how 
to assist in their conservation by methods which neither hu- 
miliate nor weaken, but which rather lead to wider oppor- 
tunity and healthier, richer life. 

The test of the success of any system of civilian relief in 
war time is not the number and the amount of the allowances 
awarded, but the health, the happiness, the comfort and the 
character of the families cared for — and particularly of the 
children in those families. The quality of the next genera- 
tion will be the measure of our victory in the war upon which 
we have entered. "Women and non-combatant men," to quote 
Sir Baden-Powell again, "have here as big a national work 
open to them behind the scenes as the men have who are play- 
ing their part so gallantly on the stage in Flanders and else- 
where." 



TO SIMON N. PATTEN 

By Guy N earing 

Simon N. Patten, who for thirty years has been professor 

of political economy at the University of Pennsylvania, has 

been notified by the trustees that he will be retired for age at 

the end of the present college year. 

UPON a sacred altar reared to Truth 
You kept the consecrated fire ablaze, 
Which year by year, with unpolluted rays, 
Burned as a beacon to your country's youth. 
But Greed and Envy scattered without ruth 

The brands, and cast them out by devious ways — 
Now hurl you forth in your declining days, 
The mightiest brand of all — for speaking sooth. 

The desecrated altar empty lies. 

Yet while they revel in that infamy, 
Let Greed and Envy lift their treacherous eyes ; 

The hundred conflagrations let them see, 
Which from the embers of your fire arise. 

For their own hands have given you victory. 






CLASSIFICATION STAFF 

Statistical Branch, Canadian National Service Board, Ottazva. 

To the left: Charles W. Peterson, secretary. 

To the right: Richard B. Bennett, M.P., director-general. 



A Canadian City in War Time 1 

V. Recruiting and the Man-Power Inventory 

By Paul U. Kellogg 



IT may seem like stretching the city limits of even the 
largest city of Canada to include a description of the 
National Service Board as an installment in this series. 
But it is in the urban centers that occupations become 
complex, the social composition is ever changing and human 
resources are difficult to appraise. To appraise them for in- 
dustrial community and agricultural region alike has been the 
commission of this board. Moreover, a parliamentary hearing 
brought its president and secretary to Montreal during my 
stay there. 

At first sight, also, it may seem like stretching the scope of 
this series to include a parenthetical installment having some 
bearing on the recruiting problem before Congress this 
month. But Canada has paid dearly for failing to think of 
that very thing in broader than the most conventional mili- 
tary terms, in the early months of the war. It has come to 
see, for example, that recruiting should be a consecutive 
government function rather than a disjointed semi-private 
affair. Much energy, devotion and sacrifice, together with some 
less desirable qualities, have gone in to the endeavor by which 
groups of men, out of their own time and means, have gotten 
together units — while other units have been built up in suc- 
cession without provision for consecutively replenishing the 
earlier ones. "Wide open" cities have proved to be poor train- 
ing grounds for the winter barracks of battalions in the 
making, and there has been an extravagant amount of ven- 
ereal disease filling the military hospitals. Further, in the 
first rush for enlistment, the working crews of vital industrial 
occupations of the sort that appeal to adventurous men were 
rifled by the more adventurous appeal of war; while groups 
of young engineering students, stimulated by short-sighted 
academic leaders, were mustered in as privates, only to be 
later and at much pains shifted to other assignments where 
their training would count. 

More particularly, the eagerness to fill up commands, 
coupled with the inexpertness of local physicians, led to the 



'The Survey for March 17, March 24, March 31, April 7. 



uniforming, training and even overseas transport of many un- 
fit men, who have had to be weeded out and their places filled. 
As brought out in an earlier article, from 50 to 60 per cent 
of the invalided soldiers in the tuberculosis sanatoria have 
never left the country and a considerable proportion of these 
were incipient cases before they were mustered in. In the 
hospitals for shock cases and neurasthenics, many indications 
go to show that the patients were abnormal before going on 
the strength— unfitted to bear the extreme nervous strain of 
modern warfare. 

All recruits are now "boarded" (come before an experi- 
enced medical board), and if the Canadian experience goes to 
show anything it is that not only much time and lost 
motion is to be saved from a military standpoint, but that a 
great deal of the heavy burden of invalidism may be fore- 
stalled if experts in tuberculosis and mental hygiene cooperate 
with the general medical staff in dealing with the physical 
end of the recruiting problem. 

The story is told of the ingenuous superintendent of one 
small tuberculosis hospital who claimed such success in his 
"cures" that thirty-five invalided men had re-enlisted and had 
actually passed the examining physicians a second time. By 
the time word of this process reached Ottawa, some of these 
consumptives were already drifting back again to the hospitals 
from the camps. 

It is another series of social relationships of the recruiting 
problem that the Canadian National Service Board has taken 
up. Conceiving that the prime responsibility of government in 
war time is to utilize the energy of the country up to the hilt, 
it sets a corollary: namely, to prevent the indiscriminate use 
of the man-power of the country for one purpose only, in such 
a way as to defeat or impair that purpose. 

The National Service Board was created in September, 
1916, by order in council under the war-measures act. It is 
composed of a director-general and a director in each mili- 
tary district in Canada. The former is Richard Bedford Ben- 
nett, M. P., from Calgary — a law partner of Senator Loug- 



56 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 



i 9 i 7 



57 



heed, chairman of that other active war-time civilian body, 
the Military Hospitals Commission. The secretary is C. W. 
Peterson, also of Calgary, known for his statistical work in 
agriculture in the Northwest territory. The work is still 
\ cry much in process. I had no opportunity to investigate 
it and have no comparative knowledge of similar activities 
abroad or in the United States to measure it by. What is here 
set down is the results of an interview with the two officials 
named, both men of means who as volunteers addressed them- 
selves to the work with characteristic western push. 

To their mind the war-time employment of Canadian man- 
power simmers down to the efficient utilization of each man's 
powers ; and for this the male population resolves itself into 
three major types — the fighting man, the working man and 
the paying man. 

The fighting man is the man for the army, the navy, the 
air service ; for every branch of the military establishment 
from the man in the trenches to the clerk and the administra- 
tive officer directing operations ; and no less the skilled artisan 
employed in the upkeep of the appliances used by the fighting 
man. 

Mr. Bennett was in France in 1915 and made a study of 
military needs. "The experience at the front all goes to 
show," he says, "that men from eighteen to thirty are the best 
type to stand up under the strain upon infantry in modern 
warfare. From thirty to thirty-five there is a marked increase 
in wastage by disease and breakdown and corresponding loss in 
efficiency. From thirty-five to forty the increase is 100 per 
cent. The human system is so constituted that it is best 
adapted to resist the strain of trench fighting at the younger 
period. Unless the fighting men are fed and kept in 
prime condition, we might better never send them across 
the seas. 

"This brings us to the working-man and his part. First 
the farmer — the producer of meat, wheat, fish and the whole 
range of provisions. It is essential for military success that a 
man best qualified to be a farmer serve his country that way. 
Second is the war-material maker; the worker in the steel in- 
dustry in any of its branches, the coal industry, copper, spelter 
and the rest. Third comes the working-man retained for the 
public service of the state, whether it be in transportation, 
telegraph, telephone and other means for communication, the 
Liovernment departments or the financial institutions on which 
depend the maintenance and smooth running of a modern 
nation at war. 

"Last comes the paying man. As we put it, 'Some may 
fight and some may work but all may serve.' This category 
includes those unable to fight, those whose work is not neces- 
sary to the running of the war, or bound up in the essential 
industries, but whose earnings or means are such that they 
can pay. pay, pay. That is where the Patriotic Fund and 
Red Cross come in. The rich province makes good the re- 
sources of the poor, which may actually send more men to 
the front. But the fact that all are bearing their share of the 
load makes for a sense of justice and common cause. The 
appeal and response of the Patriotic Fund creates a sentiment 
in the heart-life of the country; essential to war in a democ- 
racy where neither instinct nor compulsion, but patriotism by 
choice, is to be relied upon as the prime motive force for na- 
tional coherence and devotion. Another element in this phase 
of mustering and conserving the national strength is the pro- 
motion of economy and thrift, especially the encouragement of 
war savings to be put into the war loan, the creation of an 
atmosphere in every home, so that every child can feel it is 
doing its part and so that the rank and file of people can feel 
that they are partners in the great enterprise of the country." 



Its first responsibility as the National Service- Hoard 
it was to discover deficiency or surplus in the human resources 
of Canada for each of these purposes. This, they felt, could 
be shown by a man-power inventory addressed to all citizens 
and an occupational survey which would draw on employers 
and organizations. 

The man-power inventory was the first attempted; and the 
first week of the new year (1917) was selected for its taking. 
Incidentally, it proved one of the most ambitious and thought- 
provoking efforts to turn the postal service to new social uses. 
As a self-registering census in double quick time, it called for 
the utilization of existing government machinery for the col- 
lection of returns, for a blank "with questions so simple that 
the lowest intelligence could answer them without misunder- 
standing, questions so formed as to admit of no ambiguous 
answers," and for a campaign of agitation to get the blanks 
filled in. The plan called for returns from all males between 
sixteen and sixty-five and a self-addressed envelope was at- 
tached to each blank, so that the return would be secret so 
far as the local post-office was concerned. Packages were 
sent out in advance to each postmaster, with wall notices and 
instructions from the postmaster general to place a card in each 
box, and hand one to every person inquiring for mail. In the 
cities the extra Christmas carriers were kept on beyond New 
Year's, and cards not only left at each house on every route, but 
later called for, and special trips made if necessary to bring in 
the returns. 

The publicity campaign was purposely concentrated into a 
short period, just before action was required of the public. 
Four advertisements were placed in every daily paper in Can- 
ada in the last two weeks of December, two in the weeklies 
and one in the monthlies. Editors were appealed to to exploit 
the local and national aspects of the work in their news 
columns at the same time. Slides were supplied every moving 
picture theater and cards placed in every street car in Canada 
from December 10 to January 10. Over twenty special forms 
were drafted and 150,000 individually addressed letters went 
out to leaders and organizations. 

Clergymen were asked to devote the last Sunday in the 
year to preaching a sermon on national service and responsibil- 
ity; secretaries of fraternal societies, lodges, etc., were asked 
to bring the matter up at their first meetings ; secretaries of 
boards of trade to circularize their members and to call special 
meetings; teachers to address their pupils; manufacturers to 
see that public notices were conspicuously displayed in their 
factories and to make it a personal matter to see that every 
employe filled in and returned his card. 



VIUST PE FILLED I 



NATIONAL 



CANADA 



SERVICE. 



2. Hmo'di 



3 V, -..To ,-)o you i,.o? Pro'.'pn 
4. Name of City, town, 1 

villus or Pod 



1 

12. Of >our logs? 13. CM 

14. Of your hairing' 



5. In what country i 
worn you born? / 

6 In wnltrountry wai , 
your falnor bt " 

?. In rhat O0W 

your motnof bom ? J 

8. Wtro you torn a B- ■ 

9- If not, an» you natu'j 



•■: 



15. Wh.e*i u 

! periont b**kJ*» I 

yourialf Jo you »uoport? f 



17- What tit) you working Jt (or a Ih/If 
18 Wt-ijm do you work for 7 

■ a tradocr profois'on? 20 If 



i ou bo willing to enango >our orosoil wOfll 'cr oth«r ntoMUfy 
I mtm 



*.:■■-. -' tho w* -:» ■ 

and go to to" ■• ■-i to do tucft « 



SELF-REGISTERIM, 



Used in the Man-Power Inventory of the Canadian 
Xutional Service B 



58 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 1 , 1 9 1 7 



For every mayor in Canada was asked to call a meeting of 
the council, and get the municipal authorities to actively 
interest themselves in the work. The prime minister and 
the director of national service toured the country in Decem- 
ber and a proclamation to the people of Canada was issued 
by the former. 

The Returns 

"The response," to quote Mr. Bennett, "was beyond ex- 
pectations. Franking privileges were accorded the national 
service so that the returns involved no extra outlay. The or- 
dinary Canadian census costs from $750,000 to $1,000,000. 
This cost less than $50,000, and we promptly secured within 
10 per cent of what the census gets in the same age and sex 
classifications. The census developed rapidly three classes 
of military prospects: 1, men from eighteen to thirty with- 
out dependents; 2, men from thirty to forty-five without de- 
pendents; 3, men from eighteen to forty-five without more 
than three dependents. By March the board had turned into 
the military department 20,000 cards of military prospects of 
the first class. 

"The board has power to prevent men from enlisting who 
are needed in occupations where they have skill — for example, 
send them back to the farm. England had to return four di- 
visions of shipbuilders and coal-miners, who enlisted in the 
first wasteful period of recruiting. A nation should not let 
the wild cry for soldiers from a thousand sources stampede 
irreplaceable men needed at home to make those soldiers ef- 
fective. It takes six months to make a soldier; it takes six 
years to make a tool setter, two years to make a coal cutter, 
long apprenticeship and training to make an engineer or 
machinist. Nothing is more ruinous than the cry for whole- 
sale indiscriminate volunteering." 

"Do you favor compulsion then ?" I asked. 

"Indiscriminate compulsory service is only less bad than in- 
discriminate volunteering," he said, "and compulsion is not 
needed if you apply modern census and efficiency methods to 
the process of selection. With a thousand first-class pros- 
pects in a district to work with, the process of recruiting can 
proceed on an entirely different plane from the old-style fife- 
and-drum method. The atmosphere is entirely changed. The 
recruiting officer goes to the young man, without dependents, 
without any special equipment to serve his country at home, 
with strength and youth in his favor. He asks, 'Why are you 
not in khaki ?' " 

As these Canadian Service Board men saw it, the old-fash- 
ioned way of opening a recruiting office was about as anti- 
quated as a town crier. The modern way is more in com- 
mon with the system by which a high-class insurance agency 
develops its prospects in any locality and an efficiency engi- 
neer deploys his human equipment once he has studied its 
make-up and individual prowess. 

To illustrate, along military lines: Recently the British 
government wanted 3,000 men for the royal flying corps — 
acetylene welders, blacksmiths, carpenters, coppersmiths, mo- 
tor cyclists, motor drivers, electricians, engine fitters, motor 
cycle fitters, engineers' storemen, motor fitters, millwrights, 
sailmakers (tailors), milling machinists, metal turners, paint- 
ers, tinsmiths, cabinet makers, vulcanizers, cooks — at pay 
ranging from $1.10 to $2.80 per day. It was an easy matter 
for the National Service Board to run through its cards and 
turn over to the military department 12,000 excellent pros- 
pects of men with the right training. 

Similarly, in the industrial field, there was a slowing up of 
traffic due to lack of men to clean up locomotives in the 
roundhouses. It was a simple matter to put more than ample 



prospects in the hands of the employment agents of the Cana- 
dian railways. 

In the field of agriculture, the man-power inventory made 
it abundantly clear that there was a shortage of labor with 
exception of Prince Edward Island. Manitoba needed 5,000 
men, Saskatchewan 5,000 and Alberta 2,500. The thing 
to do, as the Canadian board saw it (Washington papers 
please copy!), was to induce 12,500 agricultural laborers to 
come from the United States to help in the spring work on 
the farms. An arrangement was completed with the provincial 
governments of the prairie sections by which over $150,000 
would jointly be appropriated by the dominion and the prov- 
inces, to send forty-four special agents south in cooperation 
with the immigration branch of the Department of the Inte- 
rior. The plan called for the absorption of a portion of the 
railway fare of experienced farm hands from certain common 
points in the United States to the Canadian line where the 
cent-a-mile rate applies. 

In March, the second or occupational survey was initiated, 
schedules sent out to employers, and the cooperation of all 
boards of trade and industrial bodies solicited. The immediate 
purpose was to learn the labor needs of the essential indus- 
tries, so as to make the labor resources disclosed by the man- 
power inventory practically available. The survey reaches 
deeper, however, so as to disclose opportunities for substitu- 
tion in the general industries, where women or partially 
crippled soldiers might release present employes for the essen- 
tial industries or for military service. 

The survey reaches further also, and calls for estimates of 
employment needs following the war, so that the government 
will have a clear picture of the stupendous problem of dis- 
placement which will confront the dominion, and may de- 
velop an intelligent and nation-wide program to ease the 
stress when the expeditionary force and the shutting down of 
munitions work will put the whole social and economic struc- 
ture of Canada to extraordinary test. 

Scientific Selective Volunteering 

This then is the system which the dominion is developing 
under its National Service Board to approach the problem of 
demobilization, and which in the view of the officials of the 
board would have conserved time, resources and efficiency in 
the earlier period of recruiting, such as the United States is 
now entering. From a social standpoint, this Canadian dem- 
onstration can scarcely be ignored by the American public. It 
is the answer of the great English-speaking new-world de- 
mocracy to the north of us to the challenge of war. Its ele- 
ments are the voluntary principle as against old-world con- 
scription ; pay standards related to the current economic life 
of the people — far in excess of the European armies, double 
that of our own, supplemented by subsistence allowances which 
release great numbers of young married men for military 
service ; and, with the institution of the National Service 
Board, census and efficiency methods in developing and placing 
recruits for the army and the essential industries. It is scien- 
tific, selective volunteering. It has conserved the liberty 01 
conscience to the individual ; and in spite of the provocation 
of under-enlistment among the French-Canadians, it has stub- 
bornly refused to yield ground to any system of conscription 
which would place in the hands of the government the power 
of casting armies of citizens into war without their volition. 
And it has mustered 400,000 volunteers — the equivalent, 
roughly, of a free-will army of four million from the popula- 
tion of the United States. 



The New Public Health 

in 

By Alice Hamilton, M. D., and Gertrude Seymour 



WAR makes sanitation a common cause. Com- 
manders and people alike see it imperative that 
no epidemic enter the troops — the commander, 
that his forces be not diminished ; the people, that 
infection be not spread through the land. How keen is the 
effort to guard an army's health, any manual of military sani- 
tation will show. What need there is for careful attention 
on a people's part in order that sickness shall not follow the 
returned army from regions where exposure is inevitable, was 
told in the abstract of Dr. Rucker's essay in the Survey for 
March 10. And there are indications that the present enlist- 
ment will prove to be a new allignment of social resources in 
health work. Needs already existing for health measures alike 
in rural districts and in city crowds will not be lessened. New 
responsibilities will face both official and voluntary worker. 
It is a time when each may serve the other, and both the 
health of the country. 

Because, then, the war crisis has increased rather than 
diminished the importance of "tomorrow's public health" the 
following article, written more than a month ago, is published 
now with but little change. Its plea for the best organization, 
for unhampered administration, for the extension of health 
work throughout the country, takes on a new significance — the 
sudden seriousness that tinges all activity today. 

From Sickness Back Towards Health 

In the United States, as everywhere else in the world, the 
usual reason for official sanitary activity has been the presence 
of some serious epidemic. The "state board" of Louisiana 
in 1855 had to do with such conditions, and rendered quaran- 
tine service only during an outbreak of yellow fever. To 
Massachusetts belongs credit for organizing the first state 
department of health, though even here it took nineteen years 
for public opinion to crystalize. It was in 1850 that the sani- 
tary commission, headed by Samuel Shattuck, advised a perma- 
nent organization to safeguard public health; it was 1869 
before a permanent board was established. California fol- 
lowed in 1870. 

Today every state in the union has some sort of an organiza- 
tion whose very title, "state board of health," commits it to a 
program the minimum of which was outlined in the preceding 
article of this series [the Survey, January 20]. Sometimes 
the organized board was self-perpetuating. Often it was re- 
garded as a part of the state's machinery, to be oiled and kept 
in some sort of working order by the political party in power. 
This was a convenient arrangement. It saved a good deal of 
thought and responsibility for the voter; it added one more 
considerable benefice to the gift of the governor. From the 
people's standpoint, "let the state do it" was a modus operandi 
that kept things comfortably abstract and remote. The state 
health officer might be appealed to in an emergency — such as 
an outbreak of plague ; otherwise he would keep the streets 
as clean as he could, fumigate a house now and then and 
perhaps write a bulletin, more or less dull ; but no constructive 
relationship existed between state and local officers — much less 
between state officers and the people. The change from this 
kind of administration, in which the appointed practitioner 



gave to state health work such time as he could spare from 
the task of earning his own living, to the modern method of 
employment by an advisory board of a specially trained official 
on a full-time basis, directing a corps of division experts, has 
been sure, even though slow. 

The subject of health administration is no longer shunned 
as a bit of party politics; it is discussed to good purpose as 
a vital issue at medical meetings and conventions; in groups 
primarily civic, such as leagues of mayors ; in voluntary study 
groups — all quite in addition to professional discussions of 
technical detail. 

It is a growing conviction among all thoughtful groups 
that the health officer should have a public health training. 
What this implies has already been discussed in this series of 
articles [the Survey, November 18, 1916]. This country 
is adopting rapidly of late years what has for more than half 
a century been the practice in England, where the medical 
officer of health is to be "registered as a holder of a diploma 
in sanitary science, public health or state medicine." 

Moreover, the health officer should be a full-time official. 
Of the fourteen states that a year or so ago had only part-time 
officers, nine (so far as can be ascertained) are requesting of 
their legislatures such appropriations as shall assure the full- 
time service of the state health officer. 

Yet another desideratum is that the health officer should 
be entirely free of politics. On this basis the federal Public 
Health Service is established, and it is the rule in many states. 
But elsewhere, in the words of Dr. C. V. Chapin, "the health 
officers go with the change of administration. Indeed, some- 
times they hand in their resignation automatically when elec- 
tion comes." The effect upon an official's work of knowing 
that his public service is only for a brief season, and that then 
he will return again to the ranks of private practice, is easy 
to discern. 

Where the health officer comes from is of small significance 
— whether appointed or elected, whether a resident of the 
state or not, whether his political opinions harmonize with 
those of the administration, contrast with them, or are in- 
visible to the unaided eye. But it is of great and immediate 
significance that he know his subject; that he be able to per- 
ceive the state's needs and its resources and develop those 
resources skilfully or import assistance to meet the needs. 

Health Officers Elected 
It is estimated that success in securing the best type of 
officer more surely follows election by the board than appoint- 
ment by the governor. Election is the method in thirty states ; 
in fifteen states the governor appoints, sometimes with Senate 
or council, sometimes after recommendation from the board. 
Says Dr. Chapin on this point: 

"Although the present gubernatorial appointments made in 
New York and Massachusetts, necessarily in the full light of 
publicity, are exceptionally good, there is little in the history 
of health conditions in the states named to encourage a belief 
that improvement in the character of the state's sanitary execu- 
tive can best be secured by appointment by the governor." 

As to the board itself, as part of the state's machinery, its 

59 



60 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1917 



members are very generally appointed by the governor for 
terms of service lasting from two to seven years. 

In personnel the boards vary widely. Physicians, naturally, 
predominate. Sometimes the state superintendent of education 
and other state officers are, ex-officio, members of the board. 
Records show a sprinkling of veterinarians, journalists, busi- 
ness men, among the members, and — rarely — an experienced 
philanthropist. In one bulletin last year it was said that 
membership in the board included clergymen, merchants and 
undertakers, and it was respectfully suggested that the gover- 
nor consider for the next vacancy a physician. But, whatever 
its representation, however impeccable its intentions, a large 
group never accomplishes so much as an executive can; and 
consequently, even before there was a special training for 
the work, boards often selected one of their members or some- 
one from outside who could and would give time to its prac- 
tical executive duties. The weak point in that plan proved 
to be that members of the board had to take the initiative in 
suggesting policies, and as a result the executive's time and 
the public's money were sometimes used for projects repre- 
senting less the weal of the state than the interest of an 
individual. 

Tendencies in Reorganized Boards 

Important steps in reorganization have recently been taken 
in several states and are under consideration in others. Massa- 
chusetts and New York now have a commissioner appointed 
for a long term (five and six years) and a "public health 
council" upon whom are conferred wide legislative powers. 
Indiana is earnestly endeavoring to secure legislation insuring 
a better health law. Says Dr. Hurty: 

"Three fatal defects exist in the present law: (1) Health 
officers are doctors giving what time they choose to public 
health work. (2) Health officers are practicing doctors in 
competition with their brother doctors, and, therefore, cannot 
secure their cooperation. Without this cooperation present 
health officers are only partially successful. (3) Health offi- 
cers are, with exception, uninformed and untrained in disease- 
prevention work. Their education and training is in the line 
of the pound of cure and not in the line of the ounce of pre- 
vention. Hence they are not efficient and economical to the 
state. 

"The present law is like an old, wheezy, back-number loco- 
motive, which can run a little and pull a light load. Think 
of a railroad company trying to do business at this time with 
such a machine." 

The reorganization just effected in Illinois [see the Survey, 
March 10] will relieve the secretary of the health depart- 
ment of the unnecessary burden which has attached to his 
office for a quarter of a century. Overseeing the registration 
of physicians, practitioners of all kinds, and embalmers is 
said to have claimed heretofore fully 75 per cent of his time. 

It is regrettable that so thorough a reorganization, as this 
in Illinois, should be marred by a bit of provincialism, such as 
restricting the choice of a state health officer to physicians who 
have practiced for five years in the state. Residence has not 
proved a necessary or always a valuable qualification for this 
position. 

Meantime, Dr. Hill's warning should not be forgotten : 

"The head of the administration should be unhampered by 
any 'board of strategy.' The chiefs of his own divisions, 
picked propeny, to begin with, should form his best council, 
and he should seldom need other. Political exigencies should 
control him no more than they control the military officer 
in the face of the enemy. The board of health of today is 
often a mere anachronism, built up when there were no ex- 



perts with the hope that, all being blind, combining one with 
another would manufacture sight between them. 

"Now that men really versed in public health can be se- 
cured, nothing is gained by placing a merely official board in 
actual control, for if composed, as many boards may now be, 
of experts, they tend to take the place of a single executive; 
while if composed, as they usually are in practice, of inexpert 
laymen or, worse, physicians inexpert in public health but who 
are, nevertheless, under the supposed halo of a medical degree, 
they do more harm than good." 

The vital matter, however, in any scheme or organiza- 
tion is the provision for a centralizing and distributing system 
— a means of bringing all parts of the state into line with 
principles of hygiene and sanitation — no small task, whether 
in the thickly settled areas of eastern states or the wide 
stretches of Montana or Wyoming. Toward this end the 
principle of health or sanitary districts is being widely fol- 
lowed. At this time four states have such divisions. Cali- 
fornia is considering the plan this year. 

By this plan the state is divided for supervision into sec- 
tions each large enough to demand all the time and attention 
of a health officer. These sections may correspond to township 
or county divisions; or they may include two or more of 
these political boundaries. This arbitrary districting is flexible, 
of course, and districts may be easily reassigned if one proves 
to demand more time than another, or else consolidated as 
work progresses and a "pooling" of funds and force would 
seem to be of greater benefit to the whole area. 

Perhaps the greatest importance of these country or district 
units is their possible relation to the rural sanitary problem. 
This thesis was convincingly developed not long ago by Louis 
I. Dublin, of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. 
Speaking before the public health section of the American 
Medical Association convention, Mr. Dublin said: 

"The key to the solution of the problem of rural hygiene 
lies in the development of efficient county health organizations 
in the United States. In most states the chief unit of local 
government is the county. There are 2,953 counties in the 
United States. The typical county is about 600 square miles 
in area, with a population of about 20,000. Five-sixths of 
these counties are rural in character; fully 10 per cent have 
no incorporated places, and about half contain towns with 
less than 2,500 people. The American county, however, has 
not as yet been aroused to the fact that it has distinct health 
functions to perform, and it is the only government unit that 
can properly and efficiently perform such functions." 

In spite of preconceived ideas as to the healthfulness of 
the country, Dr. Dublin continues, typically rural sections 
suffer a higher death rate from tuberculosis than cities in the 
registration area. The typhoid rate is also decidedly higher. 

In Spite of "Country Air" 

Facts and figures prove that ventilation in the country is 
sadly neglected. Respiratory diseases, those that depend largely 
on fresh air for both their prevention and their cure (among 
which may be mentioned tuberculosis, grippe, bronchitis and 
colds), as well as adenoids and defects of the nose and throat, 
are more prevalent in country than in town. Medical school 
inspection shows that country children are from .34 to 14.2 
per cent more unhealthy than city children, even than children 
of the slums. Overcrowding is said to be another unexpected, 
uncalled-for condition often met in the country. Investiga- 
tions have shown that four, five and six people sleeping in one 
room, which probably had only one window or perhaps two, 
with neither one open, was not an uncommon occurrence. 
Perhaps overcrowding is occasioned in various places, as 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1917 



'A 



well as New York state, by a curious enterprise reported 
by the New York State Department of Health — tenement 
houses on farms in the state "conducted by immigrants with 
a keen eye for financial gains at the expense of their own race" 
throughout the school vacation season. 

The victims pay their rent "for the season" before seeing 
the rooms. If dissatisfied, they may leave — but leave their 
money; there are other tenants. Notes made on the prem- 
ises by one of the supervising nurses of the health department 
tell of one such place containing nine beds in seven rooms ; 
it housed seven families, twelve adults and seven children ; 
one child was dead from poliomyelitis, another ill ; filth in 
yard from kitchen waste and a privy. In another of these 
summer resorts eighteen bedrooms held forty-three adults and 
sixty children, and three cases of poliomyelitis. 

Some of these places are said to be within 500 feet of rail- 
way stations, past which many summer tourists travel or at 
which they stop. Small wonder, then, that infection spreads 
even among people who believe they have taken every precau- 
tion to avoid "carriers." 

It is a heavy burden that falls upon the country child. But 
among children is the most promising future for health work. 
Their interest in being told about these things and in being 
treated is illustrated in a recent report by Elizabeth Hanson, 
school nurse at Mitchell, S. D. One little boy of seven, 
seeing the other children going to the dispensary to have their 
teeth cared for, asked the teacher, "May I go to the peni- 
tentiary, too, and have my teeth filled?" 

One other fact is a strong plea for rural health work. 
More women die in this country annually from causes inci- 
dent to childbirth, yet known to be preventable or curable, 
than from any other one cause except tuberculosis. This is 
the core of the report made by Dr. Grace L. Meigs, of the 
Children's Bureau, just published under the title Maternal 
Mortality. The remedy for such suffering and loss of life as 
are now found in rural counties Dr. Meigs believes to be, first, 
a unit of nursing, centering at the county seat, with nurses 
especially equipped for obstetrical service. The establishment 
of such a service, says Dr. Meigs, would undoubtedly be the 
most economical first step in creating a network of agencies 
which would assure proper care for both normal and abnormal 
cases. 

As has already been said [Survey, January 20], in only 
four state boards of health is there at present a definite divi- 
sion of child hygiene. In only two states, it has been said 
recently, is there provision by law for the employment of 
county nursing service, though if the efforts of the women's 
clubs in North Dakota are successful, a third state will be 
added to the list and will have at least one visiting nurse 
in each county. 

It would not seem that further illustration is needed of 
the peculiarly important opportunity at this time open for 
health service in rural districts of the country, nor of the 
advantageous position which a health officer holds in a "sani- 
tary district," both to coordinate the various local departments 
and to extend health service beyond what is, strictly speaking, 
their jurisdiction. It means men and money; but these are 
usually forthcoming as soon as there is an appreciation of 
the conditions. 

State or Local Support? 
Turn* for a moment to the practical matter of cost : In some 
places the district officers are paid by the state ; elsewhere the 
work is supported by the district itself. This method, though 
slower, is held to be more democratic and ultimately surer ; 
for it rests upon the intelligent cooperation of the people 



affected by this sanitary administration. Dr. I; 
far as to say : 

"Each county should appoint its own county health com- 
missioner; his salary should be a living one graded by the 
number of people he serves; his duties and powers should be 
clearly defined; a proper health appropriation should be pro- 
vided in each county; he should keep full and accurate records 
of his work and he should be subordinate to the state hoard 
of health and be subject to dismissal for such reasons as the 
law may set forth." 

Typical State Board Problems 
What is to be done in such a case as the following? A 
sanitary engineer of the Alabama State Board of Health in- 
cluded the following statements in his report for 1915: 

"Twenty-three separate places were visited, some more than 
once. Ten of the twenty-three followed the recommenda- 
tions made, and, according to information received, the results 
have been entirely satisfactory. Three places ignored our 
recommendations entirely, hence the time spent in making the 
necessary investigations in order to be in position to submit 
plans for relief was entirely thrown away. Such occurrences 
suggest very forcibly that larger mandatory powers be con- 
ferred on the state board of health. 

"From ten places we have no information of what steps, 
if any, were taken." 

Again: An outbreak of typhoid recently reported in Utah 
was traced promptly to a polluted water supply. The com- 
ment on this fact is laconic but instructive: 

"For several years the state board of health has issued 
warnings to the residents of the county and has called atten- 
tion to the necessity for protecting the water supply." 

Now it may be that when the county has paid its doctors 
and its undertakers, it will install an adequate purification 
plant. But why should it be the limit of a board's authority 
to "warn" and to "call attention" ? It would seem that health 
laws might be a trifle mandatory at times. If people will not 
act upon advice to keep themselves, their children, their school 
and all the activities of their community in health, there should 
be lodged with the department of health the necessary police 
power to enforce the law and so protect the adjoining com- 
munities from paying the penalty for the indifference of one 
group. The courts may be trusted to keep the citizen from 
being victimized by over-zealous scientists, it would seem, from 
a study of some recent court verdicts. Many states provide 
for fines, ranging from $1 to $1,000, or imprisonment in case 
of failure to report communicable disease. But the enforce- 
ment of such laws is so much a novelty as to receive newspaper 
comment, and to draw forth congratulations upon this 
"pioneer" activity. 

Beyond, beneath and through administration, however, 
reaches the vital fact of scientific truth discovered, shared and 
applied. Not by something hectic, special, as one "day" or 
"week" will sanitation and hygiene win their way into the 
consciousness and life of people. Steady progress follows a 
loyal, even-day sure application of known preventive measures 
to known sanitary needs. Said Dr. William De Kleine, of 
the Michigan State Board of Health: 

"The public health problem is not entirely a scientific prob- 
lem, viewed from the standpoint of scientific medicine. It is 
much broader. It includes a study of social questions and their 
relation, as well as a study of the application of the strictly 
scientific principles." 

In view of his recent experience in the tuberculosis survey 
of Michigan, Dr. De Kleine's words are doubly significant. 



62 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 



The future of health work rests first of all with the health 
officer — state, district, local. He faces a brilliant opportunity 
and a responsibility of peculiar weight at this time. 

Progress in public health rests also upon legislators. "When 
they fail to make proper provisions for the protection of health 
and the lives of the people, it is because they do not under- 
stand matters of this kind," a state health officer is reported 
to have said. But the remark seems needlessly generous. 
"Matters of this kind" are not esoteric, nor too abstruse to be 



realized by legislators in a large number of states. Their 
application to concrete conditions is usually clear-cut and of 
immediate importance for both physical and economic welfare. 
And, finally, before the community and every individual 
therein stretch possibilities that are limitless for the knowledge 
of the splendid facts of modern sanitary progress, for the 
application of them in the routine of every-day existence, and 
for the acceptance of burdens of cooperation as the crisis of 
today may demand. 



u Turning Off the Spigot" 

A Reply to Mrs. Tilton 
By Hugh F. Fox 



SECRETARY UNITED STATES BREWERS ASSOCIATION 



IN a series of articles published recently by the Survey, 1 
Elizabeth Tilton submits her apologia for prohibition. 
She makes an especial appeal to her associates in the field 
of social service to join in the movement which seeks 
to end all traffic in alcoholic beverages, sorrowfully confessing 
that few of them accept her panacea for the ills of society. It 
may not be amiss, therefore, to suggest, at the outset, that in- 
difference to prohibition, on the part of social workers, has a 
sound basis. They do not ignore the sad results of alcoholic 
excess, but they recognize that it almost always proceeds 
from some cause, such as physical or mental deficiency or the 
misery consequent upon economic handicaps — and that no sur- 
face remedy would be effective. 

In one way, however, Mrs. Tilton is right in appealing to 
social workers. They can probably contribute more of value 
to the solution of the drink problem than any other class. 
With the highest of ideals, they employ the most practical of 
methods ; they are not concerned with dogmas or theories ; they 
have the situation directly under view at all times, and they 
have exceptional opportunities for studying and assimilating 
its psychology. 

Within the limits set it will be possible only to discuss the 
principal points in Mrs. Tilton's articles, the first being the 
circumstances of her conversion which she relates with a fine 
dramatic touch. She was uncertain and troubled, when there 
suddenly appeared to her, very much as the light from heaven 
must have appeared to Saul of Tarsus as he journeyed on the 
road to Damascus, certain murder statistics of Birmingham, 
Ala. Mrs. Tilton says she had to "bend to the healing in their 
wings." The figures follow: 



1909 (dry) 130 

1910 (dry) 138 



1911 (dry) 88 

1912 (wet) 306 



The source of these figures was not given, though they were 
employed twice. A letter to Birmingham brought the follow- 
ing statistics of homicide (not all murders, mind!) from the 
Department of Justice: 



1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 



78 
65 
57 
65 
.107 



1911. 
1912. 
1913. 
1914. 
1915. 



. 85 
. 82 
.133 
.114 
. 66 



If Mrs. Tilton desires further evidence that prohibition does 
not lessen this form of crime I invite her attention to the tables 



1 January 13, January 27, February 10, February 24, March 10. 



published annually in the Spectator by Frederick L. Hoffman, 
the distinguished statistician. In the issue for December 21, 
1916, he shows that the place of dishonor in the matter of 
homicides is held for 1915 by Memphis, Atlanta, Savannah, 
Nashville and Charleston in the order given. The first named 
had in 1915 a rate of 85.9 per 100,000 population; the last 
named a rate of 24.9. All are prohibition cities. The rates 
for the principal wet cities were: Chicago, 8.7; Cleveland, 7.4; 
Baltimore, 6.9; Boston, 5.0; New York, 4.7; Philadelphia, 
4.4; Milwaukee, 3.3. The rate in the prohibition cities men- 
tioned shows an increase in the period 1910-14 over 1905-09. 
The large Negro population of these municipalities is some- 
times advanced by prohibitionists in explanation of their grew- 
some records. But New Orleans with a large Negro popula- 
tion is below any of these cities, and moreover shows a de- 
creasing rate. Or, to take another example, North Carolina, 
prohibition, leads the twenty-one registration states in homi- 
cides. (U. S. Census Bulletin on Mortality, 1914.) 

As offsetting Mrs. Tilton's attempt to show an intimate 
connection between drink and crime, I shall quote a passage 
from a recent address by Chief Justice Olson, of the Mu- 
nicipal Court of Chicago, before the Bar Association of New 
York. In describing the psychopathic laboratory connected 
with his court, with which, by the way, Mrs. Tilton must be 
familiar, the chief justice said: 

"The laboratory has examined hundreds of alcoholics. The 
director says that he has yet to find the first case of chronic 
alcoholism where there was not at least a psychopathic consti- 
tution, dementia praecox, maniac depressive insanity, epilepsy 
or feeblemindedness as the basis, with the exception of a few 
cases where there was a physical basis such as diabetes or tu- 
berculosis, and the man was whipping up his flagging energy 
with alcoholic stimulants. The group with the mental defects 
at the bottom of the alcoholism practically all show a defective 
heredity beyond the average. The fact should be emphasized, 
therefore, that chronic alcoholism is secondary to some under- 
lying mental or physical defect which is primary, and with- 
out which the chronic alcoholism would not exist." 

With considerable trouble, Mrs. Tilton hits upon a reason 
for the abandonment of prohibition by all but one of the sev- 
enteen states which adopted it in the antebellum period. She 
concludes that the Civil war produced such lassitude and weak- 
ening of moral fibre that the license system slipped in again. 
The record demolishes this. True in some states prohibition 
was repealed or nullified by court decisions at early dates, but 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 1 , 1 9 1 7 



63 



not in a majority. Vermont and New Hampshire waited till 
1903. Rhode Island, which adopted prohibition in 1852 re- 
pealed it during the Civil war, re-adopted it in 1886 and did 
away with it again in 1889. Connecticut tried it from 1854 
to 1872; Michigan from 1855 to 1875; Massachusetts had it 
from 1852 to 1868 and from 1869 to 1875 before finally dis- 
carding it. Iowa adopted partial prohibition in 1855 and did 
not get full prohibition until 1884. Her mulct law, substan- 
tially a repeal measure, was adopted in 1893. Ohio had a 
somewhat similar experience. Maine, of course, has stuck to 
prohibition and her shame and scandal have spread through- 
out the civilized world. Here is the only commonwealth 
which has had a continuous experience with prohibition for 
more than half a century. Why do prohibitionists always 
"soft pedal" on Maine? 

Massachusetts, her home state, bothers Mrs. Tilton, for 
she believes prohibition worked well there. She quotes sta- 
tistics put before the public in poster form by the Associated 
Charities of Boston, showing arrests for drunkenness in that 
city in the last quarter of the last prohibition year and the 
similar period in the first year after prohibition ; also some 
testimony from officials and others in several communities in 
favor of the law. If she had gone a little farther in her search 
for fact she would have found much more evidence, though 
not on her side of the case. Read what the governor of the 
state said : 

"I have not full returns from the cities and towns where 
licenses have been authorized, but from returns furnished by 
the chief detective of the commonwealth, at the beginning of 
the present year, from 235 towns and cities, or from some 
more than two-thirds of the whole number, it appears that 
the whole number of arrests for drunkenness in those places 
was in the year 1 87-4 — 25,740; in the same places, like arrests 
in 1876 — 18,696 — showing a decrease of 7,044 between the 
last year of the prohibitory law and the first year of the license 
law, in 235 towns. (Special message governor to Senate, 
May 15, 1877.) 

As to arrests for drunkenness in Boston the police commis- 
sioner submitted an elaborate table in his annual report for 
1910. This showed the total arrests for drunkenness and the 
rate per 1,000 of such arrests to the whole population in each 
year from 1860 to 1910 inclusive. Space forbids the presen- 
tation here of this most interesting report but it perhaps suf- 
fices to say that, in respect to drunkenness the best prohibition 
year is far worse than a number of good license years; that 
the worst license year is far better than all but a few prohibi- 
tion years; and that the prohibition period as a whole exhibits 
far worse conditions than the license period as a whole. In 
the same report the police commissioner shows that an as- 
tonishing proportion of the persons arrested for drunkenness 
in Boston come from the dry municipalities which surround 
that city. 

The Dry Cities 
One may only conjecture why the posters of the Associated 
Charities dealt only with the last quarters of two years when 
such a wealth of material data was convenient. 

In her compilation of figures and opinions from a number 
of cities that have recently come under the prohibitory system, 
such as Seattle, Portland, Ore., Denver, Wheeling, W. Va., 
etc., Mrs. Tilton really makes her strongest point. But she 
fails to show that these glowing reports could also be made of 
many license communities and that the improved conditions 
are due in great part to the prosperity which has visited many 
places. This is particularly true of Denver, where war orders 
for metals have caused the reopening of mines shut down for 



years and an unprecedented demand for labor. Seattle has 
enjoyed an unparalleled boom in shipbuilding and has been 
the port whence the huge cargoes of munitions were sent to 
Russia. 

There are also many circumstances that can be cited in 
rebuttal. Portland, for instance, reports most dismal condi- 
tions, with 7,000 vacant houses, with general business stag- 
nant, with advertisements of property to be sold for tax ar- 
rearages occupying sixty-four columns of a recent newspaper 
issue. From West Virginia come stories of jails crowded as 
never before with "bootleggers," with women and even chil- 
dren engaged in the traffic and of the demand, reported by 
the Associated Press, of the Mine Owners' Association for a 
beer and wine law, in order that their properties may be 
operated satisfactorily. It is, of course, easy to make a super- 
ficially favorable showing for prohibition in the first stages 
of the law's operation. After the surplus stocks of liquor give 
out and the machinery of law evasion gets to working there 
is often a different story. 

Kansas, the Prize State 
In Kansas, the bright particular star of the prohibition 
firmament, Mrs. Tilton finds her fondest hopes realized. 
The people are generally prosperous, health is good, some coun- 
ties have no jail prisoners and both political parties are com- 
mitted to the dry dogma. Kansas certainly ought to be pros- 
perous for she has had bountiful crops for twenty years and 
has sold them at high prices. The health of her people ought 
to be good for they are mostly engaged in agriculture, the 
most healthful of occupations, and the state has no city slums 
or sweat shops. But the death rates of other states are lower. 
The insanity rate of Kansas is high and Mrs. Tilton in ad- 
mitting this really should not gloss over it and then have us 
believe that the high rates of Massachusetts and New York 
are due to the legalized sale of alcoholics. The public schools 
of Kansas rank only twenty-fourth in the Union according to 
the Sage Foundation's grading; her state prison population is 
higher in proportion than that of her neighbor, Nebraska, ac- 
cording to the federal census bureau ; her number of tenant 
farmers and of mortgaged homes is increasing, if we may 
believe the same authority ; her population is decreasing ac- 
cording to her own state census and her manufactures have 
recently suffered a considerable decline as shown in a bulletin 
just issued by the census bureau. 

The picture which Mrs. Tilton draws of general condi- 
tions in Europe would seem to show that those countries have 
advanced most in temperance which have discriminated in 
taxation and regulation between beer and natural wines on 
the one side and the spirituous liquors on the other. The fact 
that Great Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, France and 
Italy, to say nothing of other warring countries, serve regular 
rations of alcoholic beverages to their fighting men, shows that 
scientific opinion regards these not merely as harmless but 
beneficial. Otherwise, they would most certainly be banished 
from the armies. 

With regard to the workings of the Gothenburg system in 
the Scandinavian countries Mrs. Tilton makes many observa- 
tions, some of which are not in accord with others and several 
of which seem to have no particular bearing. It may be re- 
marked that official investigations by the United States Depart- 
ment of Labor and a Massachusetts commission have resulted 
in conclusions directly opposite to her theories, and that the 
system has recently been successfully transplanted into Great 
Britain after extensive inquiry. She seems to try to obscure 
the remarkable fact that the consumption of spirits in Nor- 
way under the company system has been reduced from 6.67 



64 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 



liters per capita in 1875 to 3.64 in 1913 and in Sweden just 
about one-half during the same period. This she terms a 
small decline though it has not been matched by an)' other 
countries in the same length of time. She criticizes the fact 
that profits from the sale of drinks have been used to reduce 
taxes, but fails to mention that this has been against the law 
in Norway for almost twenty years. 

The case against beer as stated by Mrs. Tilton is uncon- 
vincing. The scientific experiments of which she makes so 
much can be dismissed by saying categorically that they are 
not accepted by the scientific world as final. Nor need one 
stop to argue that an immoderate use of beer is harmful. But 
the real gist of her article is that the use of beer is in itself so 
bad that to substitute it for distilled liquors would not bring 
improvement even if the latter were wholly suppressed. In 
Finland, Norway and Sweden, just the opposite belief is held 
and reflected in legislation ; moreover, fermented beverages 
containing not over 2.25 per cent of alcohol are free from 
taxation and general license conditions. Mrs. Tilton herself 
has shown that in these countries alone has a marked reduction 
taken place in the total consumption of liquor, and that meas- 
ured by it they are among the most temperate countries in the 
world. 

Beer and Temperance 

In the United States, the increase in the popularity of 
beer has been coincident with a notable increase in temper- 
ance. Improvements in processes of refrigeration and pas- 
teurization have resulted in gradually reducing the alcoholic 
content of American beer until now it averages 3y£ per cent. 
To become intoxicated on such a drink is really something 
of a feat. 

Perhaps the most serious criticism to be brought against 
Mrs. Tilton is that she ignores the evils of prohibition — the 
hypocrisy, the dry-rot of morals, the vitiation of standards, 
where laws are not enforced ; the fierce unreasoning intoler- 
ance, the demand for more and more drastic statutes, the sur- 
render of governmental functions to irresponsible agencies, the 
persecutions and ostracisms in the name of righteousness. 
These things reflect that "prohibition state of mind" which 
Mrs. Tilton believes is so desirable for a community to acquire. 

But the foregoing has not been written simply to demolish 
an argument for prohibition or as a plea for the continuance 
of the status quo. Nobody is satisfied with the present sit- 
uation and the brewing industry, for which the writer may 
assume to speak, has long been concerned with measures to 
improve conditions. 

The brewer is blamed for the present type of saloon and 
while this is not entirely just, he does recognize a measure 
of responsibility and is laboring to rid himself and the insti- 
tution of the reproach that now attaches to both. In Ohio 
and Missouri the brewer initiated, conducted and paid the 
cost of movements which wiped out many disreputable resorts ; 
in Baltimore and other cities he has directed "clean up" cam- 
paigns ; he is cooperating closely in New York with the Com- 
mittee of Fourteen and other civic agencies; in Newark and 
other places he is asking for sharp reductions in the number 
of licenses and for other reforms. 

The brewer sees the necessity of going further, and making 
other sacrifices. He is aware that the saloon must undergo 
a radical change. It has performed a social function that no 
other institution has attempted with success, but it has ap- 
pealed only to the male portion of the community. Obvi- 
ously, it must become safe, and serviceable to women ; must 
be hygienically clean, attractive in architecture and furnish- 



ings; must lay less emphasis on the sale of alcoholic drink and 
must provide food as well; must in appearance, conduct and 
atmosphere strike a higher standard and make a more elevated 
appeal — in a word, must become a true social center. 

Of course, the brewer cannot accomplish these and other 
necessary things alone. His own proposals are apt to be 
viewed with a suspicion, not entirely undeserved for there have 
been shortsighted, selfish men in his industry just as in others. 
But he is coming to put his hope in an awakened public opin- 
ion which, fortified with knowledge and animated with a sense 
of justice, will exert a force upon manufacturer, retailer, leg- 
islator, public administrator and consumer, which must re- 
sult in better things. 

How shall this public opinion be awakened? It is getting 
to be realized that in legislating upon liquor we have followed 
whim, fancy and prejudice and that often our theory has been 
far away from the fact. Hence has arisen a demand, voiced 
by magazines, newspapers and publicists, for a national survey 
of the drink question. The most frequent suggestion is that 
this inquiry be undertaken by one of the federal departments 
or by a special commission appointed by the President. In 
either case there is a presumption of ample authority to 
cover every phase of the subject and ample means to prosecute 
the work. 

Precedents are abundant. In almost every European coun- 
try, investigation has been deemed a prerequisite to legislation 
upon drink or any other social question. The Norwegian Al- 
cohol Commission ; the Swedish Temperance Society which re- 
ceives aid from the public treasury; the British Board of 
[liquor] control which has a most important function of 
investigation and recommendation in addition to its authority 
of regulation ; the great scientific societies of Germany and 
France, in receipt of governmental subsidies and reporting 
data and recommendations periodically, are some notable ex- 
amples. In the United States we have had the country-life 
commission, the child labor commission, the industrial rela- 
tions commission and others of federal inception. If a ques- 
tion of railroad rates is raised it is handled after investigation 
by our permanent Interstate Commerce Commission ; if a re- 
form of our banking system seems desirable an inquiry made 
by our monetary commission collates the facts and inspires 
the recommendations upon which legislation is based. And the 
drink problem has become national in aspect, a circumstance 
which is emphasized by the recurrent efforts to secure nation- 
wide prohibition through the medium of an amendment to 
the federal constitution. 

Politics, Science, the Trade 

It is difficult to overestimate the value of full, authorita- 
tive data on the drink problem. With the facts before us and 
with an adequate interpretation we would be greatly aided to 
really unprejudiced and disinterested action with the public 
benefit in view. That is very difficult to get now. The poli- 
tician either regards the liquor business as an unfailing source 
of supply for state and municipal treasuries, from which the 
greatest possible amount of revenue must be squeezed, or a 
convenient football to be kicked around amidst plaudits of the 
crowd. Science is divided into two schools, the one holding 
the least amount of alcohol to be a race-destroying poison ; the 
other asserting that rational use is not only harmless but 
beneficial. The trade, not exempt from selfishness and not 
always withheld by scruple, is confronted by the radical pro- 
hibitionist who breathes only destruction. 

Out of a national commission of inquiry may come a real, 
constructive and permanent solution of this great problem. 



Breweries vs. Bakeries 

A Rejoinder to Mr. Fox 
By Elizabeth Tilton 

"The world's food reserve is very low."— United States Agricul- economic reasons." In short, we need today, at once not 

tural Department, April 12, 1917. „_i„ „ ii V „ , • £ . , . ' ' . . 

only prohibition as hygiene for the boys in our training camps 

WE STAND in a world of disillusionment, a war and for efficiency purposes in general, we need prohibition as 

world with forty million men under arms and a food conservation measure. This is only one step of the 

civilization descending into hell. But these things many that must be taken to ward off the specter of a hungry 

are ! Face fact and proceed, says the old Greek, world, but it is one real step. 

As I acknowledge the fact and begin to work at what I can For two days now I have been getting together all the 

do to help, there enters Mr. Hugh Fox, secretary of the facts that show the food values that are practically wasted in 

United States Brewers' Association, with what truly seems brewing and distilling. The English have discovered that it 

to me (consciously or unconsciously on his part) mere twist- takes 3,400 calories or energy-makers a day to feed a muni- 

ings 1 of my plain statements in Turning off the Spigot. Shall tion-maker or a soldier. Women and children can get on 

I stop and go over it all again, in the three days that the with about 2,500. 

Survey can give me to write an answer? Now here are the calories or food values wasted in liquor. 
But our world is suddenly confronted with titanic war I am using matter compiled by Dr. Stewart Whittemore for 
preparations and with the food famine looming nearer every the Associated Charities, Boston, 1913. The government has 
day. We must increase our food supply. Would Mr. Fox's not recently, as far as we can ascertain, compiled statistics on 
scheme help? Abolish distilled liquor only, he says; keep brewing materials, so I use 1896 figures. To find out ma- 
beer, serve it not at bars, but in innumerable cafes, with tables terials used in 1915, I increased the amount 66 per cent, that 
and chairs and music, where men can bring with them their being our increase in production over 1896. 
women and children, and where all the family can drink to- I find that we used approximately in brewing in 1915 
gether. In other words, let us abandon that great health (pounds) : malt, 3,495,125,040; rice, 191,413,943 ; corn, 460,- 
asset (left us by grandfather) — a middle class that tends to- 128,650; grape sugar, 63,979,560; hops, 58,165,083; glu- 
tally to abstain; let us be Germans — the average man there cose 45,505,637; gallons of glucose, 4,783,630, besides other 
drinks from four to ten quarts of beer a day ! materials of a nature not specified to the amount of 4,706,247 
You see, Mr. Fox really believes that man must drink, and bushels, 232,429,685 pounds, 73,938 gallons. These I leave 
if the wives and children come too, the men will no longer out of my computation, though they may waste much food 
over-drink. They do over-drink horribly everywhere where value. 

beer is used freely and by the family. But Mr. Fox hopes When I turn my pounds of known food materials into cal- 

it will be different here. ories, please note how they look: 

Beer and Intemperance approximate calories or eood values in the original 

r MATERIALS USED IN BREWING, 1915 

To me it seems as if opening wide the beer gardens, with Malt 5,662,102,564,800 

,. j Li • i i i ■ • i , i m Rice 310,090,588,200 

chairs and tables in the saloons, bringing the women and chu- Com 752,310,342,750 

dren along too, will simply in the end double, treble, quadruple Glucose Ugar . .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' 1 54,606,'764,'400 

the sale of beer here, as it has in Germany. Total 6,894,273 468,150 

And I do not want to increase beer drinking here. I want These are calories or food values sufficient ' t0 feed the one 

to get rid of it as fast as I can, for since I wrote my articles hundred miUion people of the United States for twenty days . 

for the Survey there has been added to the many good rea- Qr the food values of the essentfal materials used in 1915 in 

sons for total abstinence already given, a new pressing reason brewfng WQuld be suffident t0 support 5,555,418 hard-working 

-the need of increasing our food supply. men for an ent ; re year> 

I here is only one thing more brutal than a terrified world Coming t0 distiUed HquorS) j take the figures f or 1911, the 

(like ours today), and that is a hungry world ; and that is the j ast j can ^ nd . 
world that is coming if the war continues. It is going to be 

a food war. Says Kenyon L. Butterfield, president of the ^unds of materials that went^into distilled^uors, 1911 

American Association of Agricultural Colleges, "Prohibition Malt 194,556,576 3is.24i.6S3.i20 

c .« 1 • ^1 1111 ,7- , , , , Wheat 1,305,900 2,154.735,000 

for the duration of the war should be established for purelv Barley 473,952 767,802,240 

Rye 301,057,008 487,712,352,960 

Corn 1,162,350,200 1,900,442,577,000 

'About the figures of murders in Alabama: the figures came from the gate f?, 1 ', 5 ?? «« SfJ'oof'nnr! 

Outlook. I asked Mr. Pulsifer, of the editorial staff, if they were absolutely „ Molasses (gals.) .............. 44 363,133 665,446,995,000 

correct. I will go to the bottom of them at once and tell the results. In Total calories or food values, it materials had been used in original form, 

passing may I say the statement that the cities Memphis, Nashville, Charleston, 3,372,448,951,800. 

Savannah and Atlanta, leading in homicides for 1915 were prohibition cities, is _, I . , .... . , . , , „ , ~ 

misinformation. Charleston did not go dry until January 1, 1916, Savannah I his IS for 1911, but 3S OUT production has fallen about 11 

and Atlanta until May 1 1916. Up to then the latter two allowed beer but L /miC\ T J J * J C J *U„* *U„ t A „,„1..«„, ~f 

no distilled liquor. Curiously, I was in Savannah the other day and Dr per Cent (1915) 1 deduct and find that the food values Of 

ye r aTago rKele^nA^^^^ materials used in distilled liquors in 1915, would, in their orig- 

goWngrig^ have got thls migh,y inal form, have been as much as would feed 2,000,000 able- 

;;Homicides (Negro by Negro), 1915 (wet) 24 bodied men for one year. I find that that negligible item, 

-Homicides (Negro by Negro), 1916 (dry) 10." 11 c n >tnn 

And eight of these ten occurred before May l' when prohibition became wheat, about 20,000 bushels, WOuld have produced 1,542,700 

effective. I also want to say that in the table in article II, the Survey , , TI , , , , 

for January 13, 1917, p. 426, Sweden's total consumption should read: loaves Of Hathaway S bread. 

Etms!",^ 1881 ' 90 ' 466: 1891 - 95, Adding together beer and distilled liquors, I find that we 

65 



66 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 



used in 1915 in brewing and distilling, approximately enough 
calories or food values to support an army of over 1,000,000 
hardy men for seven years. That is to say, there are calories 
in that material equal to doing this. They would, of course, 
have to be given in variety. 

England finds that the 31,000 acres planted with hops, 
which have practically no nutritive value, would, if planted 
with oats and potatoes, yield food values that would support 
180,000 people for a year. We have about 44,000 acres of 
hop-land, "and the distillers," says Dr. Whittemore, "sell their 
finished products for a price twenty-five times that which 
the cereals would have brought in the form of meal" (1912). 

This is why I do not advocate beer gardens— man, woman 
and child drinking — as does Mr. Fox. I want to see war 
prohibition at once — as a matter of national honor to the 
thousands of boys suddenly immersed in an excited, abnormal 
world. I want to see it, too, as a matter of hygiene. The 
commander who would not allow saloons for our boys on the 
Mexican border was the one whose troops showed the lowest 
rate of venereal disease. I want to see war prohibition as a 
matter of efficiency. And now, in this food war, I want to 
see it as a matter of feeding the hungry. 

But I want to see it come right, following organized total 
abstinence. The countries that have made the most headway 
against drink are Norway, Finland and Sweden. They have 
had the bulk of their people (70 to 80 per cent) under pro- 
hibition for fifty years. But behind has been the great move- 
ment for total abstinence. 

Let churches solemnly give a rising pledge, at the call of 
their pastors, to abstain totally during war. Let clubs do 
this, chambers of commerce — let us flash a flag of that race 
hygiene ideal, total abstinence, and then let us strike, with this 
personal sacrifice behind it, for prohibition. The drys in Con- 



gress will make a drive on liquor when appropriations are 
out of the way. Social workers, be behind that drive with 
strong total abstinence sentiment, and with strong letters to 
your congressmen, telling them that prohibition must be. To 
help, send to the Poster Campaign of the Boston Associated 
Charities and get their new posters telling of the food values 
wasted in liquor, or send to Mrs. George Whiting, 41 Kirk- 
land street, Cambridge, Mass., and get food conservation post 
cards printed by the Unitarian Temperance Society. And 
when this prohibition comes, remember it is only a beginning, 
only blazing the trail for the virile ideal of total abstinence, 
and for better, cleaner, wider recreation facilities. 

With the Brewers' Help 

Mr. Fox, isn't this the better way, and won't you help? 

We have got to take care of all the bartenders when prohi- 
bition comes. Perhaps we can all work together to make 
the transition easy. Never will there be so many new jobs 
as now for them to be transferred to. This is no time for 
technical and statistical investigation. This is a time for 
"getting together." Brewers, is there no way that your vast 
saloon properties can be organized into clean, soft-drink rec- 
reation places? Please think this over. We need you — 
without your beer ! 

In the meantime, let us all work for a nation of total ab- 
stainers and a world of total abstainers, supplemented by pro- 
hibition, making liquor less accessible to the boys and the 
weak and saving the vast grain supply now wasted in the 
making of liquor and beer. Remember Adam Smith, who 
said, "All labor expended in producing strong drinks is utterly 
unproductive. It adds nothing to the wealth of nations." 
Nor, we may say, does it add to the health, efficiency, clear- 
and high-mindedness of the nation. 



THE JAIL 



THE COURT HOUSE 



THE SCHOOL 




T/fP ILLIAM F. FEAGIN , superintendent of education of Alabama, 

l/y believes that "the public school building is the monument willed 
by the community to its childhood." He says: "This building for 
the young should not be repulsive but inviting, not somber but cheer- 
ful. Just a little thought and attention on the part of those who hold 
the life of children dear will convert a plain, cheerless and insanitary 
box into a beautiful, inspiring, sanitary schoolhouse. To this end I 
call upon you to observe the first of the four special days of this school 
year — Clean-Up and School Improvement Day." 

The picture above of jail, courthouse and school all in one Alabama 
town, is, of course, exceptional. But Superintendent Feagin says that 
the greater number of school buildings in Alabama "are small, one-room 
structures set on pegs, weather-blackened, window-smashed , often with wrecked entrance steps and lockless doors." _ The annual 
clean-up and school-improvement day is, however, calling people's attention to these conditions and bringing about improvement 
in one locality after another. 



C092920 




A CONQUEST OF CROPS FOR 
THE WORLD 

at I A HE importance of an adequate 

X. food supply, especially for the 
present year, is superlative. Without 
abundant food, alike for the armies and 
the peoples now at war, the whole great 
enterprise upon which we have embarked 
will break down and fail. Not only 
during the present emergency, but for 
some time after peace shall have come, 
both our own people and a large propor- 
tion of the people of Europe must rely 
upon the harvests in America." 

President Wilson's proclamation of 
April 15 summarized the appeal made 
throughout the land during the previous 
week by governors of states, federal of- 
ficers, and patriots, for a food economy 
which will give to the United States 
and to the Allies what, with all its won- 
derful inventions, the present war has 
proved to be the most powerful arm of 
defense. An ample supply of sustenance 
will not only keep the army in condition, 
but it will preserve the vigor and effi- 
ciency of the hundred million or so be- 
hind the fighting line without which no 
dash and no brilliancy of military ex- 
ploits is of the slightest use. 

In this great problem of food economy, 
three demands stand out from among the 
flow of ideas and suggestion which have 
filled the newspapers during the last two 
weeks ; demands for abundant produc- 
tion, for just and economical distribu- 
tion, and for wise conservation. 

The problem of increasing the supply 
is the most immediate since this year's 
growing season has already set in, and 
on the efforts of the next few weeks the 
fortunes of democracy will largely de- 
pend. Can the United States suddenly 
and greatly increase the yield of her 
farms? The answer will depend on the 
fulfilment of two conditions: there must 
be more than a patriotic motive to induce 
extraordinary investments in implements, 
manures, clearances, building of silos, su- 
perior seeds and more costly rotations ; 
and the willingness of farmers to put 
their very best effort into the production 
of the largest and most valuable yields 
must be aided by a sufficient supply of 



labor. Both conditions imply the need 
for assurances that added expenditures 
will be remunerative. It is not neces- 
sary that large profits should be guaran- 
teed, but the great majority of Ameri- 
can farmers are not men who can afford 
to indulge in speculation, and they must 
be given a definite prospect of being able 
to sell without loss. 

Thus the creation of a food board by 
the federal government, headed by the 
man who, at the moment, enjoys the 
largest public confidence for such an un- 
dertaking, Herbert C. Hoover, president 
of the American Commission for Relief 
in Belgium, naturally came first among 
the measures adopted to control the in- 
teraction of production and distribution. 
Mr. Hoover, at present, is engaged in 
an inquiry in France, England and Italy, 
in cooperation with government depart- 
ments, into the prospects of the coming 
harvest — which, of course, will influence 
prices in America — and the methods of 
regulating food control now in opera- 
tion, especially with a view to control of 
prices and elimination of speculative con- 
gestion. 

Already plans are being formulated, 
which no doubt will be published in the 

Donahey in Cleveland Plain Dealer 




HIS NEW GOLF STICKS 



near future, how minimum prices may 
be assured to farmers. It is probable 
that state agricultural and marketing 
commissions will play a prominent part 
in such a system. 

In the meantime, the serious shortage 
in the world's food crops, as shown to 
exist in a recent report by David Lubin, 
American representative to the Interna- 
tional Institute of Agriculture at Rome, 
together with the increasing withdrawal 
of man power from farming operations 
in the belligerent countries, not to speak 
of the actual destruction of crops by war- 
fare on land and sea, should be sufficient 
to convince American farmers that the 
likelihood of falling prices for some time 
to come is exceedingly small and that 
probably at no time in American history 
has there been a safer opportunity for 
increasing investments with a view to 
larger yields. 

FARMS, FARMERS AND FARM 
LABOR 

"PATRIOTISM and profit should 
JL stimulate them," says the resolu- 
tion unanimously accepted on April 10 
at St. Louis by a great rally of farm 
journal editors and publishers, called by 
the National Agricultural Organization 
Society and presided over by Secretary 
David F. Houston of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. "The life 
of the nation hangs in the balance. The 
rewards for intelligent farm toil were 
never so alluring and certain. Every 
man in his own field must be the judge 
of methods." 

While, therefore, it may be expected 
that the majority of farmers' organiza- 
tions will gladly cooperate with the na- 
tional and state authorities in encourag- 
ing more productive and more extensive 
farming, the shortage of labor, for the 
moment, has assumed a most serious 
character. The President has announced 
that "hundreds of thousands of men 
otherwise liable to military service will 
of right and necessity be excused from 
that service and assigned to the funda- 
mental, sustaining work of the fields and 
factories and mines" and, while compul- 
sory military service is yet under discus- 

67 



68 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 



LOOK FOR THE NEXT POST CAK|» 

od by 
F^roHibi-ting Liquor 

A vast amout of food-value is lost by turning grain into Beer 
and Whiskey. 

For example, we use for distilled liquors alone about 
20,000,000 BUSHELS OF CORN A YEAR. 

This, if used as cereal, would contain enough food-value to 
feed amply an army of 1,000,000 men for 1 year and 5 months. 



I'ost cards 50c per hundred. 



MRS. GEORGE WHITING, 

41 Kirkland St., Cambridge Mass. 

Secretary Post Card Committee. 



POST CARDS FOR PROHIBITION-PREPAREDNESS 



sion by Congress, has called "upon young 
men and old alike and upon the able- 
bodied boys of the land to accept and act 
upon this duty — to turn in hosts to the 
farms and make certain that no pains 
and no labor is lacking in this great mat- 
ter." Already, in the state of New York, 
an effort has been organized by the State 
Agricultural Society to recruit a school- 
boy army for immediate mobilization. 

DISCARDING SCHOOL BOOKS 
FOR FARMING 

IF plans of the New York State De- 
partment of Education do not mis- 
carry, New York will apparently be the 
first state in this country to follow the 
example of England, Germany and 
France to repeal or relax compulsory 
school attendance laws in order that 
boys may help to increase food produc- 
tion by working upon the farms. 

"There is an imperative need for labor 
on the farms," John H. Finley, commis- 
sioner of education, was quoted as hav- 
ing said in the New York Evening Post 
April 13. "That need is immediate, 
and the schoolboys can help to meet it. 
If necessary, the Board of Regents will 
ask the legislature to authorize us to 
suspend the provisions of the compulsory 
education law in order to allow us to 
meet this emergency by permitting boys 
to be excused from part of their school 
work. The boys should realize that this 
is just as genuinely a patriotic service as 
any other." 

A telegram in answer to a letter writ- 
ten by the Survey to Commissioner Fin- 
ley declared that the commissioner favors 
suspension of the compulsory attendance 
law "during continuance of war, under 
regulation and control of the department 
of education." He does not favor the 
repeal of the law, it was said. The tele- 
gram added that "legislation is contem- 
plated directing the department of edu- 
cation to take such action as may be 
necessary to make this effective." 

Meanwhile, the New York Times de- 
clared on Monday that it had been an- 
nounced at Albany that when the farm- 



ers of the state come together in their 
various communities on April 21, in 
answer to Governor Whitman's call to 
learn about the need for increased pro- 
duction, they would be told of the plan 
of the State Department of Education to 
send schoolboys out over the state as "a 
farming army." Commissioner Finley 
was stated to have called meetings of 
village and district superintendents in 
each county to consider what the schools 
might do. These meetings were to be- 
gin on Wednesday of this week. Enroll- 



20,000,000 

BUSHELS OF CORN 

Go yearly into 





FOOD VALUE 

SUFFICIENT F"OR 

1,000,000 MEN 

.F"0« 

17 MONTHS 



' I ''HE latest poster issued by the Poster 
J- Campaign Against Alcohol of the 
Boston Associated Charities (10 cents 
on linen, 5 cents on paper, 11 Mason 
street, Cambridge, Mass.). The Boston 
Associated Charities went on record last 
week in favor of war prohibition and 
will ask the other societies of Massa- 
chusetts to endorse the movement. Gov- 
ernor Capper of Kansas has responded 
to a request from Mrs. Tilton, chair- 
man of the Poster Campaign, and has 
wired the governors of all the states to 
urge national prohibition upon the Presi- 
dent as, a measure of conserving food 
during the war. 



ment blanks were to be issued, and it 
was expected that a full list of boys will- 
ing to begin farm work at once would be 
available in ten days. Boys who enter 
the service before the end of the school 
year will, it is planned, receive credit in 
the subjects they are studying. 

The State Agricultural Society and 
other agencies will, under this plan, see 
that the boys are fairly treated, justly 
compensated and recognized as in the 
service of the state. The Military 
Training Commission has voted to ac- 
cept farming as vocational training that 
can, in the meaning of the revised Wells- 
Slater law [the Survey, April 14, 
page 35] be accepted in lieu of compul- 
sory military training by boys between 
sixteen and nineteen years of age. 

During the first spring after Eng- 
land entered the war, and increasingly 
since then, school attendance laws were 
so relaxed that hundreds of thousands 
of boys and girls were excused prema- 
turely from school to work upon farms 
and in munition factories. This experi- 
ence was told in an article entitled The 
Children's Bit in the War in the Sur- 
vey for February 3. 

Another plan, favored by Dr. Clax- 
ton, federal commissioner of education, 
is to have groups of high school students 
from the large cities camp in the neigh- 
borhoods where labor is most needed, 
under their own teachers, and to be 
hired out to the farmers of the district 
singly or in small groups, school credits 
being awarded for satisfactory perform- 
ance. The advantage of this plan is 
that educational oversight is retained and 
that the worst dangers of exploitation 
are avoided. While, in all likelihood, 
organization of these resources of juve- 
nile labor will be too late to aid materi- 
ally in planting, it should make avail- 
able for the harvest season many thou- 
sand enthusiastic workers at a rate of 
pay which, while fair to the young labor- 
ers, will not be excessive for the farmers. 

The giving of school credits for farm 
work under such circumstances is viewed 
with alarm by some educators. If the 
nation, in its hour of need, finds it neces- 
sary to abbreviate the school education 
given, at least it should not deceive itself 
into believing that practical work under 
employers who are not instructors is 
necessarily of an educational character. 
The vigorous plea of the National Child 
Labor Committee — that the children of 
America shall not "be sacrificed" — was 
quoted in the Survey last week. 

In this connection, the suggestion of 
William R. George, founder and acting 
president of the George Junior Repub- 
lic Association, that the census of the 
amount and location of the most impor- 
tant food products available which is 
being organized by the New York State 
Department of Agriculture, and possibly 
in other states, may largely be made by 
school children under the direction of 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 



2 I 



i 'j i 7 



69 



their teachers, deserves mention, because 
in this undertaking there is a much 
larger educational element. 

Mr. George himself has tried the ex- 
periment in the West Dryden School, 
New York, and in the schools of Bur- 
lington county, New Jersey. There 
pupils have made an agricultural and 
population census of the community, 
collecting information concerning the 
number of men, women and children in 
each family, the number of acres owned 
or rented, the number of cattle, horses, 
hogs, poultry and other live stock, the 
amount of hay, oats, potatoes, wheat, 
buckwheat, corn and other grains grown, 
and other information. The plan was 
accounted a success. 

FARM WORK FOR A SUMMER 
VACATION 

BEFORE making wholesale inroads 
upon the school careers of the young 
in town and country, it is important to 
note, however, that the resources in adult 
labor are not yet by any means exhaust- 
ed. One method would be that of 
utilizing for this patriotic purpose the 
vacations enjoyed by civil servants and 
others. Walter E. Kruesi, superintend- 
ent of the Public Employment Bureau 
of the city of New York, believes that 
of the 70,000 city employes, most of 
whom have vacations on full pay for two 
or three weeks, a large proportion are 
physically capable of, and might even 
benefit from, using that leisure period 
in the interest of agricultural production. 
Their vacations could be so organized, 
through the services of city and state 
public employment bureaus, as to give 
farmers continuous service and getting 
the maximum supply of help in the state 
when and where most needed. 

The usual disinclination of farmers 
to employ city workers has to a consid- 
erable extent been overcome in Canada, 
where the vacations of clerks in a num- 
ber of cities have been systematically or- 
ganized with that need in view. To- 
ronto alone is sending 5,000 men and 
boys to summer farm work. 

A more immediate need is that of 
preventing the enlistment of men who 
have recently or in the past engaged in 
farm work and are at present of much 
greater national usefulness behind the 
plough than behind the gun. From the 
President's proclamation it would seem 
that wholesale exemptions on that score 
from the operations of compulsory mili- 
tary service are contemplated. But the 
suggestion comes from Charles B. 
Barnes, director of the State Bureau of 
Employment of New York and, in 
slightly different forms from a number of 
other states, that a more enthusiastic 
response and a better distribution of the 
labor available from this source would 
be secured if these men were actually 
enlisted and assigned to special agricul- 
tural corps, "wearing a uniform with all 



SIR HORACE PLUNKETT ON OUR FOOD PLANS 

CIR HORACE PLUNKETT, of an old Irish family whose peerage dates from 
Y the fifteenth century, is the founder of the Irish Agricultural Organization 
Society, which, since 1889, has united more than a hundred thousand Irishmen of 
all classes politics and creeds. He has represented a Dublin constituency in the 
House of Commons for nine years and held high offices connected with agricultural 
development in Ireland. 

In the midst of his busy life, Sir Horace has found time to engage in cattle- 
ranching m our western states, where he has acquired property interests and is here 
at present on his seventy-fifth sojourn. His little volume, The Rural Life Problem 
of the United States, published a few years ago, is recognized as a standard work 
on that subject He is at present recovering from a severe illness from which all 
readers of the Survey will wish him a speedy recovery. 

From his hospital bed he sends the Survey the following comment on the report 
in our last issue [page 39] for "civil-military service" in food production : 

" lSf 0T l ° ng a S<> President Wilson called the attention of the world to the advan- 
-*■ » tage of having the normal economic life of one great country undisturbed. 
Had Germany allowed this aspiration to be realized, the United States could have 
rendered^ no greater service to the stricken countries of Europe than to increase 
substantially its own food supply so as to have a large surplus available for export. 
Now that the republic has been drawn into the struggle, this same service appears 
to be the most immediately practical way of assisting the allied countries which are 
pouring out in a manner and to a degree unprecedented in human history, their life 
blood and their treasure. 

"In thus supporting the cause which the United States has now been forced to 
*nake its own, it will be rendering no merely economic assistance. The so-called 
blockade has to be run. American courage, patriotism and determination will not 
balk at this enterprise; but it cannot be embarked upon unless it is accompanied 
by a far greater surplus food production than is needed to meet the domestic re- 
quirements of the United States in ordinary years. 

"In these circumstances, I rejoice to see that the University of Illinois, speaking 
through the very competent dean of its agricultural college, Eugene Davenport, has 
prepared a plan for assuring this surplus. The plan will have to be worked out by 
the federal Department of Agriculture. But Mr. Davenport has prepared the 
ground by solving the chief crux of the problem. In a published memorandum 
which has not yet attracted the attention it deserves, he has boldly tackled the labor- 
shortage difficulty. It is easy for the government to assign a certain number of en- 
listed or conscripted persons to work on farms; but what is to be done when the 
farmer finds himself saddled with 'help which is either not adequately trained or 
unwilling to give a day's work for a day's pay? Dean Davenport proposes that the 
farmer should send the man back to his training camp, to which the laborer can at 
any time return if he is dissatisfied with the conditions of employment. 

"I think the lesser difficulties of an adequate supply of farm machinery (espe- 
cially motor tractors) and artificial manures should also be tackled under the federal 
plan for increasing the food production of 1917. I regard this service as being of 
such immense national and international importance that I welcome Dean Daven- 
port's suggestion that the helpers in it should have some uniform or badge which 
indicates that they are helping the nation in the zvar." 



Horace Plunkett. 



[Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago, April 11, 1917.] 



the usual markings but so designed as to 
allow for the freedom necessary in 
farm work." 

During the winter, when the demand 
for labor slackened, these men could be 
brought into the military camps and 
placed under military discipline. Dur- 
ing summer they would be concentrated 
in agricultural camps, as proposed in the 
Illinois plan described in the Survey 
last week, and hired out to the farmers 
of the region at the wages locally cur- 
rent. Army pay might be made sup- 
plementary to these wages, or partly 
supplementary and partly used in aid 
of wages so as to enable the employ- 
ment of laborers by farmers who at the 
present level of wages are unable to 
make use of their services at the full 
current rate. The payment of trans- 
portation by the government in itself 
would constitute an important saving to 
farmers in outlying regions. 

Edgar L. Smith, head of the Farmers' 
Bureau, proposed the creation of an of- 
fice under the War Department, to be 



known as the commissioner of agricul- 
tural defense, one of whose duties it 
would be to mobilize and distribute the 
enlisted farm labor. 

While, generally speaking, the move- 
ment for cultivating vacant city lots 
and back yards — even tenement roofs 
have been suggested — is of importance 
only as aiding to a slight extent the 
budget of the individual cultivators, and 
of no importance whatsoever to the real 
problem of national food production 
which can only be solved by giving the 
best possible conditions of production to 
the farmers of the country, large em- 
ployers who also hold considerable tracts 
of land can materially benefit the coun- 
try by arranging for the cultivation of 
that land by their own employes, under 
expert guidance. Thus some of the rail- 
way companies own parcels of land, 
sometimes extensive in the aggregate, 
which, waiting for future developments, 
can be made available immediately for 
raising small crops by their employes. 
Th Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company 



70 



THE SURVEY E O R APRIL 21 



1 9 1 7 



has made a beginning in this enter- 
prise. 

Charles W. Stockton, general counsel 
of the Wells Fargo Express Company, 
and others urge the direct employment 
by the federal government of farm labor 
for the cultivation of land which is now 
going to waste. Under his plan, a bu- 
reau of the National Defense Council, 
with subordinate bureaus in the counties 
and townships, would purchase fer- 
tilizers, farm machinery and stock 
wholesale and carry out improvements 
under the most approved systems of 
large-scale farming. 

Discussions of plans and methods for 
utilizing approximately our hundred mil- 
lion acres of cut-over timber lands in 
the South to increase the nation's food 
supply have been held at the Cut-Over 
Land Conference of the South in which 
governors and other state officials and 
federal experts as well as land-owners, 
lumbermen and business men partici- 
pated. 

By a resolution introduced in the 
Senate on April 1 1 by Senator Freling- 
huysen, of New Jersey, the Council of 
National Defense was requested to con- 
sider the advisability of establishing a 
commissioner of agricultural defense 
who should assemble all national, state 
and private agencies and mobilize farm 
labor for the production of larger crops. 

Increased employment of prison la- 
bor for farming is proposed by Charles 
Bulkley Hubbell, chairman of the New 
York Commission on Prisons. He be- 
lieves that from 10 to 20 per cent of 
prison trusties could be made thus avail- 
able with a saving of cost for their sup- 
port to the state and a reasonable re- 
muneration to the men themselves which 
would ensure high-class service. He also 
suggests suspension of the laws govern- 
ing alien contract labor and the imme- 
diate introduction of 25,000 or more 
oriental laborers for a stated definite 
period. 

The National Agricultural Organiza- 
tion Society, in a tentative plan present- 
ed to farmers' organizations throughout 
the country, declares that the guarantee 
of minimum wages to agricultural la- 
borers is as important as that of mini- 
mum prices for farm products if an in- 
creased draft of farm labor into the in- 
dustries of the country as well as loss 
through enlistment is to be avoided. 

Gov. Walter E. Edge, of New Jer- 
sey, is asking land owners in the state, 
who have been liberal in offering estates 
for camp and other military purposes, 
to let the state have the temporary use 
of estates also for food production. Crops 
would be planted, cared for and har- 
vested by an army of school boys and 
volunteers under the general supervision 
of the State Board of Agriculture but 
under the immediate oversight of the 
owners' gardeners, farm managers and 
estate superintendents. 



PLANS FOR CONSCIENTIOUS 
OBJECTORS 

WITH compulsory military service 
looming ahead, the Quakers of 
the country already have decided upon a 
plan to avoid having their traditional 
conscientious objection to war and mili- 
tary service mistaken for lack of pa- 
triotism and lack of willingness to make 
material sacrifices for the nation during 
war. The peace committee of the Phil- 
adelphia yearly meeting has elaborated a 
plan under which an expected army of 
probably 118,000 Friends, 123,000 Dun- 
kards, or Brethren, 61,000 Mennonites, 
and others conscientiously opposed to 
war not affiliated with any religious or- 
ganization who are of military age, 
should be drafted into a "farm labor 
league" to supply agricultural labor 
wherever needed at the regular army 
rates of payment. As they do not ex- 
pect that the government will be able to 
make direct use of their services, they 
propose that under the direction of a gov- 
ernment agency, they hire out their labor 
to farmers at the current local rate of 
wages and turn over to some relief work 
approved by the government the differ- 
ence between this and the regular army 
pay. This is additional to a number of 
other services of national importance 
contemplated and, in part, already oper- 
ated by the Friends. 

One of the nation's greatest resources 
of potential farm labor may eventually 
prove to be the women, not only of the 
leisured classes, but also of various occu- 
pational groups not at present engaged 
in work of national importance. The 
Woodcraft League, which is establish- 
ing potato clubs all over the country, has 
secured the use of estates owned by its 
members and sympathizers which will 
largely be worked by women, probably 
on a cooperative plan. 

The National League for Women's 
Service and the Women's Section of the 
Navy League have arranged with a num- 
ber of high schools to train girl students 
for farming. The league is establishing 
an agricultural bureau in New York city 
and will provide scholarships at the 
Farmingdale Agricultural School for 
fifty women who wish to take up farm- 
ing as a permanent occupation. Other 
groups of women in every part of the 
country, are considering the organization 
of women's farm work on a larger scale, 
if only for aid in temporary emergencies 
and in harvesting. 

Lack of capital for improving output 
comes only second in importance to lack 
of labor. In New York state, the Agri- 
cultural Society, in cooperation with cer- 
tain public-spirited men and banks, has 
secured a guarantee of $10,000,000 for a 
loan scheme under which individual 
farmers of good repute will be able to 
borrow at 4j^ per cent interest through 
the agency of a local committee com- 
posed of two members of the grange, or 



other agricultural organization and, if 
possible, a banker. No mortgages will be 
asked. 

It is stated that two and three times 
this amount can be secured, should the 
need arise. Probably, however, should 
the war continue longer than this sum- 
mer, credit organization on a national 
scale will have to be devised to meet 
this need, since recent federal legislation 
did not cover the lack of farm credits 
for operating purposes which at once be- 
comes apparent when the demand for in- 
creased productivity involves increased 
capital investments other than in land. 

The regulation of prices and of dis- 
tribution has as yet hardly been com- 
menced, and the equally important phase 
of the problem, how the cost to con- 
sumers may be safeguarded without dis- 
couraging production, is hardly as yc 
discussed. The appeal for conservation 
of food made by the President and, oft 
in a somewhat exaggerated form, by men 
ot lesser eminence, at the time of pres- 
ent high prices will only apply to a small 
proportion of the population. While 
there is much wasteful expenditure even 
at this time of high prices, that expendi- 
ture only indirectly consumes food by 
employing labor and capital which might 
more profitably be expended upon an in- 
creased food production. On another 
page of this issue, the exceptional in- 
stance, that of the national consumption 
of alcoholic liquors, is discussed by Mrs. 
Tilton. 

According to the investigations of the 
United States Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, retail prices of food jumped 39 per 
cent in 1916, as compared with 1907, 
and 16 per cent in terms of real wages; 
that is, if the increase in wages is set off 
against that of retail prices. The Stand- 
ard Oil Company, in making a voluntary 
increase in the wages of its refinery em- 
ployes of from 10 to 15 per cent last 
week, amounting to about one and a half 
million dollars a year — the fourth in- 
crease made by the company during the 
past year and a half — realized that a 
greater rather than a lesser consumption 
of food by the workers of the nation is 
the need of the hour, if their efficiency 
is to be preserved. 

WHAT THE CHURCH OFFERS 
THE NATION 

A FOUR-FOLD program of emer- 
gency war work has been adopted 
by the Commission on the Church and 
Social Service of the Federal Council 
of the Churches of Christ in America, in 
charge of the Rev. Worth M. Tippy, 
the executive' secretary. 

This emergency program includes the 
enrollment of Red Cross ' members, the 
preparation of hospital supplies, the re- 
lief of children suffering in Belgium, Ar- 
menia and Poland, and the relief of fam- 
ilies of enlisted men. The program is 
to be carried out in cooperation with 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, t 9 1 7 



71 



the Red Cross and of all other social and 
civic agencies concerned in war-time so- 
cial service. 

What Has the Church to Offer the 
Nation? is the title of a statement of 
principles with which Dr. Tippy pref- 
aces a leaflet on The Church's Response 
to the Nation, which may be had of the 
council at 105 East 22 street, New York 
city. Dr. Tippy writes : 

"As the United States enters the great 
war, the forces of the nation are mobiliz- 
ing for the conflict. What is the place 
of the church in this hour of crisis and 
danger ? 

"It is to spiritualize the nation; to 
keep the war a conflict for righteous- 
ness, liberty and democracy ; to hearten 
and encourage the men who go to the 
front, and their loved ones at home; to 
build a greater fellowship of reconcilia- 
tion, consisting of millions who, while 
fighting, will love their enemies ; to wage 
this war with the determination to make 
an end of war; to so hate war as to be 
restrained in its glorification, noble as 
is this conflict, lest the hold of war upon 
the imagination of our youth be strength- 
ened ; to give itself unstintedly to the re- 
lief of the suffering at home and abroad, 
which the war has brought and will yet 
bring upon the world." 

THE LITERACY TEST A BAR 
TO TYPHUS 

THE 40,000 Mexicans living in El 
Paso, Texas — a number constantly 
on the increase — have brought about con- 
ditions of living and health which have 
long been recognized as a menace to the 
entire city. That some drastic meas- 
ure of prevention must be taken was 
realized when the city health physician, 
Dr. W. C. Kluttz, contracted typhus 
while actively engaged in keeping the 
disease from spreading, and died. 

A conference was held of city and 
county officials and officers of the United 
States Public Health Service, and as a 
result Assistant Surgeon J. W. Tappen, 
of the Public Health Service, was loaned 
to the city of El Paso. He has been 
made public health officer and given the 
assistance of Dr. T. C. Galloway, who 
made an investigation of living condi- 
tions among the El Paso Mexicans. 

The recommendation that every Mex- 
ican crossing the international bridge 
should take a hot bath and be thoroughly 
"de-loused," has been carried out for the 
past three months. But this did not 
prove as effective as had been hoped. Dr. 
Tappan found that some diseases, par- 
ticularly typhus, had found a lodging 
place in the hovels of the Mexicans on 
this side of the river, so a new housing 
code was prepared which will materially 
improve conditions among the Mexicans 
and indeed in all lodging houses in El 
Paso. 

The code provides particularly for 
more windows, more space to each fam- 



Draum by Mirhaet Knpaco lor "BtrkO'l llluttratei ','. .mjnrian) 




AN UNEXPECTED RESULT 



hi dinging trenches to defend autocracy, the foundations are laid 
for rule by the people 



ily, better toilets, more adequate water 
supply and particularly for public baths 
and public laundries. The last provi- 
sion is made especially to guard against 
typhus, because the Mexicans wash their 
clothing in cold or warm water and it 
takes hot water to kill the typhus louse. 

The typhus situation is by no means 
limited to El Paso. The presence of 
Mexican laborers in lumber camps makes 
the spread of infection a serious possi- 
bility in California and Arizona, as well 
as other parts of Texas. For the in- 
ternational bridge is by no means the 
only means of entry for Mexican ref- 
ugees. At many points along its 2,000 
miles the Rio Grande is so shallow as to 
allow easy passage. The difficulty of a 
2,000-mile patrol is obvious. 

The sudden increase of typhus infec- 



tion is due to the disturbed condition of 
Mexico itself. For years typhus has 
been known to exist in the central pla- 
teau region, but rarely spread from that 
focus. During the past few years the 
migration of soldiers and their families 
and of refugees, with consequent misery 
and poverty and lack of sanitary meas- 
ures, have resulted in the spread of ty- 
phus to all parts of Mexico. By the ef- 
forts of immigration and public health 
services and the Texas State Board of 
Health, it has, thus far, been restricted 
to Mexicans of the extremely poor class, 
and to a few cases of physicians and 
nurses who have come into direct con- 
tact with the patients. 

Details of the disinfection process were 
given in a recent number of the public 
health reports by Surgeon C. C. Pierce, 



72 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 



of the Public Health Service, who was 
placed in charge of the Mexican border 
quarantine last summer. 

The requirement of certificates of dis- 
infection for all laborers who left a bor- 
der town, and a similar certificate con- 
cerning the treatment of their baggage, 
will, it is believed, control the spread 
of typhus to the United States. Sur- 
geon Pierce remarks that since the estab- 
lishment of quarantine restriction some 
improvement has been observed in the 
appearance of passengers from neighbor- 
ing Mexican towns as regards cleanliness 
of both person and clothing. 

Also, the new immigration law will 
help, as it is expected to decrease the ad- 
mission of Mexican immigrants through 
the regular channels along the border by 
90 per cent. Very few will be able to 
pay the head tax of eight dollars, and 
only a small percentage will be able to 
read and write. The new immigration 
law, too, will be more effective than the 
housing code in preventing overcrowd- 
ing. 

TOLEDO VS. PENNSYLVANIA 
PRACTICE 

THE trustees of Toledo University, 
the municipal university of Toledo, 
O., voted last week not to accept the res- 
ignation of Scott Nearing, dean of the 
College of Arts and Sciences and profes- 
sor of social science. Professor Nearing 
has been sharply criticized during the 
past few months for his utterances on 
peace, several newspapers having insisted 
that the university was hampering its de- 
velopment by keeping him. He offered 
his resignation with the request that it 
take effect whenever the directors 
thought his continuance on the faculty 
became harmful to the university. 

Professor Nearing, whose dismissal 
from the faculty of the Wharton School, 
University of Pennsylvania, in 1915, 
precipitated a nation-wide discussion of 
"academic freedom," wrote a letter of 
explanation of his attitude to the Toledo 
newspapers, in which he said: "Millions 
of people, the world over, are today seek- 
ing to overthrow German militarism. 
There are two methods of securing this 
result. The first way is to militarize 
all of the great nations. I am opposed 
to this plan because I believe that the 
dearest liberties of democracy must be 
sacrificed in the process. 

"There is another method of over- 
coming German militarism — to promul- 
gate a higher ideal than the ideal of 
militarism. . . . 

"The only possible way to save the 
present-day world from militarism is to 
cut to the root of the problem and estab- 
lish an industrial democracy, which, in 
its turn, may prove a beacon light to 
mankind. If we adopt militarism, we 
lower ourselves to the level of German 
militarism. If we adopt industrial de- 
mocracy, we have an opportunity to raise 



them to our new plane of justice and 
liberty. . . . 

"I revere the government that repre- 
sents democracy. I honor the flag that 
stands for liberty and justice. . . . 
Militarism is the madness of the past — 
dragging us down and destroying us. 
The spirit of brotherhood and good will 
among men is the voice of the future, 
calling us to a higher plane of life than 
humanity has ever known. To that fu- 
ture I have dedicated my life, and so I 
purpose to continue to the end of the 
chapter." 

FEDERAL QUARANTINE ON 
ALL OUR BORDERS 

IT IS reported that the quarantine sta- 
tion at Baltimore, Md., is to be trans- 
ferred immediately to the federal gov- 
ernment for administration by the Pub- 
lic Health Service. As the federal health 
service has been in charge for some time 
at the port of New York, pending the 
final negotiations between Albany and 
Washington for the purchase of this sta- 
tion, the transfer at Baltimore means 
that administration of quarantine at all 
ports of the United States is at last on 
a basis of uniformity and specialized 
preparation. Perth Amboy, N. J., Gal- 
veston, Tex., and Philadelphia still main- 
tain stations of their own, but federal 
quarantine officers are on duty as well. 

It has been frankly suggested that the 
state of New Jersey and other local ad- 
ministrations might, to advantage, ex- 
pend the money devoted to quarantine 
for other phases of health work less ade- 
quately provided for. The possibility 
is by no means remote that troops, which 
have been in the melee abroad, will re- 
turn to this country and will need the 
inspection of officers experienced in de- 
tecting exotic as well as common infec- 
tions. The action necessary to insure 
such a quarantine guard will doubtless 
be quickened by this very practical neces- 
sity of protection against "evils that we 
know not of." 

The value of federal quarantine was 
discussed in the Survey of January 8 
and 22, March 4 and 25, 1916. 

INSURANCE FOR AMERICAN 
SAILORS 

THAT 100,000 merchant seamen of 
all nations have been killed since the 
war began is a statement appearing in a 
statement given out by Dante Barton, of 
the Committee on Industrial Relations. 
Mr. Barton points out that the number 
of American seamen who have lost their 
lives has thus far been small, but that 
now the risk is tremendously augmented. 
In view of the immense importance of 
American shipping, Mr. Barton views 
the service of sailors on merchant ships 
as an exhibition of a very high degree of 
patriotism, and he suggests that the gov- 
ernment ought to recognize the loyalty 
of these men by providing them a rea- 



sonable insurance against the great risks 
they run. 

"Is it not clear," asks Mr. Barton, 
"that these men who go down to the sea 
in ships (in this time of vastly added 
peril) should have insurance? Yet now 
they have none, and for the reason which 
President Franklin, of the International 
Mercantile Marine Corporation has 
given — that the risk is now so great that 
no insurance company will carry it. 
What irony, that all the financial burden 
of that hazardous and essential employ- 
ment should fall on the poorly paid men 
who also give their lives! The vessels, 
which sometimes make several hundred 
per cent profits on their runs, are insured, 
but the seamen cannot be. 

"Surely, the United States govern- 
ment — in loyalty to the seamen who are 
so valiant and loyal to it — should see to it 
that some way should be devised at once 
by which every seaman sailing from an 
American port shall carry, without cost 
to him, at least $5,000 insurance, to be 
paid his relatives in case of his death, or 
to him in case of total or great disabil- 
ity. This demand, that has been voiced 
by the seamen's unions, should be con- 
sidered a necessary incident to" any just 
program of preparedness." 

JOHN LAWSON A FREE MAN 
AGAIN 

THREE years ago this week occurred 
the Ludlow battle in Colorado, fol- 
lowed by civil war and wholesale indict- 
ments of strikers. Few of the indicted 
men have been tried. By scores and 
hundreds, at different times, they have 
been dismissed. But always there re- 
mained the case against John Lawson, 
the strike leader, who just two years ago 
was convicted of murder and sentenced 
to the penitentiary for life. Last week 
the Survey reported the agreement 
signed between the United Mine Work- 
ers and the Victor-American Fuel Com- 
pany, formerly its most bitter enemy in 
Colorado. Now comes word that the 
attorney-general has asked the Supreme 
Court to dismiss the case against Lawson. 
John Nimmo, for whose death Law- 
son was sentenced, was a deputy sheriff, 
killed in the course of one of the pitched 
battles between strikers and deputies in 
the fall of 1913. It was not contended 
at the trial that Lawson had fired the 
fatal bullet, or that he was even on the 
scene of action. It was impossible to 
discover who had actually done the 
shooting. It was alleged by the defense 
that the man might have been killed by 
one of his fellow deputies. But Law- 
son was a member of the executive board 
of the miners' union, and the leader of 
the strike. He was convicted, therefore, 
"on the theory," as was explained at the 
time, that he was in charge of the strikers 
and, therefore, had, by inference, ordered 
the firing of the shot which resulted in 
the death of the deputy sheriff. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21 



1 9 1 7 



73 



The judge who sentenced Lawson to 
the penitentiary, and who was later 
barred by the Supreme Court of the state 
from sitting in any further cases con- 
nected with the coal strike because he 
had been previously employed, in a minor 
capacity, by the coal companies, denied 
the appeal of Lawson's attorneys for a 
new trial. An appeal was then taken to 
the State Supreme Court on the basis 
of new evidence that was said to have 
been discovered, and also on the affidavit 
of a juror, who had voted to convict 
Lawson, that he had been coerced into 
so voting and had done so against his 
will. The case has been pending in the 
Supreme Court for more than a year, 
and in the meantime Lawson has been 
at liberty on bail. 

WHERE HEALTH IS CHEAP 
AND COFFINS DEAR 

A LETTER from Dr. W. W. Peter, 
of Shanghai, gives a glimpse of the 
China public health campaign through 
the eyes of two old Chinese women who 
were among the first arrivals at the 
big mat-tent erected to hold the throngs 
who came to hear and see. Over their 
heads was a covering of coarse matting 
on bamboo rafters and uprights, enough 
to keep off the sun but not the rain. 

On three sides of the tent were hung 
many strange-looking pictures of well 
people and sick, clean homes and dirty 
ones, and of fleas, flies, hospitals, dirty 
streets and green grass. The two old 
women wondered and whispered. 

"Can you see all of those pictures and 
things hung up on the walls? Let us go 
over there for a look," said the older 
woman. "My eyes burn and itch and I 
have to keep wiping them." 

"My eyes are better now. I will tell 
you what those things are, for if we leave 
our seats someone else will come and 
then we shall have to stand. My feet 
would hurt unbearably if I had to stand 
long." 

But before the younger woman had 
really started in her description of the 
things hanging on the wall, a woman 
stepped out to the front of the platform. 

"Why, that is Mrs. Li, who can read 
characters like a teacher," whispered the 
older one. "What is she doing up 
there? The ticket said a 'foreign coun- 
try man' was going to speak. And I 
never heard a foreign — " But Mrs. Li 
was speaking. 

"Did you hear what she said? She 
spoke right out. I would die of fright 
if I had to stand up there like that 
and ..." 

Then the foreigner stepped up to 
speak. While Mrs. Li had opened the 
meeting, he could still feel the expectancy 
with which the women had come to that 
meeting. It was an event in their lives. 
Never before had they had such an ex- 
perience. Why this mat-shed ? Why all 
this advertising of the meetings and spe- 



cial tickets which everyone had to have 
to get in? Who paid the foreign country 
man to come? Did he have a new kind 
of medicine to sell? What was under all 
of those things covered up with cloth ? 
What was it all about? 

They would continue to discuss this 
whole experience for many days after 
the meetings closed, the speaker knew. 
He told many facts well known — more 
or less — to white folk, which seemed 
more than extraordinary to the listen- 
ing Chinese, about what not to feed the 
baby, and what flies do to make people 
=.ick. 

By and by he came down from the 
platform holding a wire fly-catching 
box in which over 3,000 flies had been 
caught in five hours on the platform. 
When, with the box buzzing and black 
with flies, he passed down through the 
audience, the old lady and her friend 
carefully held handkerchiefs to their 
noses as they looked. They feared to 
recognize their old-time acquaintances. 

When Mrs. Li asked the audience to 
stay and look at the pictures, they were 
more than willing. To be sure, it was 
past time for the noon meal, but that 
was a small matter. They had to stay 
and see all there was to see. It was all 
so new to them. They simply shook 
their heads and passed along, speech- 
less. 

Not a familiar thing did they see 



till they found themselves standing be- 
fore an enlarged picture of a common 
housefly — the kind they had heard about 
that morning. Now they were on solid 
footing. The picture measured two by- 
three feet. 

"Isn't that a fly?" asked the one with 
the poor eyes. 

"Yes. That is a picture of a llv— the 
dirty kind the foreigner spoke to us 
about a little while ai_ r o." 

"And as big as that!" exclaimed the 
first one. "Is that the kind of flics 
they have over where he comes from? 
Now I understand why he said, 'Flies 
kill people.' Of course in his country 
they must have many meetings and spend 
thousands of dollars to prevent flies. 
Maybe he came over to China to get 
away from such flies. We only have the 
little ones and they're harmless. Just 
think what it would be like if we also 
had flies as big as that! It would be 
most dangerous, and we would have to 
be very careful indeed." 

Not that these two old women and 
every other one in the audience will go 
home and straightway make her home 
clean and sanitary. But all will talk 
about the meetings and the pictures, and 
the facts will slowly spread. 

"The ferment of education," says Dr. 
Peter in closing, "in matters of health, 
will finally breed a holy discontent that 
is also wholesome." 





Book Reviews 





An Introduction to the Study of Inter- 
national Relations 
By A. J. Grant, Arthur Greenwood, J. D. 
I. Hughes, P. H. Kerr and F. F. Urquhart. 
Macmillan and Co., Ltd., London. 207 pp. 
Price $.75 ; by mail of the Survey, $1. 

An Introductory Atlas of International 
Relations 
By Henry Clay and Arthur Greenwood. 
Maps by H. S. Hattin. Headley Bros., 



London. 74 pp. and 47 maps. Price 

1 sh. 6 d. ; by mail of the Survey, $.47. 
Nationalism and Internationalism 

By Ramsay Muir. Constable and Co., 

London. 229 pp. 
International Finance. 

By Hartley Withers. Smith Elder & Co., 

London. 184 pp. 
The European Anarchy 

By G. Lowes Dickinson. George Allen & 

Unwin, Ltd., London. 153 pp. 



Democracy 

vs. 

Secret 

Diplomacy 



The British Council 
for the Study of Inter- 
national Relations was 
organized soon after 
the outbreak of the 
war, with Viscount 
Bryce for president. 
In spite of the warn- 
ing of such men as J. 
A. Hobson, Ponsonby, 
and other liberals, the 
people of England, for 
at least a decade, had 
allowed questions of 
domestic reorganiza- 
tion, industrial and economic reform, to ab- 
sorb all political interest. They could not 
be induced to take a more than casual con- 
cern in the country's foreign problems and 
relationships. 

Especially is this true of the working 
classes whose historical reading had become 



almost entireh confined to English econom- 
ics, and whose interest in current affair--, 
except for tariff questions, was in the highest 
degree insular. The new council, therefore, 
while it has been able to make use of exist- 
ing machinery for the diffusion of knowledge, 
especially the splendid study groups of the 
workers' educational association, had to build 
practically from the foundation. 

Since there were not enough teachers suf- 
ficiently grounded in this new vital Mibject- 
inatter, the first effort had to be that of 
creating an educational literature which 
could be rapidly assimilated, was authorita- 
tive and, as far as possible, covered the 
whole field. The five volumes named above, 
though coming from different publishers, are 
part of this undertaking. The council it- 
self has contributed a large number of pam- 
phlets, grouped in three series: Aids to study 
— dealing more especially with problems of 
(1 foreign policy; countries — brief de- 



74 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 



scriptions of constitutions and main political 
concerns of different nations; and foreign — 
translations of important foreign essays on 
European issues raised by or during the war. 
The difficulty of producing a textbook for 
general study which would present the 
unanimous views of its members, the council 
apparently did not overcome. The nearest 
approach to it is the joint volume named 
first on the list above, containing essays by 
five authors, for which they individually 
alone are responsible. 

PROFESSOR GRANT, of the University of 
Leeds, starts off with a scholarly history 
of war and peace during the nineteenth cen- 
tury. F. F. Urquhart analyzes the causes of 
modern wars and traces them chiefly to the 
prevalence of a purely static conception of 
the parts played by different nations in the 
progress of civilization and the resulting 
lack of a foreign policy designed to allow 
freedom of movement and of growth. 

He points out, on the hand of many his- 
torical examples, that secret diplomacy must 
stand in the way of a moral relationship of 
one nation to another and, as a measure of 
greatest immediate practical importance, ad- 
vocates the creation of a well-informed pub- 
lic opinion upon which a more democratic 
tradition of statesmanship may gradually de- 
velop, inspired by the same enthusiasm for 
righteousness which has reshaped the in- 
ternal policy of modern states. 

Mr. Hughes summarizes recent discussion 
on the nature and scope of international law 
and, without understating the many prac- 
tical difficulties to be met in disentangling a 
system of international order from the tra- 
dition in foreign policy that "might is right," 
gives a hopeful forecast. Disillusionment 
with warfare itself will bring a readier de- 
sire among the nations to convert "the un- 
conscious formation of customary rules" into 
"conscious formulation of law following 
upon debates in conference." 

Arthur Greenwood, secretary of the coun- 
cil, contributes two essays which are gems of 
clear exposition, one on international econ- 
omic relations, the other on international re- 
lations and the growth of freedom. While 
it would be difficult to single out from so 
concentrated a treatment of mighty subjects 
points of particular interest, it is worth 
mentioning that none of the contributors to 
this series advances panaceas as sure solvents 
of all present or coming troubles. They are 
not even pacifists of clear water. Green- 
wood, while a convinced free trader, does 
not look upon the establishment of interna- 
tional free trade, or even the throwing open 
of the British colonies to unrestricted foreign 
trade, as practicable in the near future. 

The two problems which, it seems to him, 
must be tackled simultaneously, in order to 
get rid of economic rivalry as a danger to 
world peace, are the development of the 
world's resources without encroachment by 
any one nation upon the interests of another, 
and the control of cosmopolitan economic 
forces, such as high finance and trading 
combinations. Both require the establish- 
ment of international administrative authori- 
ties, acting under an international govern- 
ment — even though a government only for 
limited purposes — which is responsible in its 
turn to the democracies of its constituent 
states. 

The strongest and most original member 
of this cinquefoil of interpreters is P. H. 
Kerr, editor of the Round Table, who offers 
a most suggestive and illuminating contribu- 
tion on the political relations between ad- 
vanced and backward peoples. In these he 
sees the probable "crux of all the great in- 
ternational controversies of the future." His 
main thesis is that the enthusiastic support 
for all revolutionary movements among back- 
ward peoples living under the rule of more 
advanced nations does not in itself form a 
considered policy which is likely to lead 



either to world peace or to world progress. 
"To stand aside and do nothing, under the 
plea that every people must be left to man- 
age its own affairs, and that intervention is 
wicked, is to repeat the tragic mistakes of 
the Manchester school in the economic world 
which protested against any interference by 
the state to protect workmen, women and 
children from the oppression and rapacity of 
employers, on the ground that it was an un- 
warranted interference with the liberty of 
the subject and the freedom of trade and 
competition." 

To leave a backward people alone is to 
invite all manner of adventurers, both from 
within and from without, to make a bid for 
power and to use unscrupulous methods of 
exploitation when they have acquired it. 

He admits that the government of one 
people by another may be undertaken for 
domination alone. But "where there is a suf- 
ficient difference between the levels of civili- 
zation of two peoples, the more civilized 
power will be driven in the interests of jus- 
tice and humanity to step in and regulate, at 
any rate for a time, the effects of contact 
between the two." On this ground, he justi- 
fies British rule in India and elsewhere, 
pointing out that the most democratic coun- 
try in the world, the United States, though 
lacking any aggressive purpose, also has 
been forced time and again to intervene and 
to remain in more or less permanent occu- 
pation. 

Joint intervention of nations as a preven- 
tive of national oppression in nearly every 
case has proved disastrous. While it may 
end for the time the suffering and mutual 
strife among a backward people, it does not 
offer opportunities for shaping healthy rela- 
tions between the advanced and the back- 
ward after the former have taken over the 
task of government. 

How not only to introduce the elements of 
law and order, but to advance modern ideas 
without simply imposing foreign standards is 
the chief difficulty which the governing na- 
tion has to face. It is not easy of solution, 
and the author does not assert that Great 
Britain anywhere has solved it with complete 
success. But by her long experience as a 
colonizing power she has learned that 
democracy is a plant of slow growth. Mere- 
ly to give a constitution to a people in ac- 
cordance with modern ideas and then to 
leave the machinery of democracy to take 
care of itself is futile. 

Racial mixture as a means of uplift he 
considers even worse, though in the light of 
history it would seem that at times and in 
places civilization has advanced pretty stead- 
ily through just this happening, and many 
of the most highly civilized peoples of today 
have resulted from intermarriage between 
races in different stages of cultural develop- 
ment. Taking this view, however, it is not 
surprising to find that the author advocates 
the greatest possible amount of segregation 
compatible with freedom of growth under in- 
stitutions suitable to the resnective needs of 
all as the nrincipal remedy for the troubles 
arising from migration of races in different 
stages of development. 

THE Atlas of International Relationships 
is probably the best that could be pro- 
duced at a popular price, but it shares with 
other shaded line maps in newspapers and 
magazines the disadvantage of being dis- 
agreeable to the eyes and sometimes confus- 
ing. The writer remembers seeing some years 
ago at the Scala Theater in London a "mov- 
ing" map of the Balkans, giving a minute or 
so to each century. That is about the only 
way in which the changing and shifting for- 
tunes of the different races and nations can 
adequately be visualized. The introductory 
notes to this atlas, by Henry Clay and Ar- 
thur Greenwood, arranged chronologically 
under territorial head divisions, are concise, 
accurate, and useful for rapid reference. 



Professor Muir, of the University of Man- 
chester, has undertaken the most difficult part 
of this literary enterprise, attempting within 
a brief space to unravel the mysteries of 
western as distinct from eastern civilization, 
to explain and follow in its development the 
European conception of nationality, to show 
the_ slender bridge by which the old cosmo- 
politanism of the pre-nationalistic era is 
linked to the internationalism of our own 
time, and to point to the dangers which 
threaten the future of international world 
government. 

So ambitious an enterprise is almost bound 
to fail, especially if it be taken into account 
that the volume is intended for popular read- 
ing, not for historians who might be ex- 
pected to find their way through a jungle of 
historical allusions by the aid of current ab- 
breviations. Thus Macchiavelli, in their 
minds, stands for certain well-defined ideas 
of state policy, whereas to the general reader 
who knows only a caricature of this man, the 
connection of his policy with the ideas of 
Treitschke or Nietzsche (with which he is 
no better acquainted) must appear sheer non- 
sense. Owing to this brevity, the statements 
of the author on the political meaning of the 
Renaissance and of the Reformation are also 
almost certain to mislead persons unequipped 
with previous intimate knowledge of these 
great movements. 

In reading this book, we were reminded 
again and again that historical truth lies in 
a balanced emphasis almost as much as in 
mere correctness of statement. That empha- 
sis, in part, is given by the relative length 
at which different subjects are treated and 
in part by changes in diction. Professor 
Muir's essay does not suffer from lack of 
balance, but it is distinctly marred by an 
overstatement of certain tendencies and an 
understatement of others which at times give 
his interpretations, seen at a distance, the 
color of extreme partisanship. 

For instance, if a prince is placed upon 
a Balkan throne by one of the Teutonic 
powers, he at onces becomes a "princeling." 
The Young Turk leaders, we are informed, 
were "corrupt" and their "high-sounding 
constitutional program was only a veneer 
for the old tyranny." "The principle of na- 
tionality, towards which western civilization 
had been unconsciously working during many 
centuries ... at last, during the nineteenth 
century, obtained a clear definition and a 
general acceptance, everywhere save in Ger- 
many, Austria and Turkey." He speaks of 
the "hard Austrian dominion" in Bohemia 
and fails with a single word to allude to 
the infinitely harsher British dominion in 
Ireland and Russian dominion in Finland. 

THE partisanship of Professor Muir, quite 
understandable and forgivable, of course, 
is important for two reasons: First, it may 
serve to answer the invective of French and 
English writers against recent German pro- 
fessorial publicity and persuade belligerents 
to be a little more charitable and recognize 
that nowhere can history be written, much 
less broad movements be interpreted, while 
the battle is on ; second, it is exactly due to 
such prejudiced generalization as is con- 
tained in this volume that among ordinary 
educated persons history has come into such 
unfortunate disrepute as a branch of science 
— with the result that in August, 1914, there 
was not in England, and there is not in the 
United States now, any general appreciation 
for the origin and meaning of the political 
conflict which brought about the great war. 

This is the more regrettable because Pro- 
fessor Muir, in the same short volume, gives 
some definitions and leading lines of thought 
which are of surpassing interest and light 
up whole centuries of happenings with un- 
derstanding, as, for instance, when he ab- 
stracts the four main features of modern 
western civilization: nationality as the basis 
for the organization of a state; struggle for 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21 



1 9 J 7 



1 - 



unity consistent with independence; growth 
of liberty of conscience and of thought; and 
the conquest of the globe. Nationalism is 
well set in juxtaposition to racialism which 
"rests upon an utterly unscientific basis" 
(though we do not see why Grimm and his 
school should be singled out as responsible 
for this "pestilent doctrine"; we find it just 
as strong, for instance, among Jewish Zion- 
ists, pan-Slavs, and others who have never 
heard of Grimm) ; and the difference of the 
cosmopolitanism of the Catholic church and 
the new internationalism is made very clear. 

HARTLEY WITHERS has long been 
known as a writer on finance of un- 
usual breadth of view and economic under- 
standing. To him was given the task of 
presenting the part played by finance in in- 
ternational relationships. He starts out with 
an elementary explanation of the function of 
capital, for the purpose, primarily, of an- 
swering certain socialists who either under- 
value its importance or consider it altogether 
of evil. In this connection, he allows himself 
to fall into an overstatement of the advan- 
tages of saving to the commonwealth and, 
misunderstanding the main drift of their con- 
tention, indulges in attacks on such writers 
as Philip Snowden and Scott Nearing which 
are not altogether fair. 

He does not answer the principal question 
raised by these socialist propagandists, why 
the reward of abstinence from immediate en- 
joyment which results in the accumulation 
of private capital should be perennial when 
every other form of reward for effort is 
limited in duration. He admits, however, 
that there may be theoretically valid objec- 
tions to a system of inheritance which enables 
a large class of the population to live and 
thrive entirely on unearned wealth. 

The main point made in the first part of 
this book is that financial exchanges between 
nations must always be based on actual ex- 
changes of goods or services, "that all this 
paper wealth onlv acquires value by being 
ultimately based on some thing that is grown 
or made and wanted to keep people alive 
or comfortable." Incidentally, he mentions 
the curious results of the British social and 
fiscal legislation in the period immediately 
preceding the war. "Fear of socialistic legis- 
lation at home had the humorous result of 
making British investors fear to touch con- 
sols, but rush eagerly to buy the securities 
of colonial governments which had gone 
much further in the direction of Socialism 
than we had." But the eagerness of English 
and French investors to place money abroad 
was showing signs, early in 1914, of abating 
considerably. There is reason to believe 
that even without the additional stimulus of 
patriotic duty, a strong reaction in favor of 
home investment was coming about. 

Then the war, of course, changed the 
parts played by old and new countries, sev- 
eral of the latter having become enabled 
by war profits to buy back their own secu- 
rities and, in addition, to make large loans 
to their former creditors. As regards the 
trend of events after the war, the author 
is full of optimism. He believes that Eng- 
land can very quickly regain her former 
position by applying the lessons taught her 
by the war "about the number of people able 
to work, whose capacity was hitherto left 
fallow that thio country contained, and also 
about the ease with which we can dispense, 
when a great crisis makes us sensible, with 
many of the absurdities and futilities on 
which much of our money, and productive 
capacity, used to be wasted." 

Reviewing the history of great foreign 
loans, the author comes to the conclusion that, 
with very few exceptions, they did not have 
the nefarious influence on politics which is 
often assumed but, on the contrary, seem to 
have been quite unable to exert any appre- 
ciable pressure on the foreign offices con- 
cerned. As a general theory, the contention 



that international financial entanglements 
lead to war is contradicted by history on 
almost every point. There is probably no 
factor in national life making more continu- 
ously for peace and international good will. 
On the other hand, the absence of a power 
which can be exerted to enforce justice to 
the creditor does, at times, render foreign 
loans dangerous by encouraging high-handed 
repudiations or evasions. For this reason, 
Withers advocated that lenders to foreign 
governments should insist upon a knowledge 
of the purposes to which the loan is to be 
put, such as would be superfluous in the 
dealings between lender and borower when 
both live under the jurisdiction of the same 
state which can be relied upon to enforce 
just claims. 

The fact that rewards in finance are 
greatest when the transactions are most 
unscrupulous, Withers does not dispute; but 
he points out that this is equally true of 
home trade, industry, and professional serv- 
ices. The remedy which he proposes is that 
the ordinary citizen should be more careful 
in his demands upon industry, commerce, 
and services and less greedy in his invest- 
ments. 

Somehow, this does not seem altogether 
sufficient; one feels inclined, rather, to look 
to some supernational control for a preven- 
tion of the worst abuses in international 
finance in the same way as civilized coun- 
tries have more and more equipped them- 
selves with machinery for the control of 
domestic trade and prevention of the worst 
abuses in domestic finance. Actual restraints 
on the export of capital, on the other hand, 
the author rightly contends, would not only 
offer almost insuperable difficulties of en- 
forcement but would be hostile to the inter- 
ests of the state itself which ordered them, 
since elasticity in the machinery of foreign 
trading is one of the best guardians of pros- 
perity. 

The author is optimistic also in his view 
on the economic damage inflicted by war. 
For the greater part, the things and services 
needed for the conduct of war have to be 
produced as war goes on; the destruction 
of accumulated capital is comparatively a 
small item. Consequently, the great in- 
crease in productive power through the les- 
sons of the war may be set against such 
losses. What is really happening in Europe 
today is a general retardation of progress 
in the enrichment of human life, rather than 
an actual lowering of the stage already 
reached. He sees an incidental advantage in 
the enforced self-reliance of young and 
under-developed countries which results from 
the inability of their former creditors to keep 
them supplied, but does not seem sufficiently 
to realize the seriousness of the retardation 
in the industrial progress of the world which 
this entails. 

G LOWES DICKINSON has contributed 
. to this series a readable and fair expla- 
nation of the causes of the present war, both 
cumulative and immediate. This does not 
prevent him, however, from allowing to pass 
some pretty harsh comment on his country's 
foes which is only slightlv mitigated by a 
later statement that it was intended to rep- 
resent "the impression made on an unsym- 
pathetic mind." 

It is not true, for instance, that Rral- 
Politik and Machiavellianism are svnonyms 
or that Austria "continues its political exist- 
ence by force and fraud, by the connivance 
and the self-interest of other states, rather 
than by anv inherent principle of vitality." 
Nor can the critical reviewer let pass such 
easy generalizations as this: "The Germans 
are romantic, as the French are impulsive, 
the English sentimental, and the Russians 
religious. " If, for instance, you arrange 
these adjectives in the order two, one, four, 
three, the statement still remains an approxi- 
mation to truth. 



One fact which iliis book brings out with 
great clearness is the close relation between 
fear and militarism. Whether it be the fear 
of the rising democracy on the part of 
oligarchies, the fear of Frenrli revenue for 
Alsace-Lorraine, the fear of being lett behind 
in the race of armaments, or the fear of 
being handicapped by a short delay in 
mobilization to which we must assign prime 
responsibility for the occurrence of the Euro- 
pean war, it is quite clear that with a little 
mutual confidence among the nation 
Europe all the really important difft 
which led to it could and would hav< 
smoothed out. 

Another lesson, learned from a careful 
reading of recent document." ry history, is that 
to speak of the German attitude is nons 
During the last decade of diplomacy, then 
have been many different attitudes to iden- 
tical questions on the part of the imperial 
government, partly because the Kaiser "is 
an unstable and changeable character," partly 
because "he does not always get his way," 
and partly because circumstances alter cases. 
The desire for a rapprochement with Eng- 
land in 1912 undoubtedly was genuine; the 
end of the Balkan wars showed no signs 
of a German desire of immediate military 
aggression. In July, 1914, an unfortunate 
chain of circumstances precipitated a war 
which many Germans considered inevitable 
and a few desired, but which, with less power 
in the hands of a few individuals, with a 
more single-hearted desire for peace, could 
have been avoided just as previous crises 
were allayed. 

THE blame for the war, says Lowes Dick- 
inson, rests on Germany, because the 
forces of militarism in that country were less 
controlled than in any other, because the 
obsession of fear had got a stronger hold 
of her statesmen than of those of other 
countries, because her soldiers, under her 
system of government, came more rapidly 
into control at the critical moment than in 
any of the other countries. 

The author issues a strong warning against 
any attempt that may be made to establish 
permanent peace on the basis of a crushing 
defeat for the enemy. The idea that a nation 
will accept disarmament and a sentiment of 
good will — such as alone can lead to safety 
from aggression for the future — under the 
heel of a conqueror, he shows as wholly 
contrary to the lessons of history and to 
common sense. The permanent settlement 
depends not merely on the issue of the war, 
but "upon what is done or left undone by 
the cooperation of all when the war does 
at last stop." The general anarchy of Eu- 
rope must be recognized as the background 
before which the particular wickedness of 
this or that government stands out in hideous 
relief. 

But if that curtain is raised and the light 
of order and reason, of good will and com- 
radeship is allowed to shine in upon the 
world, then the breakers of the law and 
peace of mankind will be revealed for what 
they are and dealt with in justice and un- 
impassioned severity. 

Bruno Lasker. 

American Red Cross Text Book on Home 
Dietetics 
By Ada Z. Fish. P. Blakiston's Son & Com- 
pany. 118 pp. Price $1; by mail of the 
Survey, $1.05. 

"The problem of nutrition is one of grow- 
ing importance, not only because of the in- 
creased cost of food, but because more and 
more we are coming to realize that a healthy 
body is man's greatest asset." 

Following the thought expressed in the 
above quotation, the author of Home Diet- 
etics has emphasized the means of avoiding 
illness rather than the ways of catering 
to it. She has suggested verv concisely the 
important principles involved in the cooking 



76 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 



of food, and so far as possible has illus- 
trated these principles by directions for the 
preparation of common articles of diet. It 
seems unfortunate that so little space could 
be given to food values. The subject-matter 
is general and suggestive rather than specific. 
A unique and valuable feature of the 
book is the emphasis placed on the impor- 
tance of hygiene which should be observed 
in the handling of food to prevent the spread 
of disease. L. H. G. 

Russia in 1916 

By Stephen Graham. Macmillan Com- 
pany. 191 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the 
Survey, $1.33. 

A prompt answer to Mr. Graham has been 
given by the Russian revolution. He be- 
longs to that class of English writers who 
took it upon themselves to whitewash the 
Russian autocracy and so misrepresent all 
those who had fought against it for more 
than half a century. I do not believe that 
anybody cares to know now anything about 
the devotion of the Russian people to Czar 
Nicholas II, or about his angelic disposition 
and his artistic soul. H. 

Food and Health 

By Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley. 

Macmillan Co. 312 pp. Price $1.10; by mail 

of the Survey, $1.22. 

For some years teachers in rural schools 
who have had no training in home economics 
have been waiting for a text book on foods 
which contained the subject-matter in sim- 
ple form and so arranged that it could be 
used in a one-room rural school. Food and 
Health, by Kinne and Cooley, is written to 
meet this need. 

The authors center the lessons around the 
noon lunch brought from home and supple- 
mented with some hot dish prepared at school 
by the children. The book is divided into 
four general sections: luncheons at school, 
the home supper, the home breakfast, and 
the home dinner. No attempt is made to 
correlate the instruction with other school 
work. 

For boys and girls the book has added in- 
terest, because it tells of a particular rural 
school in Pleasant Valley which Marjorie 
Allen, John Alden and other children attend. 

C.N. 

Criminality and Economic Conditions 

By William Adrian Bonger. Little, Brown 

& Co. 706 pp. Price $5.50; by mail of 

the Survey $5.74. 

Dr. Bonger is a Hollander, frankly so- 
cialistic, and sure that his book "will meet 
with many disapproving critics" on the 
American side of the ocean. This will un- 
doubtedly be the case, since Dr. Bonger holds 
that the great mass of criminals differ only 
quantitatively from persons who never get 
into the courts; that the part played by eco- 
nomic conditions in criminality is prepond- 
erant, and even decisive. 

Environmental influences of special po- 
tency are, according to the author, the pres- 
ent economic system, arraying individuals 
and classes against each other; long work- 
ing hours; wide extremes in income; illness, 
unemployment and poverty; the disruption 
of traditional family ties; sexual crimes, and 
(treated last of all and briefly in the vol- 
umn) degeneracy. The cure — so far as one 
is possible — is similar with well-known so- 
cialistic solutions. 

This book is not one for continued read- 
ing, but rather for consultation. His collec- 
tion of material on the influences of environ- 
ment shows monumental diligence. It pre- 
sents the richest available thesaurus of ar- 
guments for the powerful influences of en- 
vironment. 

Produced in part in requirement for a 
doctor's degree in Holland, Dr. Bonger's 
work holds a place, by contrast, with Dr. 
Healy's Individual Delinquent, and recent 



American publications like those of Dr. H. 
H. Goddard and Dr. Bernard Glueck, who 
see in many manifestations of crime the 
strong influences of mental deviation. Dr. 
Bonger recognizes to no such extent the 
close relation of feeblemindedness and in- 
sanity to crime. O. F. L. 

Murder 

By David S. Greenberg. The Hour Pub- 
lisher, New York. 626 pp. Price $1.50; 
by mail of the Survey $1.63. 
Probably the title, and the fact that Mr. 
Greenberg is also author of the very inter- 
esting book, A Bunch of Little Thieves, 
which appeared some time ago — are respon- 
sible for the selection of a reviewer from 
the field of delinquency. Murder belongs 
to the field of criminological literature no 
more than does Brand Whitlock's The Turn 
of the Balance. But as literature, it is 
poorer than the latter in style, characters, 
situations and dramatic force. Some of the 
dramatis personae and much of the staging 
are unconvincing. As a revolt against so- 
ciety it fails the heroic and becomes rather 
nagging. It is unnecessarily long and filled 
with details that are interesting neither as 
literature nor as psychology, nor as sociol- 
ogy. The author's very intimate knowledge 
of institutional life and of East Side char- 
acters might have been used to better ad- 
vantage. P. K. 

Studies in Forensic Psychiatry 
By Bernard Glueck, M.D. Little, Brown 
& Co. 269 pp. Price, $2.50; by mail of 
the Survey, $2.62. 



Searching 

the 

Criminal Mind 




Dr. Glueck has of- 
fered us in this second 
volume of the Crim- 
inal Science Mono- 
graphs studies of cases 
seen by him, together 
with critical surveys 
of special literature 
belonging to the sub- 
jects he d i s cu s s e s. 
Over a score of case 
histories are given in 
more or less detail and 
are grouped as be- 
longing to the four types of problems con- 
cerning which the author has gathered this 
material of great practical interest for crim- 
inologists. 

The book consists of a short preface which 
we wish might be read and appreciated by 
all jurists who hear criminal cases and by 
all officials who consider the question of 
pardon and parole. Then come five chap- 
ters on the main topics: Mental ailments of 
prisoners; courtroom aspects of the mono- 
mania for litigation — a form of insanity lit- 
tle known to the laity; a clinical study of 
simulation of mental disease; and the analy- 
sis of a case of kleptomania. 

Dr. Glueck very wisely sees that a great 
deal more work has to be done on special 
topics in clinical criminology before foun- 
dations for radical reforms in court proce- 
dure and penal institutions can be safely 
laid. Studies of the kind that he has made 
we need in great abundance. Special types 
of characteristics and traits must be discov- 
ered and outlined with the greatest care 
that all may know and recognize them. Bet- 
ter than that, the genesis of these variations 
from the normal should be of chief concern 
to the student of the pathology of conduct. 
The path to better accomplishment in han- 
dling our offenders is to be blazed only by 
studies of what the offender is, plus equally 
careful studies of what caused him to be 
what he is. 

Here, for example, is the chronic simulator. 
Through scientific investigation his type is 
determined ; we trace what this given sort of 
an individual may produce in the way of a 



career. But, after all, and in the long run 
of social adjustments, the genesis of his 
established peculiarities is essential for 
bringing about readjustment in the case — to 
say nothing of preventing such unfortunate 
reactions in other cases where similar back- 
grounds in experience or personal make-up 
may obtain. As the physician put it, the ra- 
tional and efficient treatment of an ailment 
requires knowledge of its special etiology. 

Dr. Glueck's point of view is brought out 
clearly enough in the following sentence ta- 
ken from his preface: "One desires only to 
express the hope that the time is not far dis- 
tant when our penal and reformatory insti- 
tutions will likewise serve the purpose of 
clinics for the study of the delinquent, and 
that such clinical instruction will form part 
of the curriculum of at least every public 
instructor." Almost prophetic words, these, 
from the one who by the time his book was 
published was himself at the head of one of 
the principal efforts in this country to study 
prisoners. He was appointed director of the 
psychopathic department at Sing Sing. 

Criticisms might be offered of minor points 
in the literary construction of this work, 
such as the lack of unity which has resulted 
from the author's obvious development of 
the different topics at separate times and his 
failure to work the material over into a se- 
quence of coordinated chapters; and of his 
occasional carelessness in phraseology. But 
these have nothing to do with the main fact 
— the value of his work. Dr. Glueck, in 
painstaking fashion, throws light of much 
practical worth upon obscure places in the 
science of criminology. 

William Healy, M. D. 

Elizabeth Fry 

By Laura E. Richards. D. Appleton & 

Co. 205 pp. Price $1.25 ; by mail of the 

Survey, $1.34. 

The utter inability of the reader to tell 
how much of this book is fact and how much 
is Mrs. Richards' (witness the scholarly letter 
written by the "screaming, swearing" women 
prisoners at Newgate, which is presented 
with no question as to its having actually 
been written by them) is its chief defect. My 
guess is that it will entrance many a child 
and tell him absorbing things that he will 
not learn in his school history. 

The book is largely composed of extracts 
from the journals of Elizabeth Fry and her 
sisters, which account for the vividness of 
the picture it gives. Imagine the shock to 
one's reverence for the tradition that Eliza- 
beth Fry has become, to read in her diary, 
written when she was seventeen: "Company 
to dinner. I must beware of not being a 
flirt, it is an abominable character; I hope 
I shall never be one, and yet I fear I am 
one now a little." And again: "I must 
not mump when my sisters are liked and I 
am not." 

In the days of her fame, when the king 
and queen of France paid homage to her 
good works, this Quaker woman uttered one 
maxim in the course of a report on French 
prisons that might well be hung on the walls 
of our modern prison commission offices: 
"When thee builds a prison, thee had bet- 
ter build with the thought ever in thy mind 
that thee and thy children may occupy the 
cells." W. D. L. 

The New Citizenship 

By Percy Mackaye. Macmillan Com- 
pany. 92 pp. Price $.50; by mail of the 
Survey $.54. 

Percy Mackaye's "civic ritual" of new 
citizenship and of the first voter, is perhaps 
a minor work from its author's standpoint. 
But it is an important contribution to Ameri- 
can pageantry and to public ceremonial. In 
his eloquent preface the author says: "The 
form of the ritual developed itself from the 
simple precedents of the old American town- 



THE SURVEY 1 OR APRIL 



i 9 i 7 



77 



meeting." There are symbolical persons, 
Liberty and America; the states are repre- 
sented by powers; Jefferson, Franklin, Wash- 
ington, Lincoln and one living president of 
the Republic speak in their own historic 
words. The new citizens are immigrants 
in the main, and Percy Mackaye has 
achieved a golden mean of suggestion: the 
immigrant cultures are given full honor 
and these inheritances are united in an 
American soul richer than any the world 
has known. 

The pageant ritual is very simple and 
would permit of local additions in nearly 
every part of the country. The need to dig- 
nify voting and naturalization has become 
generally recognized. This civic ritual shows 
how this may be done, and in his preface 
and appendix, Mr. Mackaye gives forceful 
reasons why it must be done. J. C. 

Society's Misfits 

By Madeleine Z. Dotv. Century Company. 
255 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of the Sur- 
vey, $1.35. 

With the main thesis of Miss Doty's book 
— that the explanation of the criminality of 
many offenders is to be found, not in any 
inherent viciousness in the criminal himself, 
but in the conditions under which he grew up 
— all persons of experience in dealing with 
offenders and with penal institutions will 
agree. Society is becoming more and more 
conscious that a certain percentage of crime 
might be prevented were safeguards of va- 



rious kinds thrown about young persons, par- 
ticularly about dependent children. 

Some criminologists believe that this per- 
centage of crime is very large; others think 
that while it is by no means negligible, it is 
relatively much smaller than the percentage 
due to an impaired physical, mental or spirit- 
ual heredity, which would make a normal 
line of conduct, whatever the environment, 
dubious. Every attempt, however, to draw 
the community's attention to this need de- 
serves hearty welcome. 

But if public interest is to be roused to 
correct something, it must be made plain 
just what it is that is to be corrected. Miss 
Doty's readers will expect from her a fur- 
ther, more conclusive and definite statement 
as to present conditions in reformatories. 

The dropping of self-government at Au- 
burn, after only one attempt, seems rather 
disappointing, especially in view of the de- 
termination and spirit shown by the prison- 
ers themselves. It is also surprising to find 
that the George Junior Republic is not men- 
tioned in connection with the description of 
the Little Commonwealth in England, which 
was based on the idea and plan of the Amer- 
ican experiment. This book presents the 
commonwealth as an English plan that 
America would do well to imitate. 

Nevertheless, the book should stimulate a 
general determination to speed the day when 
every child shall have all possible assist- 
ance toward right living from the com- 
munitv. A. C. 



Communications 



SWAT THE FLY 

To the Editor: This is the advertisement 
I put in our local papers ten days ago: 



FRESH-KILLED FLIES WANTED! 

I heartily second the Intelligencer's 
plea for swatting the flies early. 

The suggestion to set the children 
hunting them is excellent. 

In order to make such a hunt profit- 
able for the boys and girls, I'll pay 
one cent apiece for the first 500 fresh- 
killed houseflies delivered to my garage 
by Doylestown boys and girls. 

First come, first served. 

Leigh Mitchell Hodges. 

State and West streets. 



The second day a farmer boy living near 
town telephoned me he had killed joo flies 
in their third story that morning. He was 
not eligible, as he didn't live in town, but 
I paid him $1 for the lot. It was worth 
much as a sample of what supplies the 
annual summer swarm. Within a week 
my $5 was exhausted and still they came. 

I think we might make some real headway 
against this death bearer if, about this time 
of year, newspapers or public-spirited indi- 
viduals in every town and city would offer 
to pay for fresh-killed breeders. 

I know of no better way of passing along 
the suggestion than by sending it to you. 
Leigh Mitchell Hodges. 

Doylestown, Pa. 

A WORD TO SOCIAL WORKERS 

To the Editor: Those who for years have 
been giving time, strength and money for 
the promotion of causes that they believe are 
developing the sense of solidarity and mutual 
good will, on which the success of democracy 



depends, have been somewhat perturbed of 
late by receiving hurry calls asking what 
they are willing to contribute to their coun- 
try in time of need. 

To them the time of need has ever been 
present, and their work has been conscious 
service for the country they love and the 
democracy they believe in. 

Yet wise leaders are the ones able to use 
tides of enthusiasm to promote ends for 
which they have struggled so often against 
indifference or opposition. 

This country-wide census of both men and 
women offers great opportunities for secur- 
ing recruits for the endless fight against evil 
conditions at home as well as abroad. 

There is danger lest some social workers 
imitate the spirit of the elder brother in the 
parable of the Prodigal Son, and so lose the 
chance to cooperate with the newly aroused 
ardor of the heretofore indifferent. 

Edith M. Howes. 

Brookline, Mass. 

MENTAL CONSCRIPTION 

To the Editor: In view of your thorough 
article of March 24 on the declaration of 
principles and action of the Cleveland Board 
of Education as to school loyalty meetings, 
I feel that a few words must be said. In 
the first place, the action of the board was 
not unanimous, three members being op- 
posed. In the next place, this action is op- 
posed by the Socialist party and by most 
of the liberal elements of Cleveland. 

The board tacitly admits its purpose when 
it speaks of "limiting the liberty of the indi- 
vidual for the welfare of us all." Reading 
further, we see that "voices and influences 
making for cowardice and national immor- 
ality are abroad in the land which must be 
killed at any cost." We see, then, that the 
liberty of the individual is to be restricted, 
and that influences making for peace must 



lie killed at any cost. This is the purpo 
vealed. 

Now as to methods. "It has made this 
education compulsory." Meetings arc to be 
either during or after school hours, as the 
committee may decide best. The meetings 
"shall avowedly admit these principles and 
facts as their motive." 'The speakers shall 
be chosen with the knowledge that their 
views coincide with the spirit of these reso- 
lutions," and "At such meetings there shall 
be no debate." In other words, the children 
of Cleveland are compelled bv law to listen 
to a one-sided, hysterical appeal to murder. 
Those who believe that Christ meant it when 
he said, "Peace on earth, good will to men" 
will not be allowed to speak. 

To my mind this course seems hardly con- 
sistent with the high-sounding phrases else- 
where in the resolution, that "the prerequisite 
for defense is education," that "clear think- 
ing is the need of the hour," and something 
about our "priceless heritage" obtained by 
"the sacrifice of our fathers." I had believed 
that that heritage was liberty, freedom of 
conscience and free speech. I can only be- 
lieve that this action of the Board of Educa- 
tion of Cleveland is an unwarranted, in- 
tolerable effort to conscript the minds of 
our children. 

Sedley Hopkins Phivney. 

Cleveland. 

MISPLACED CREDIT 

To the Editor: I have just finished read- 
ing the report of the so-called church vice 
crusade in San Francisco, published by you 
in your issue of March 17. I confess to sur- 
prise that you, who I believe are usually 
careful in such matters, let such an article 
slip by into your ordinarily reliable news 
columns. I should hate to think that the 
little phrase in the last paragraph "Dr. Smith 
reports" explains the entire trend of this 
article. 

The casual reader would be led to sup- 
pose that nothing previous to the action of 
the church federation, to which almost en- 
tire credit is given, had ever been done in 
San Francisco. Previous articles in your 
own columns during the past few years 
would belie this impression to your more 
regular readers — incomplete as even those 
articles have occasionally been. 

In fact, the first paragraph of the article 
would almost seem to cast a slur upon anv 
former attempts, especially those in con- 
nection with the legislative campaign car- 
ried out by the campaign committees for the 
Redlight Abatement Law, the Women's 
Christian Temperance Union, and other or- 
ganizations. The Law Enforcement League 
is barely mentioned, and the wonderful pio- 
neer work of Franklin Hichborn, Rev. 
Charles Lathrop and others is ignored. In 
the account of the publicity campaign and 
mass meeting (which, by the way, were rel- 
atively much more important than the more 
picturesque gathering of women of the un- 
derworld at the Central Methodist church 
which was so fully reported 1 the name of 
Bishop Walter Sumner of Oregon is not 
even mentioned. If it had not been for 
Bishop Sumner's presence in the city, his ac- 
tivitv there, and especially bis ringing ad- 
dress at this mass meeting, it is doubtful 
whether the results, even such as thev are, 
would have been possible. Bishop Sumner, 
in spite of the rather conservative attitude of 
his denomination in California, spoke fre- 
quently on the subject while in attendance at 
a convention there, and had a two-hour in- 
terview with Mayor Rolph, solicited bv the 
latter. Mayor Rolph later attended one of 
his lectures on the subject at the local semi- 
nary. 

I feel that the names of Mrs. May Cheney, 
Julia George, Rudolph Spreckels, Warren 
Olnev and Bascom Johnson should also be 
mentioned in anv such report. 

I should imagine that with the long expe- 



78 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 



rience which the Survey must have had with 
such matters it would have occurred to the 
editor that any statement involving such a 
bald assignment of credit as was included 
in the first paragraph of this article was 
likely to draw just such a letter as this, and 
perhaps many others. Only to an article 
containing such statements would I think of 
answering as I have above. 

Thomas D. Eliot. 

[Assistant Professor of Political and Social 
Science, State College of Washington] 
Pullman. 

BE PREPARED! 

To the Editor: Preparedness is the watch- 
word of today. Unfortunately the popular 
association of the term is with the military 
forces, but it should be the motto of the 
peace forces as well. The old adage was, in 
time of peace prepare for war. Why should 
not the reverse also be true, and in time of 
war prepare for peace, be just as good a 
slogan? The reconstruction must come some 
time, why not be prepared for it? 

The old order was from government to 
people, the spirit of democracy is from peo- 
ple to government. Which will be the policy 
of the reconstruction? The outgrown, war- 
ring governments of today are certainly not 
the fit source of reconstruction. They need 
reconstructing themselves to adjust to the 
internationalism and industrialism of the 
times. The world can never rightly solve its 
problems of today with the sword. The 
sword seemed to be the only effectual rem- 
edy in the old era of territorial conquest, 
6ut industrial conquest demands science and 
intellect. The man or the woman with the 
conquering mind instead of the conquering 
sword should be the hero and the heroine of 
the hour. 

Within the past quarter of a century or a 
little more there are a number of organi- 
zations that have grown to be international 
— the Christian Endeavor, the Sunday School 
Association, the Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., 
W. C. T. U., Socialists, the labor forces, Boy 
Scouts, the Woman's Peace Party — are ex- 
amples that come to my mind on the spur 
of the moment. There are others of as 
vital importance. Why should not these in- 
ternational organizations get together and 
shake hands with each other in the interest 
of the world and from this source be gath- 
ered the members of a reconstruction con- 
gress or convention? If, say, three or five 
delegates were sent from each organization, 
there would be gathered together an assem- 
blage of people quite as capable and efficient 
to give to the world a world court, a league 
of nations or a world constitution, which- 



ever it -may turn out to be, as any assem- 
blage drawn from political sources. 

Why not urge such a congress or conven- 
tion while the nations are asleep to the needs 
of the people behind their bulwark of war? 
Why wait for the close of the war to create 
such a work "by the people" and "for the 
people"? At the close of the war, when 
nations lie wounded and bleeding and 
swamped by national debt, there will be a 
lot of time wasted and probably a number of 
delicate diplomatic questions will arise before 
such a congress can be gotten together from 
an official source. This plan would not only 
save time and diplomatic controversy, but 
might also serve as a means of terminating 
the war more speedily and give the peace 
advocates something tangible to rally around 
and offer in place of the sword for the 
world's advancement, thereby demonstrating 
the value of the new heroism, that to live 
for a cause is greater than the old heroism, 
to die for a cause. 

Lauretta M. Zeitler. 

Washington, D. C. 



JOTTINGS 



SOCIAL studies of delinquency, health, 
poverty and the work of visiting nurses 
made by Sidney A. Teller, head resident of 
the Irene Kaufmann Settlement, Pittsburgh, 
will be on exhibit during the National Con- 
ference of Charities and Correction in June. 



THE Massachusetts Board of Education, in 
a recent report, recommends the establish- 
ment of a bureau under the direction of the 
board to provide facilities for training per- 
sons injured through industrial accident. 
The expense of such a bureau for the first 
year is estimated at $17,000. 



THAT Massachusetts is not planning to let 
down standards protecting child laborers 
during war may be indicated by the vote of 
15 to 4, by which the state Senate passed a 
bill requiring children between 14 and 16 to 
attend compulsory continuation school four 
hours each week. Passage through the 
House is expected to be easier than through 
the Senate. The Massachusetts Teachers' 
Association carried on the campaign. 



A SERIES of conferences in various sec- 
tions of the country in the interest of im- 
proved rural schools and conditions of rural 



THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF PHILANTHROPY 

EDWARD T. DEVINE, Director 

A two-year course of training for social and civic work. 
Spring entrance examination : May 5. 

Application blanks and catalogue with information 
about fellowships available to college graduates will be 
sent on request. 

105 East 22d Street, New York. 



IN WAR 

TIME 



The present crisis has suddenly 
thrown new groups into social 
action. 

They need consecutive access to in- 
formation about the movements 
already working in the social 
field. 

The Survey supplies just such in- 
formation with special attention 
to the effect of the war crisis on 
community life. 

Subscribers to the Survey are 
"strong" on personal service. 
We urge you, as a subscriber, 
to bear these new groups in 
mind. It will be an advantage 
to all concerned if our readers 
will make a special effort to 
bring the members of these new 
groups and the Survey to- 
gether. 

We shall be glad to have your co- 
operation count towards your 
voting membership in Survey 
Associates if you will but reg- 
ister with us as a Survey Cir- 
culator. 

If you want to join, fill out the 
coupon below and send it back 
to us. We will then supply you 
with publicity material. 

MAY WE COUNT ON YOU 

FOR THIS EXTENSION 

WORK? 



CIRCULATOR COUPON 

FiU this out and return it to us. 

Please enroll me as a Circulator in the 
Survey's campaign for wider use of social 
information. 



Name. 



Note: — A Survey Circulator, in addition to 
being a subscriber himself, undertakes to secure 
four new $3 weekly subscribers, or eight new' 
$2 once-a-month subscribers (or their equiva- 
lent). A Survey Circulator is eligible for 
election as a member of Survey Associates for 
one year, but assumes no financial liability, 
nor promises renewal another year. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 1 , 1 g 1 7 



79 



life is being held this year by the federal 
Bureau of Education. These are part of 
the nation-wide campaign being conducted 
by the Department of the Interior, of which 
the bureau is a part, for the improvement 
of rural life. It is the desire of the com- 
missioner of education to have a good rep- 
resentation of business and professional men 
as well as educators take part in these 
conferences. 



THE Bible Film Company, of Las Vegas, 
N. M., producers of religious motion pictures 
to be circulated exclusively among churches, 
Sunday schools, Y. M. C. A.'s, and similar 
institutions throughout the country, has cre- 
ated a board of censors. This board, which 
is inter-denominational in personnel, will, 
declares an announcement by the company, 
censor and finally pass upon every foot 
of the company's output. 



ALL America Helps, a Union for Govern- 
ment Aid to War Victims, is the name of a 
new organization in California. It proposes 
to have introduced in Congress an amend- 
ment to the public buildings bill which would 
transfer to the relief of non-combatants in 
Europe the sum of $35,000,000 now allotted 
for post-offices and court houses which are 
not needed. Elizabeth Gerberding, of San 
Francisco, is president. 



RESEARCH studentships of a limited num- 
ber and to the value of $275 and tuition 
each, are announced by the Department of 
Social Investigation of the Chicago School 
of Civics and Philanthropy. Both lecture 
courses and field work are required and 
applications, accepted only from college 
graduates, must be filed by May 1. Infor- 
mation and blanks may be had of the school 
at 2559 South Michigan avenue, Chicago. 



A CAMPAIGN for the Conservation of 
Human Life is proposed by the Federal 
Council of Churches. Preliminary announce- 
ments include a study of causes and condi- 
tions ; acquaintance with agencies in the 
public health field and the cooperation of 
churches with them; the preparation of 
leaflets, social exhibits, motion pictures, text- 
books and a monthly publication. The di- 
rector is the Rev. Charles Stelzle, 105 East 
22 street, New York city. 



CHELSEA neighborhood, a community of 
180,000 people on the lower west side of New 
York city, is to have a health census taken 
by regular agents of the Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company, directed by Dr. E. 
H. Lewinski-Corwin, chairman of the 
health committee of the Chelsea Neighbor- 
hood Association, and Lee K. Frankel, of the 
company. Dr. Frankel directed the health 
surveys in Rochester, Boston and the state 
of North Carolina as well as that now under 
way in the rural districts of Louisiana. 



WAR, says the Lroislatlve News, published 
by the Public Charities Association of Penn- 
sylvania, throws upon public and private 
charities a vastly increased burden of the 
mental and physical defectives at large in 
the community. "Why not conserve the re- 
sources so terribly needed for other pur- 
poses by providing; opportunities for these 
unfortunates to help support themselves and 
at the same time prevent them increasing 
their kind? The Village for Feebleminded 
Women, at Laurelton, is one step in this 
direction. State farms for misdemeanants, 
to take them out of idleness in jails, is 
another." 



MORE than 4 per cent of the children in 
the rural schools of a single county in Cali- 
fornia are mentally defective, according to 
a recent study of retardation. This is un- 
usually high, though an earlier investigation 
had estimated the proportion of mentally 



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Brassieres — Distinctive style and fit in the new 

Spring fashions featuring dainty Silk and novelty 
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Silk Skirts — We are showing attractive assort- 
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rTll 



defective school children in Oakland, Cal., 
at 3 per cent. The county investigation (the 
name of the county is withheld) was carried 
out under the supervision of Lewis M. Ter- 
man, of Stanford University, for the State 
Board of Education. Professor Terman says 
it was based on "the most conservative 
criterion as to what constitutes feeble- 
mindedness." 



Ii3 



vestigators who will offer their services to 
the criminal courts in cases where the law 
provides for the assignment of counsel to the 
defendant, and will "assist others engaged in 
like efforts." The chairman is Nathan A. 
Smyth. 



COUNSEL for defendants in criminal cases 
who are too poor to hire lawyers will be 
provided by the Voluntary Defenders' Com- 
mittee, formed in New York city, and in- 
cluding several men who have been assistant 
district attorneys. The committee will not 
only defend needy defendants in criminal 
cases, but will also employ attorneys and in- 



HIGH cost of living and bad housing con- 
ditions, especially in larger cities, gave the 
socialists a considerable increase of votes at 
the recent local elections in Norway. In 
Christiania, they secured 45 seats on the 
city council out of a total of 87, chiefly at 
the expense of moderate progressive parties, 
the conservatives more or less holding their 
own. Taking the country as a whole, the 
socialists now occupy 2,480 seats out of a 
total of between twelve and thirteen thou- 



80 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 i , 1 9 1 7 



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tensely interesting by the 

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corners. 

Model C (illustrated) is 
for use with lantern slides 
only. Price $35 up. 

Other models for slides or 
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Write for our inter- 
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JUST PUBLISHED 

An Introduction To 

SOCIAL 
PSYCHOLOGY 

By CHARLES A. EIXWOOD, Ph.D. 

Professor of Sociology in the University of 

Missouri 

A scientific review of the social life, with 
a practical and constructive outlook which 
will appeal to those engaged in social work. 

Cloth — $2.00 net 

Descriptive circular sent upon request 

/&\ THIS IS AN /Ov 

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Good barn, with cement cellar and gar- 
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house and barn. Good kitchen garden. Fine 
orchard, yielding plentifully. 10 minutes 
from trolley. Has been occupied for the past 
2 years as a Home for Girls. For further 
information, apply to 

MRS. P. MALI, 8 Fifth Avenue. 

The Growth of a Creed 

An anti-theistic pamphlet by 

ELIZABETH PATTEN, ENGLEWOOD, COLO. 

Price, prepaid, 5c 



THE WORD OF THE TRUTH 

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Everyone May Understand the Word of God. 

Description sent on request; or the Book, for $1. 

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sand. In the rural districts, dissatisfaction 
on the part of the farmers with the gov- 
ernment system of embargo on foodstuffs and 
of maximum prices and the difficulty of 
securing labor due to the high wages offered 
by industry, made for an increase in con- 
servative, anti-government votes. 

SOME interesting tendencies of the motion 
picture industry are suggested in the annual 
report of the National Board of Review of 
Motion Pictures. The development of the 
serial pictures was one of the characteristics 
of the year. A few of the companies showed 
a tendency to lay the emphasis on the story, 
rather than on the star. The tendency in 
subject matter was shown in the increased 
use of dramas and plays which had been 
successful and the fact that a number of 
novelists and dramatists entered the motion 
picture field. That public interest in motion 
pictures has increased was illustrated in the 
great amount of space given in newspapers 
to motion picture news and criticism. There 
was an increase the latter part of the year 
in the production of films considered by the 
review committees suitable for the family 
group and young people. 



RECENTLY formed at Clifton Springs, N. 
Y., the Society for the Promotion of Occupa- 
tional Therapy has as its officers: president, 
George Edward Barton, of Clifton Springs, 
formerly chairman of the Committee on Oc- 
cupations at the Papenvoort Model School in 
Belgium; vice-president, Eleanor Clarke 
Slagle, director of the occupational experi- 
ment station of the Illinois State Society of 
Mental Hygiene; secretary, Isabel G. New- 
ton, of Clifton Springs; treasurer, Dr. W. R. 
Dunton, Jr., of the Sheppard and Enoch Pratt 
Hospital, Towson, Md.; chairman of inter- 
national committee, to keep in touch with 
other similar societies, T. B. Kidner, voca- 
tional secretary of the Canadian Military 
Hospitals Commission, Ottawa; chairman of 
committee on admissions, Susan C. Johnson, 
director of occupations on Blackwell's Island, 
N. Y., recently director of the technical di- 
vision in the Philippines. 



THE National Alliance of Employers and 
Employed is the official name of a new 
statutory organization under the British 
Board of Trade. For the present, its main 
function is to secure the reinstatement on 
satisfactory lines of soldiers and munition 
workers at the end of the war. At least 
part of its expenses are to be paid out of 
money provided by Parliament. The central 
board is to be composed to the extent of two- 
thirds of representatives of employers and 
employed, and the remaining third to be 
nominated by different government depart- 
ments. The increasing rapprochement of 
capital and labor under the stress of war 
may be illustrated further by a manifesto 
recently issued by the British Council for 
Christian Witness on Social Questions and 
signed by more than a hundred well-known 
citizens. One of its clauses reads: "We 
believe that one main requisite for industrial 
justice and peace is the association of labor 
in the management of industry — at least so 
far as conditions of work are concerned. 
It is desirable that the special knowledge 
possessed by labor in regard to some of the 
conditions of industry should be available 
for the more efficient conduct of the business." 



COMMERCIAL lyceum bureaus in Wis- 
consin, Minnesota and North Dakota have 
almost been put out of business by the entrance 
of the state universities into that field as an 
educational function. President Frank L. 
McVey, of the University of North Dakota, 
writes to the Survey that "so far as I know 
there is only one lyceum bureau operating 
in the state and it has only a few courses, 
less than half a dozen." During the present 
{Continued on page 82) 



Classified Advertisements 

SOCIAL WORKERS' EMPLOYMENT 
EXCHANGE: The Department for Social 
Workers of the Intercollegiate Bureau of 
Occupations registers men and women for 
positions in social and civic work, the 
qualifications for registration being a de- 
gree from an accredited college, a year's 
course in a professional school training for 
social or civic work, or experience which 
has given at least equivalent preparation. 
Needs of organizations seeking workers 
are given careful and prompt attention. 
EMELYN PECK, Manager, 130 East 22d 
St., New York City. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

CAMP DIRECTOR, also expert physical 
training instructor, seeks position where 
executive ability and knowledge are es- 
sential. Address 2490, Survey. 

POSITION as superintendent of an in- 
stitution for children or of a child-placing 
society. In the forties, and have had twenty 
years' experience in child welfare work. 
A college graduate. Accustomed to public 
speaking. Aim is to secure a position of 
larger opportunities. Fourteen years in one 
position. Address 2500, Survey. 

COLLEGE and law graduate with post- 
graduate work sociology and economics. 
Age 33, married. Experience"; law office, 
settlement and newspaper work, 3 years 
bureaus of municipal research, 7 years pub- 
lication work, now secretary state propa- 
ganda committee. Address 2501, Survey. 

MAN AND WIFE, thoroughly versed in 
modern institution methods, seek appoint- 
ment as Superintendent and Matron of 
Orphanage located in country. Address 

2493 Survey. 

HELP WANTED 

WANTED experienced man for Super- 
intendent Home for Crippled Children, 
Connecticut Children's Aid Society, 60 
Brown Thompson Building, Hartford, Conn. 

THE POSITION OF GIRLS' WORKER 
in a large, well-equipped social settlement 
will be open June 15th. Must be mature 
and have had some experience in social 
work. Jewess preferred. Give full in- 
formation in your application as to experi- 
ence, salary expected, references, etc. Ad- 
dress 2496 Survey. 

SOCIAL SERVICE NURSE. Must speak 
Yiddish. Opportunity for person with ini- 
tiative. Address 2498, Survey. 

WANTED : Graduate nurse, Church- 
woman, young, with executive ability, to 
manage a new farm for convalescent 
women, near large city. Apply 2499, Survey. 

WANTED : Supervisor for boys from 9 
to 15 years in an institution. Must have 
had experience. Apply Industrial School 
Association, 141 South Third Street, 
Brooklyn. 

BOOKS 



A new book— AMONG THE IMMORTALS, What 
they are doing in the "Many Mansions." How 
souls work out their salvation after death. 
Christ preached to the spirits in Prison — 1 
Peter 3-19. $1.50, postpaid. The Author, Box 
740, Tenafly, N. J. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1 9 1 7 




This war has been declared in the name of liberty 
and democracy. Let us not undermine our own liberty 
and democracy by adopting 

f 

The volunteer system is the only just, democratic, and 
effective means of raising an army. 

Congress is considering a bill to draft an army of one million youths, between 19 and 25 years 
of age, presumably for service in Europe with the Allies. 

Compulsory military service is unjustified: 

It conscripts conscience. It forces a man to kill against his will. It makes adherence to per- 
sonal religious conviction a penal offense. Those who refuse to serve are subject to court-martial and 
imprisonment. 

True patriotism demands a united country. This principle will not unite the country in carry- 
ing on the war ; it will divide it. Conscripted men may fight for territory, but only free men can fight 
for ideals. 

Canada, with a population less than New York State,, has raised 400,000 without conscription ; 
Australia, with a population less than Illinois, 250,000 without it, and recently defeated conscription 
for over-seas duty by an overwhelming vote of the people. Even Germany has never conscripted men 
for over-seas military service. 

Lieut.-Gen. Nelson A. Miles and other military authorities oppose conscription as unnecessary 
and ineffective. Volunteering is our American tradition. Volunteering can be controlled and guided 
to build up an efficient army. 

Is our cause so weak that not enough men can be found to volunteer? 

We believe the great majority of the American people are opposed to conscription and in favor 
of the volunteer principle. If that is your conviction, HELP DEFEAT CONSCRIPTION NOW: 

1. By writing or wiring your senators, congressmen and the President. 

2. By getting others to do so. 

3. By getting organizations to take action. 

ACT NOW. KEEP UP YOUR PROTEST UNTIL CONGRESS DECIDES. 



CUT THIS OUT AND MAIL 

This advertisement is paid for by the voluntary contributions of 
patriotic Americans who believe that patriotism demands the main- 
tenance of our democratic institutions and individual liberties. 

We need money now to carry on this campaign. 

Send Your Contribution to the 

American Union Against 
Militarism 

641 MUNSEY BUILDING 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



To the American Union Against 
Militarism. 
641 Munsey Bldg., 

Washington, D. C. 

I am opposed to CONSCRIP- 
TION and will send my protest to 
Congress. 

Signed 

Street Address 

City 

State 

Enclose whatever contribution you 
can send to help this campaign. 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 



82 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 21, 1917 



JOTTINGS 

(Continued from page 80) 
session this university booked 123 courses 
with a total of 572 dates and estimates that 
it reached 120,000 people. While all the 
bureaus that were operating in Wisconsin 
in 1909, when the state university began 
its lyceum work, are still operating, "prac- 
tically all of them," writes Louis E. Reber, 
dean of the University Extension Division, 
"have a very much smaller volume of busi- 
ness." In Minnesota, writes Richard R. 
Price, director of the General Extension 
Division, "it is probable that commercial 
bureaus are not reaching more than twenty- 
five or thirty towns this year, while we are 
reaching 137." Each of the universities offers 
its courses at low cost and the work is not 
always self-supporting. 



THE photograph of the nurses graduating 
from the Naval Military Hospital Training 
School in Guam, which appeared in the Sur- 
vey for March 24, was used by courtesy of 
the surgeon-general of the United States 
Naval Medical Corps. The credit line was 
by some oversight omitted. 



personal and 
Professional 



FRANZ SCHNEIDER, JR., of the Depart- 
ment of Surveys and Exhibits, Russell Sage 
Foundation, has been assigned to the Com- 
munity Health Demonstration in Fram- 
ingham, Mass., to assist in the sanitary 
study of the city with special reference 
to tuberculosis. This study will continue 
for about two months, and will include 
a thorough analysis of ten years' vital sta- 
tistics; test on birth registration; detailed 
analysis of the birth-rate and mortality of 
infants under one year, and computation of 
mortality rates for selected districts; an 
analysis of communicable diseases, case-rates 
and fatality; school and industrial hygiene 
and rural sanitation. 



DR. EDWARD W. RYAN, who had charge 
of the American Hospital in Belgrade during 
the outbreak of typhus in Serbia last year, 
has been put in charge of sanitary and re- 
lief work at Saloniki in territory occupied by 
the Allies. Relief work is not permitted un- 
der American supervision in German or 
Bulgarian territory. With the immediate re- 
lief work, an attempt will be made to put on 
a permanent basis the sanitary work begun 
in Serbia two years ago under the American 
Sanitary Commission. 



PAMPHLETS 



The Kind of Government That Secures Pros- 
perity. By John C. Havemeyer, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Educational Directory, 1916-17. Department of 
the Interior, Bureau of Education. Price 20 
cents. Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

The Fellowship International. Handbook with 
songs of citizenship. Price 5 cents. Bouck 
White, House of the Internationalists, 125 West 
21 street, New York city. 

Cooperative Medicine in Relation to Social In- 
surance. By James L. Whitney, M.D., San 
Francisco. 

1. Disentangling Alliances. 2. Preparedness 
Against the Rebarbarization of the World, 
by Oscar S. Straus. 3. Social Progress De- 
(Continued on page 83, last column) 



INFORMATION DESK 

The following national bodies will gladly and freely supply information and advise reading on 
the subjects named by each and on related subjects. Members are kept closely in touch with tha 
work which each organization is doing, but membership is not required of those seeking information. 
Correspondence is invited. Nominal charges are sometimes made for publications and pamphlets. 
Always enclose postage for reply. 



Health 



SEX EDUCATION— New York Social Hygiene 
Society, Formerly Society of Sanitary and 
Moral Prophylaxis, 105 West 40th Street, New 
York City. Maurice A. Bigelow, Secretary. Seven 
educational pamphlets, 10c. each. Four reprints, 
5c each. Dues — Active $2.00; Contributing $5.00; 
Sustaining $10.00. Membership includes current 
and subsequent literature; selected bibliographies. 
Maintains lecture bureau and health exhibit. 



CANCER — American Society for the Control of 
Cancer, 25 West 45th St., New York City. 
Curtis E. Lakeman, Exec. Secy. To dissem- 
inate knowledge concerning symptoms, diagnosis, 
treatment and prevention. Publications free on 
request. Annual membership dues $5. 



COMMITTEE ON PROVISION FOR THE 
FEEBLE-MINDED — Objects: To disseminate 
knowledge concerning the extent and menace 
of feeble-mindedness and to suggest and initiate 
methods for its control and ultimate eradication 
from the American people. General Offices, Em- 
pire Bldg., Phila., Pa. For information, literature, 
etc., address Joseph P. Byers, Exec. Sec'y. 



MENTAL HYGIENE— National Committee for 
Mental Hygiene. 50 Union Square, New 
York City, Clifford W. Beers, Sec'y. Write 
for pamphlets on mental hygiene, prevention of 
insanity and mental deficiency, care of insane and 
feeble-minded, survevs, social service in mental 
hygiene, State Societies for Mental Hygiene. Of- 
ficial quarterly magazine. Mental Hygiene, $2.00 
per year. 



NATIONAL HEALTH— Committee of One 
Hundred on National Health. E. F. Robbins, 
Exec. Sec'y., 203 E. 27th St., New York. 
To unite all government health agencies into a 
National Department of Health to inform the peo- 
ple how to prevent disease. 

TUBERCULOSIS — National Association for the 
Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 105 
East 22nd St., New York. Charles J. Hat- 
field, M. D., Exec. Sec'y. Reports, pamphlets, etc., 
sent upon request. Annual transactions and other 
publications free to members. 

THE AMERICAN SOCIAL HYGIENE ASSO- 
CIATION publishes a quarterly magazine, 
SOCIAL HYGIENE, dealing with such prob- 
lems as prostitution, venereal diseases and sex 
education; annual subscription $2.00, single copies 
50c; also a monthly news Bulletin at 25c a year. 
Publications free to members. Annual member- 
ship $5.00; sustaining $10.00. Information upon 
request. W. F. Snow, M. D.. General Secretary, 
105 West 40th Street, New York City. 



NATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUBLIC 
HEALTH NURSING. Object: to stimulate 
the extension of public health nursing; to 
develop standards of technique; to maintain a 
central bureau of information. Publications: 
Public Health Nurse Quarterly, $1.00 per year; 
bulletins sent to members. Address Ella Phillips 
Crandall, R. N.. Executive Secretary, 600 Lexing- 
ton Ave., New York City. 



THE AMERICAN RED CROSS— Through its 
Town and Country Nursing Service, main- 
tains a staff of specially prepared visiting 
nurses for appointment to small towns and rural 
districts. Pamphlets supplied on organization and 
administration of visiting nurse associations; per- 
sonal assistance and exhibits available for local 
use. Apply to Superintendent. Red Cross Town 
and Country Nursing Service, Washington, D. C. 



PUBLIC HEALTH— American Public Health 
Assn. Pres., William A. Evans, M.D., Chi- 
cago: Sec'y, Prof. S. M. Gunn, Boston. 
Object "To protect and promote public and per- 
sonal health." Seven Sections: Laboratory, Sani- 
tary Engineering, Vital Statistics, Sociological, 
Public Health Administration, Industrial Hygiene, 
Food and Drugs. Official monthly organ, American 
Jo'iirnal of Public Health: $3.00 per year. 3 mos. 
trial subscription (to Survey readers 4 mos.) 50c. 
Address 126 Mass. Ave., Boston, Mass. 



EUGENICS REGISTRY. Board of Registration: 
Chancellor David Starr Jordan, President; 
Dr. J. H. Kellogg, Sec'y; Professor Irving 
Fisher, Dr. Charles B. Davenport, Luther Burbank. 
Professor O. C. Glaser, Exec. Sec'y. A public serv- 
ice established and maintained by the Race Better- 
ment Foundation in cooperation with the Eugenics 
Record Office for the growth and spread of knowl- 
edge about human inheritance and its applications 
in the field of eugenics. Literature available. Regis- 
tration blanks for those who desire an inventory 
and, wherever possible, an estimate of their heredi- 
tary possibilities. Address Eugenics Registry, 
Battle Creek, Mich. 

PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS— Nat io nal 
Committee for. Objects: To furnish informa- 
tion for Associations, Commissions and per- 
sons working to conserve vision; to publish 
literature of movement; to furnish exhibits, lan- 
tern slides, lectures. Printed matter: 'samples 
free; quantities at cost. Invites membership. 
Field, United States. Includes N. Y. State Com. 
Edward M. Van Cleve, Managing Director; Gor- 
don L. Berry, Field Secretary; Mrs. Winifred 
Hathaway, Secretary. Address, 130 E. 22d St., 
N. Y. C. 

Racial Problems 



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soKvey 





From a tit awing by Emma 
Clark for the Baby Week 
Campaign of the Metro- 
politan Life Insurance Co. 




Scant crops, high prices and preoccupation with the affairs of robust 
men, have given new emphasis to the need for a widespread observ- 
ance of Baby Week during the first week of May 



Price 10 Cents 



April 28, 1917 




Waterbury 

$3 



A Watch That the People Want 
— the New 




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In the first place it's the size that is 
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CONTENTS for APRIL 28, 1917 The GIST of IT 



Volume XXXVIII, No. 4 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

A Plan to Safeguard Children in Farm Work - 
Medicine Mobilized 



- 86 

GERTRUDE SEYMOUR 87 
- - - 90 



The Task of Civilian War Relief. II. - 

Reorganizing the State Board of Charities in New York - 

WINTHROP D. LAKE 92 



COMMON WELFARE 

Plans of the National Defense Council 
Red Cross Civilian Relief Organization 
Army Pay Based on Size of Families 
. Tammany Legislating for the Nation 
The World and Its Food Supply 
Efficiency and the Labor Laws - 
Patriots' Day Parade in New York - 
War-Time Gains of the Suffragists - 
Ohio Acts for the Public Welfare 
Indiana's New Social Legislation 
Clinic Families and Birth Control 
Growing Pains and Housing Reform 
Dr. Sachs' Name Officially Cleared - 
Miners' Wages Following Food Upward 



94 
94 
95 
95 
96 
96 
97 
97 
97 
■98 
98 
99 
99 
100 



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of March 3, 1879. 



Americanization of the Jewish Immigrant 
By Israel Friedlaendcr 



T 



WO articles of prime significance at a time when the relationships of 
races of men and the integrity of family life are at stake as never 
before, are announced for the SURVEY next week. 

The Nature and Uses of Social Evidence 
By Mary E. Richmond 



THE MAN with the hoe has a tremendous 
family — all the Boy Scouts. Page 97. 

TO all the other don'ts for children, the 
National Child Labor Committee adds a 
pageful for those who may be sent out to 
work on the farms. Poor crops and weedy 
boys may result. Page 86. 



ISRAEL PUTNAM, dashing off on his plow- 
horse to be the first to enlist, has no place in 
this war. Farmers are not wanted. More- 
over he would have been beaten to it by the 
doctors. Surgeons, psychiatrists, health of- 
licers, sanitary engineers, dentists and plain 
physicians all have an assigned part. The 
plans of the medical branch of the Council 
of National Defense and of the National 
Association for the Study and Prevention of 
Tuberculosis. Page 87. 



JACK and Jill went up the hill to watch ;> 
German boat. Jack begun to shoot a gun, 
while Jill — she got the vote. Page 97. 



CONSIDER Mrs. Finnegan, left in a pretty 
pickle with all the children ailing, the 
grocery bill unpaid and at outs with the 
neighbors when Finnegan, somewhat under 
the influence, decided that his country 
needed him more than his family. A sample 
of civilian relief work. Page 90. 



COMMISSIONER STRONG'S reorganiza- 
tion plan for the New York State Board of 
Charities is before the legislature with slim 
chances of enactment. The citizens' commit- 
tee, supporting them, and the Catholic com- 
mittee seem hopelessly split on the question 
of placing out children. Meantime the board 
itself has partially reorganized its work 
while standing .pat on the form of organiza- 
tion and personnel. Page 92. 



HEREAFTER all children committed to state 
institutions in Ohio will have a physical and 
mental examination, by a new bureau estab- 
lished for that purpose, to determine the ap- 
propriate hospital, school or home. A fruit- 
ful legislative session. Page 97. 



EIGHT new committees are announced by the 
Council of National Defense which now has 
a commission, committee, advisory commis- 
sion or sub-committee to deal with every 
current interest except baseball and peace. 
Page 94. 



MRS. BACON'S housing program for 
Indiana is rounded out with a new law 
which applies even to the farmhouses of the 
Hoosier countryside that Riley sang. Some 
results of the recent legislature. Page 98. 

TAMMANY congressmen kept the Demo- 
crats from making war prohibition a party 
measure, but the drys go marching on. 
Page 95. 



WITH the cost of living as their sole argu- 
ment and without even threat of a strike, the 
soft coal miners won a 20 per cent increase 
in wages and their hard coal fellows are 
expecting an equal raise. Page 100. 



IF the New York labor law is to survive the 
attempts to break it down in the name of 
patriotism, the legislature must lake an im- 
mediate adjournment. Page 96. 



THOUGH a full fortnight has passed, the 
food problem has not vet been solved. 
Page 96. 



SAN FRANCISCO charity workers are ur- 
ging a separation allowance for soldiers based 
on the number of their dependents. Page 95. 



A Plan to Safeguard Children 

in Farm Work 

WHAT can the children of America do in this war to aid in the production of foodstuffs? Everyone is 
asking this question and not a few have come forward with answers. Some of these answers involve a 
relaxation of school attendance laws and give no assurance that young children will not be overworked, ill fed 
and poorly cared for generally. The National Child Labor Committee has worked out a plan to meet the need 
and at the same time to safeguard the children against neglect. The plan has two parts, one relating to children 
fourteen years old and over who may be hired out to farmers, the other relating to children under fourteen who 
would be a burden to farmers because of inexperience and youth. The committee asks: "Will you push this 
plan in your community?" Here it is: 



FOR OLDER CHILDREN 

To send any children to farms without knowing the actual 
need for them or without regulation would be wasteful 
and a hindrance to the farmers who do not want a horde 
of inexperienced laborers on their hands, 

Therefore: 

1. Create and appoint a state committee of school officials 
to confer with the state agricultural department and organ- 
izations of farmers to find out whether there is a real need 
of school children on farms. 

2. If the need exists, draft a set of regulations, to meet 
the need and at the same time protect the children, such 
as these : 

(a) Children 14 and over, only, to be permitted to work 
on farms for others than their parents and excused 
from school for this purpose from June 1 to October 1. 

(b) Children thus excused not to be permitted to work 
more than 8 hours a day, or more than 6 days a week. 

(c) Children thus excused must have special work per- 
mits, issued by the committee of school officials or per- 
sons authorized by them, showing that the child has 
been examined by a physician and is physically fit for 
work, permits to be issued only for farms known by 
the committee to be suitable places for the children 
to work. 

3. The state committee of school officials should be re- 
sponsible for the supervision of children at work on farms 
to see that regulations are enforced. 

Transportation 

Feeding 

Housing 

As to housing 

It is advisable that children sent to farms to work 
should not be housed with the farmers. 

It has been suggested that the Boy Scouts, for instance, 
can establish camps in a given farm district under 
scout masters. Local authorities will be glad to pro- 
vide transportation from camps to farms, and the boys 
can work in gangs, in one field one day, in another the 
next, and return to camp after work. In this way 
both work and living conditions will be supervised and 
farmers will not have the responsibility and cost of 
housing them. 

Similar camps may be established under playground 
directors, probation or school officers. 

But be sure you know where the children live and how. 

ENGLAND IS ALREADY WISHING SHE HAD NOT 

USED HER CHILDREN SO RECKLESSLY AT THE 

BEGINNING OF THE WAR 

LET AMERICA LEARN BY ENGLAND'S 
EXPERIENCE 



should all be supervised. 



FOR YOUNGER CHILDREN 

1. Organize teachers, boy scout leaders, playground di- 
rectors, and others interested in child welfare, into a 
SUMMER AGRICULTURAL FACULTY. 

2. Call upon holders of vacant village, city, or suburban 
properties to dedicate them for the summer to the raising 
of potatoes, corn, beans, or other vegetables, according to 
soil and location. 

We have plenty of land in America. One-half of the 
City of New York is vacant of buildings. 

Your state agricultural department will cooperate with 
you, if need be, to secure seeds and implements, or 
these may be provided for by local subscription. 

3. Raise a small fund to hire these plots ploughed and 
roughly prepared for use. 

4. Get a special resolution from your School Board pro- 
viding that all children who register for this agricultural 
service under supervision of the Board and perform the 
work regularly, shall be given credit for it in lieu of regu- 
lar school attendance from June 1 to October 1. But allow 
no general school exemption that will turn children out of 
school without providing both occupation and supervision. 

5. Organize the children in classes and put them on the 
soil under direction of competent supervisors, the Summer 
Agricultural Faculty mentioned above, who will appre- 
ciate the limits of a child's strength and will not permit 
him to be overworked. 




86 




Medicine Mobilized 

By Gertrude Seymour 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



ANNOUNCEMENTS of the first meeting of the 
medical branch of the Council of National Defense 
just held in Washington show an alignment of 
k. medical resources which, for extent and complete- 
ness, has perhaps never been equaled. It is a mighty gather- 
ing of clans, among whom the rousing word has been passing 
ever since the day when members of the first hospital units 
returned from their voluntary service abroad, having looked 
upon the face of war. Units for volunteer service abroad be- 
came permanent units at home, in no official organization, but 
in a readiness that has proved prophetic. 

As long ago as November, 1915, a group of Albany physi- 
cians, known as the Clinical Club, began a course of study 
in military sanitation and hygiene. This course, now widely 
known as the "Albany idea," has been extended and put in 
pamphlet form for use by other medical clubs and societies. 1 
Not only the facts of military medical organization and meth- 
ods of sanitation are included, but problems are given for 
solution, affecting the proper use of local resources in an emer- 
gency; such as the protection of water-supply, should a given 
city suddenly become the base on which troops converge; or 
the means of caring for refugees, who might gather at a given 
point, and of protecting the local community from contamina- 
tion; or again, the available hospital quarters and supplies for 
the wounded, should a battle occur nearby. Such acquaint- 
ance with local conditions through sanitary surveys and gen- 
eral health stock-taking obviously has a value far beyond the 
immediate necessity. 

In April, 1916, a National Committee of American Physi- 
cians for Medical Preparedness was appointed by the joint 
action of the presidents of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, the American Surgical Association, the Congress of Amer- 
ican Physicians and Surgeons, the Clinical Congress of Sur- 
geons of North America, and the American College of Sur- 
geons. A few days later, this committee of physicians presented 
its plans to President Wilson and offered its services to the 
federal government. 

The organization and work of the National Committee of 
Physicians for Medical Preparedness is thus described in its 
circulars: 

"To the committee was delegated the responsible duty of formulat- 



Address Dr. J. A. Cox, 35 Clinton avenue, Albany, N. Y. 



ing plans whereby the civilian medical resources of the United 
States might be ascertained and effectively coordinated for such pur- 
poses as might be required by the federal government. 

"The national committee organized, selected a chairman and 
secretary and an executive committee, and appointed a state com- 
mittee of nine strong men in each state of the union. 

"It is the fixed policy of this committee that all presidents and 
secretaries of the various state medical societies shall be members of 
their respective state committees during their incumbency in office. 
From the first it was contemplated that at the proper time the 
organization of -the committees would be perfected in each county 
of the country. That time has now come and county committees 
are being rapidly organized. In each instance the state committees 
are expected to select the county committees and supervise their 
formation." 

On the county committee also all medical interests and ac- 
tivities are to be represented. It has been requested that mem- 
bership in each county unit shall include : 

All members of National Committee of the Committee of American 
Physicians for Medical Preparedness, resident in the individual 
county; members of the state committee resident in or near the 
individual county; representatives of the United States Army, resi- 
dent in the individual county; representatives of the United States 
Navy, resident in the individual county; representatives of the United 
States Public Health Service, resident in the individual county; 
representatives of the State Board of Medical Examiners residing 
in the individual county; representatives of the state or city public 
health service; ranking medical officer of the National Guard; presi- 
dent and secretary of the local Medical Officers' Reserve Corps 
Association, if there should be such an organization; deans of medi- 
cal schools; president and secretary of the County Medical Society; 
president and secretary of any other important medical societies; 
medical director of the local Red Cross units; other representative 
medical men. 

Specific duties will be assigned to state and county officials 
from time to time, in addition to the general unification of 
medical resources. Some of these specific duties already re- 
quested are the securing of applicants for the Army Medical 
Corps. At least 1,200 additional medical officers, it is said. 
are required at once; 20,000 or more medical reserve officers 
may be called for at any time; 350 officers are yet needed for 
the Navy Medical Corps; several hundred medical officers 
are needed for the Coast Defense Corps of the navy, and 
many medical officers are needed for the local National Guard. 

During the past year this voluntary committee and its vari- 
ous subsidiary groups have achieved a distinguished success in 
the work planned. Some of the activities already completed 
or well under way are : 

At least 20,000 medical men selected and classified according to 
their training and work. 

87 



88 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 



1 9 1 7 



An inventory of hospitals and other medical institutions. 

Definite affiliation with the Red Cross, both in administration 
and in plans by which the local committees shall cooperate. 

Special training in military medicine for senior medical students, 
for hospital groups in the medical officers' reserve corps, for dental 
students and others. 

The standardization of medical and surgical supplies and equip- 
ment. The purpose of this work is to designate the articles essential 
to civilian and military medicine and surgery, so that in case the 
production of supplies were curtailed, manufacturers of both drugs 
and instruments might be able to focus their energy upon the articles 
absolutely essential. 

Valuable information furnished by medical and other observers, 
who have worked in the war zones of Europe, is being gathered and 
classified. 

Finally, presidents of important national medical organizations 
of the country have been requested to suggest to the medical section 
of the Council of National Defense the work which members of 
these organizations are best fitted to perform, and the way in which 
the societies' activities and resources might be utilized to best ad- 
vantage. 

In August, 1916, Congress created the Council of National 
Defense, described in the Survey of March 17. Upon the 
advisory commission the medical profession is represented by 
Dr. Franklin H. Martin of Chicago. Since each member of 
this commission is authorized to gather about him a special 
board, consisting of both government representatives and 
civilians, Dr. Martin appointed the following persons as a 
general medical board to cooperate with him, "in coordinating 
civilian military medical activities and to advise in regard to 
fundamental medical problems and in regard to the armed 
forces of the country" : 

Dr. F. F. Simpson, chief of medical section, Council of National 
Defense, vice-chairman; Surg.-Gen. William C. Gorgas, U. S. Army; 
Surg.-Gen. William C. Braisted, U. S. Navy; Surg.-Gen Rupert 
Blue, U. S. Public Health Service, president American Medical 
Association; Col. Jefferson R. Kean, director of military relief, 
American Red Cross; Dr. William H. Welch, professor of pathology, 
Johns Hopkins University; Dr. William J. Mayo, Rochester, Minn.; 
Dr. Victor C. Vaughan, dean of University of Michigan Medical 
School, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Dr. Richard P. Strong, professor of 
tropical medicine, Harvard University; Dr. Edward Martin, profes- 
sor of surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Dr. George 
H. Simmons, editor Journal of the American Medical Association, 
Chicago; Dr. John M. Flint, professor of surgery, and dean of Yale 
University Medical School; Dr. Stuart McGuire, professor of sur- 
gery, Medical College of Virginia, Richmond ; Dr. John Young 
Brown, professor of surgery, St. Louis University School of Medi- 
cine; Dr. Charles H. Mayo, president-elect, American Medical 
Association, Rochester, Minn.; Dr. Thomas Huntington, professor of 
surgery, University of California; Dr. H. A. Royster, president of 
the Southern Surgical Association, Raleigh, N. C. ; Dr. Charles H. 
Peck, professor of surgery, University of New York; Dr. Winford 
Smith, superintendent, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore; Dr. 
Frederic A. Belsey, professor of surgery, Northwestern University, 
Chicago; Dr. George W. Crile, professor of suigery, Western Re- 
serve University, Cleveland; Earle Phelps, sanitary engineer, Wash- 
ington ; Dr. Edward C. Kirk, dean of the Thomas W. Evans Museum 
and Dental Institute School of Dentistry, University of Pennsylvania. 

The extensive and valuable work of the Committee of 
Physicians is being continued under the direction of the Coun- 
cil of National Defense. 

At the Washington meeting of this general medical board, 
referred to at the beginning of this article, preliminary reports 
on two important problems were presented. One of these 
reports concerned medical schools and was presented by Dr. 
J. M. Flint of the Yale Medical School. Ways in which 
Dr. Flint believes the medical schools can help in the present 
situation are: By preparing to graduate senior medical students 
promptly in case of need ; by urging graduates who can be 
relieved of their obligations as internes in civil hospitals to 
enroll for military service. Again, medical schools may con- 
sider the Italian plan, according to which base hospital units, 
organized from the Red Cross, carry with them the clinical 
faculty and students of their local personnel. By this means 
practical help is rendered to the army and navy, and instruc- 
tion is continued at the base. Also, in special cases fourth- 



year students might substitute service in a base hospital for 
the hospital year at home when opportunities for instruction 
in such a hospital offer. 
Said Dr. Flint: 

'In your efforts to solve the urgent problem before this board and 
assist the surgeon-general in supplying an adequate number of 
medical officers for the army and navy, it is important that this 
country should not repeat England's blunder at the outbreak of the 
war in permitting the disorganization of the medical schools either 
by calling the faculties into active service or sanctioning the enlist- 
ment of medical students into any of the line organizations. Ordinary 
foresight demands that we face the possibility that the war on which 
we have entered may last for years. Medical schools to supply 
trained men for the future as well as the present emergency must be 
kept in active operation under any circumstances. 

"While aiding to the uttermost in overcoming the present short- 
age of men, the necessity of keeping the source of supply open empha- 
sizes the importance of conserving our raw material. Therefore, 
men now in college looking forward to medicine as a career should 
be made to understand that it is their patriotic duty to the nation 
at this time to continue their studies and enroll in the medical school 
of their choice. Furthermore, no medical student who has not com- 
pleted three years of medical work should be permitted to give up 
his course, as the country needs his trained and not his untrained 
service." 

The second report made to the general medical board was 
that on hospital preparedness, by Dr. Winford H. Smith, of 
Johns Hopkins Hospital. He recommended that the board 
communicate at once, by telegraph or letter, with all general 
hospitals of one hundred beds or more, urging that in view of 
the present need hospital authorities reorganize their present 
staff with a view to releasing as many men as possible, and 
report to the general medical board. Another recommendation 
was that a selected list of hospitals be prepared with reference 
to size, location near terminal facilities or strategic points, as, 
for instance, those along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and 
the borders. Information should be obtained at once as to 
what facilities these hospitals could place at the disposal of 
the government ; their possibilities of expansion ; whether they 
have convalescent branches, and the ease with which water, 
heating and sewerage connection could be made in the event 
of expansion. 

The ultimate need of facilities for medical and surgical 
work made Dr. Smith's third recommendation. Hospitals 
especially equipped for neurological and orthopedic and other 
services should be listed and brought into cooperation at once. 
The information gathered on all these points will as soon as 
available be placed in the hands of the surgeon-general. One 
practical advantage of this committee's work, as Dr. Smith 
pointed out, would be the part it would play as buffer between 
the surgeon-general and his staff and the large number of those 
who may have pet projects to urge. 

The task of standardizing supplies and determining articles 
essential to the medical service began when more than 150 
manufacturers of medical and surgical supplies assembled in 
Washington last week at Dr. Martin's call to confer with 
the Advisory Commission and officials of army, navy and 
Public Health Service. The manufacturers will at once make 
a survey of material on hand and means of increased produc- 
tion of specified articles. The list of such articles is being com- 
piled in twenty sub-headings. Orthopedic supplies are to be 
indicated by specialists in orthopedic practice ; similarly special 
articles needed in dentistry, eye work, neurology, contagious 
diseases, hospitals, pharmacy, nursing, etc. 

The instant general response to these official preparations 
is indicated by the stirring news notes appearing in medical 
journals. "Ambulances for the New York Red Cross," 
"Johns Hopkins chosen as a great base hospital," for instance. 
"Massachusetts provides the first hospital unit for treatment 
of mental and nervous diseases." "The New York State 
Department of Health is assembling its division of laboratories 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 28, 1917 



89 



as a mobile unit to establish diagnostic service at any point; 
the services of the 1,000 health officers of the state have been 
offered to the military authorities and accepted by the adjutant- 
general to aid in preliminary examinations of recruits." "Spe- 
cial meeting of the Michigan State Medical Association to 
organize for service." "Harvard University has offered to the 
federal government for use during the war its Jefferson and 
Crufts Laboratories. The first is one of the best equipped in 
the country; the second is devoted to wireless and radio ex- 
periments." 

The Maryland branch of the Committee on Medical Pre- 
paredness has devised a practical plan to conserve the prac- 
tice of physicians who may enlist for active service. Doctors 
who attend the patients of those called into service are pledged 
to turn over to the physician in service or to his family one- 
third of the fees collected in such attendance. By this means 
the patriotism of the physician is recognized and practical 
assistance is given his family, while at the same time his 
practice is kept from being scattered. 

At closer range, this organization may be illustrated from 
the city of Boston where the local committee of defense is in 
close cooperation with the Boston chapter of the Red Cross 
and the committee on public safety. The description is fur- 
nished to the Survey by Dr. Richard P. Strong: 



"Provide for mobilization of medical resources. Medical person- 
nel should constitute at least ten per thousand of the strength of the 
prospective army the state of Massachusetts will provide. 

"The establishment of units of reserve officers and reserve officers' 
training camps through the state. 

"The establishment of courses of instruction for civilian practi- 
tioners of medicine on duties of medical officers in war, on military 
medicine and military hygiene. 

"The establishment of courses of training camp instruction, and 
obtaining of medical officers of the army in such centers where classes 
of instruction are organized. 

"Physical examination of men of Massachusetts for military service 
between the years of eighteen and forty-five, and the exclusion of 
the physically unfit. (During the recent mobilization of the militia 
on the Mexican border, the proportion of men disqualified as physic- 
ally unfit in a number of states reached from 30 to 40 per cent of 
those mustered in. In instances where the regiments were moved to 
the border, the government was put to the expense in each case of 
equipping a useless man, transporting him to the border, subsisting 
him while there, and returning him to his home, all through failure 
of the medical officer to maintain a high standard of physical re- 
quirement. Frequently this was due to lack of time for making the 
examination.) 

"Organization of efficient sanitary personnel for the prospective 
army of the state. (During the recent mobilization the sanitary per- 
sonnel of the organized militia was not even sufficient to provide 
fully for the service at the front; that is, the service with regiments, 
field hospitals and ambulance companies, consequently there were no 
medical officers available for the supervision of the construction of 
new hospitals and none to assign to such hospitals, or to hospital 
trains, or to medical supply depots, and none to assign for making 
physical examinations and special sanitary inspections. The func- 
tions of sanitary inspectors should comprise not onlv the correction 
of faulty conditions about camps and the giving of expert advice on 
sanitary matters, but also teaching all of the duties pertaining to 
medical department administration in the field.) 

"Organization of ambulance companies and of motor ambulances 
and field hospitals. (There should be at least four of these to every 
prospective organized division of troops.) 

"Enaction of the necessary legislation making smallpox and typhoid 
and para-typhoid inoculations compulsory for the men of Massachu- 
setts of military age who have passed the military physical exami- 
nation. 

"Organization of stations for such inoculations of such individuals, 
and establishment of laboratory stations for the preparation of the 
prophylactics. 

'Organization of hospital train (with personnel) of reconstructed 
Pullman cars in sections of ten cars which will accommodate 160 
patients. 

"Establishment of medical supply depots in the state. Prepara- 
tion of lists of medical supplies needed and of such supplies avail- 
able in Massachusetts. 

"Provision for mosquito bars for the prospective army. (During 
the recent mobilization the quartermaster department found it im- 



possible to purchase sufficiently large quantities of mosquito netting 
in the United States to supply our militia.) 

"Preparation of list of buildings available for base hospitals, in- 
cluding a statement of necessary changes and repairs for each 
building. 

"Selection of camp sites and the preparation of the same, includ- 
ing the procurement of water, installation of water and sewer sys- 
tems, construction of roads, temporary kitchens, mess shelters, latrines, 
bath houses and store-houses for the storage and safe-keeping ol 
supplies either for forces drafted into service or for interning pris- 
oners." 

The main theme of the coming conference of state health 
officers with the surgeon-general of the Public Health Serv- 
ice will this year be the coordination of federal, state and 
city health agencies for increased efficiency during the war. 

Plans of the Tuberculosis Association 

In response to the call for cooperation with national or- 
ganizations already in the health field, the first announcements 
to local associations have been issued by the National Associa- 
tion for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. Dr. 
Charles J. Hatfield, executive secretary of the association, in 
a letter announcing to the local associations a war program, 
says that the plans thus far developed by the national associa- 
tion include, first, a survey of the institutional resources of the 
country for the care of tuberculous soldiers; second, a report 
upon the control of tuberculosis among enlisted soldiers and 
sailors, especially prepared by Dr. Herman M. Biggs, Dr. 
George M. Kober and Dr. Hatfield; third, the selection of a 
corps of tuberculosis experts to work in cooperation with army 
and navy departments in the examination of recruits, and in 
the treatment of tuberculosis in sanitation camps, special hos- 
pitals and elsewhere. This third detail is urged as of special 
importance, and each society asked to give a complete list 
of physicians in its community who are qualified to serve 
in the capacity of tuberculosis experts. 

For a plan of using to the fullest possible extent the special 
administrative machinery of the anti-tuberculosis societies, 
directions are given in the further memorandum of the na- 
tional association : 

"The anti-tuberculosis associations of the country, numbering all 
told over 1,500, with more than 200 of them employing full-time 
secretaries, represent an administrative force that might well be 
utilized to great advantage in the war. 

"The matter of giving relief to tuberculous soldiers and their 
families will probably occur to many anti-tuberculosis associations as 
an immediately needful step. The national association wishes to call 
attention to the fact that the American Red Cross, through its special 
committees on civilian relief, will have charge of all campaigns foi 
raising funds for soldiers and sailors and their families who need 
relief, and also of administering such relief. Associations are urged 
to cooperate with such committees, and where there are no chapters 
of the American Red Cross, to make arrangements, with the De- 
partment of Civilian Relief of the American Red Cross at Wash- 
ington, D. C, for the formation of special committees or for such 
other arrangements as may be satisfactory to the Red Cross. 

''Anti-tuberculosis associations of the country employ or are in 
close touch with other agencies that employ nearly 5,000 nurses en- 
gaged exclusively or on part time in tuberculosis work. Associations 
are asked to consider using this large force of nurses to care for 
tuberculous soldiers. As part of its general plan, the national asso- 
ciation is recommending home treatment in conjunction with sana- 
torium care. Visiting nurses skilled in tuberculosis work can perform 
great service either on the basis of so much per visit or by offering 
their services free to the government. For the present it is advised 
that the public health nurses doing tuberculosis work do not enter 
active service under the American Red Cross, since their special 
training enables them to perform particularly valuable service in 
connection with home nursing of tuberculous soldiers. 

"Anti-tuberculosis societies may also help in an educational way, 
by furnishing literature, leaflets, booklets, etc., dealing with tuber- 
culosis, to men in military camps; by furnishing to each soldier who 
enlists from his home city or state a special booklet of information, 
so prepared that it will be of use to the soldier as a memorandum 
book or otherwise; by furnishing lecturers, exhibit material, motion 
pictures, etc., for the soldiers in camp; by cooperating with state 
and federal officials in furnishing special placards and sanitary sup- 
plies, such as paper cuspidors, paper handkerchiefs, etc., that may be 
of value in the control of tuberculosis. 



90 



THE SURFEY FOR APRIL 2 



1 9 1 7 



Reference has already been made to the need for expert 
service in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. 

"No other groups in the United States are so familiar with physicians 
who are thus qualified as are the anti-tuberculosis associations, both 
state and local. As the demand for enlistment increases, the ex- 
perience of other countries at war demonstrates that the supply of 
skilled physicians who are competent to treat and diagnose tuber- 
culosis will be taxed to the limit. Every effort must be made to 
protect the enlisted men of the United States army from the fatal 
experience of some of the European armies in relation to tuberculosis. 

"Anti-tuberculosis associations, through the administrative ma- 
chinery at their command, may be able to contribute to the increase 
of the food supply. Through their visiting nurses, secretaries and 
other machinery, the anti-tuberculosis associations may perform a 
vital function in educating the people of their communities in the 
proper use of food and the control of waste. This may be done 
either directly or through cooperation with other agencies already 
engaged in this work. 

"By cooperating with the Boy Scouts, the United States and state 
departments of agriculture and various other groups that are in- 
terested in taking boys of high school age to the country for use 
as farm laborers, the anti-tuberculosis associations may perform a 
great service, though it is not desirable that anti-tuberculosis asso- 
ciations devote their major efforts to a work of this character. 

"Similarly, anti-tuberculosis associations may perform a more 
direct function in relation to the food supply by organizing the 



labor of arrested cases of tuberculosis either in cooperation with 
existing sanatoria or in separate farm colonies. It would be feasible 
in some communities for groups of arrested cases to be placed upon 
farms adjacent to the cities, where, under medical supervision and 
proper direction, they could cultivate the land to their own better- 
ment and that of the community as a whole. 

"A final capacity in which the anti-tuberculosis societies of the 
country can serve to good advantage, is by bringing the utmost 
pressure to bear through their local representatives in Congress and 
any other possible way upon the federal and state authorities to 
recognize the seriousness of the problem of the control of tuber- 
culosis. That there is a growing recognition of this problem is 
evidenced, but that a further and more careful consideration of all 
that the control of this disease demands must be proved, is equally 
evident. It is desirable, therefore, that anti-tuberculosis associa- 
tions promote public opinion concerning the desirability of barring 
any man who has tuberculosis from the army, and of the govern- 
ment's assuming full responsibility for the control of this disease, 
in case it does develop among soldiers. 

"Whether this government is called upon to send a large expedi- 
tionary force to Europe or not, the mobilization of hundreds of 
thousands of troops will, without doubt, greatly increase the seri- 
ousness of the tuberculosis problem both in the military and the 
civilian population. Anti-tuberculosis associations are urged there- 
fore not to curtail their normal functions any more than absolutely 
necessary, but on the other hand to press forward, utilizing the 
war-interest as a channel for focusing more clearly than ever before 
the attention of the public upon the problem of tuberculosis." 



The Task of Civilian War Relief — II 



The second of a series of articles based upon a course of lectures upon civilian relief now be- 
ing delivered in New York with the sanction of the American Red Cross by Porter R. Lee of the 
staff of the New York School of Philanthropy. The articles are being written by Karl de 
Schwcinitz of the Neiv York Charity Organization Society 



THE United States army wants men. But unavoid- 
ably in taking men it takes also husbands, fathers, 
brothers, sources of family income and sources of 
family advice. This may or may not have a bad 
effect upon the life of the household. A business does not nec- 
essarily become demoralized in the absence of even the senior 
partner. The added responsibility is a challenge to the other 
members of the firm. They may actually conduct affairs 
more successfully than before. 

So it is with the families of men at the front. Some 
mothers, indeed most mothers and wives, adapt themselves to 
the change in their circumstances. Others, lacking experience, 
perhaps not having the qualities of management and executive 
ability needed for the direction of the household, perhaps with- 
out friends upon whose judgment they can rely, find their 
new burdens too heavy. 

The nation has taken from them more than a source of 
income. More must therefore be required of the nation than 
the award of a separation allowance. If the ultimate vic- 
tory rests with the country whose people are happiest, most 
healthy and of the sturdiest character, then the home of the 
soldier must not be allowed to suffer because he cannot be 
there to contribute his judgment, advice and experience. It 
is the task of the civilian relief worker to do this work in his 
place. 

But there are many families who are able to help themselves 
infinitely better than can anyone the Red Cross can send to 
them. How is the family who requires assistance to be dis- 
tinguished from the family who does not ? 

At best it is only within a comparatively limited group that 
we can make this differentiation. Of the needs of the majority 
of families we cannot hope to know. They succeed in meeting 
their financial obligations by supplementing the soldier's pay 
with savings, credit and assistance from friends. Sometimes 
they may not be so successful in supplementing his contribu- 



tion to the management of household affairs and to the edu- 
cation of the children, but about this we are not likely to learn 
unless there comes a serious disorganization of the family life. 

There will, however, be a large number of women who, 
for many reasons, will not be able to keep their homes solvent 
with the sole aid of the remittances from the soldier's pay en- 
velope or of the separation allowance arranged for by the 
government. These mothers will either make application to 
some organization like the Red Cross .civilian relief commit- 
tee, or neighbors and friends learning of their difficulties will 
make this application for them. 

The request will be for money. Nothing or little more may 
be required. Again, there may be need of all the personal 
work, judgment and counsel that the committee can summon. 
It is impossible to lay down any rule and say that those who 
fall within its provisions should receive the fullest measure of 
service that the social worker can give and that those who fall 
without should not. What really determines the amount and 
kind of help a family needs, in addition to financial resources, 
is the extent of its ability to adapt itself to the situation which 
the absence of the husband and father has brought about. But 
adaptability is not conditioned by income or standard of living. 
Hundreds of families with a high standard of living and with 
abundant income lack it. A certain physician, whose practice 
is among well-to-do families, recently employed a social worker 
to assist some of his patients to make social adjustments that 
were necessary to a cure. Who does not know households the 
whole life of which might be changed for the better if only 
a competent social worker could be introduced to them. 

There is, indeed, no short cut to finding out how much 
help a family needs. One of the privileges of being human is 
that each one of us is unique. One can generalize when one 
has to do with things, but when it becomes necessary to make 
a decision about an individual that decision must depend upon 
his individuality — the elements which make him different and 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 28, 1 9 17 



91 



his situation different from the person and situation of every 
other individual in the world. 

To know whether and how much to help a man one must 
know the man. Acquaintance is the only way of determining 
what service a family needs. The better acquainted one be- 
comes the more satisfactorily does one find this question an- 
swering itself. 

On a Friday afternoon nearly three years ago, Mrs. Annie 
Finnegan applied to a bureau for money to pay the rent. She 
said that her husband had gone to England to enlist. 

The social worker in charge of the bureau had now ap- 
parently to decide whether she should supply this pleasant, al- 
most attractive, young woman with the money she required, 
whether she should offer her any additional help or whether 
she should do nothing at all. What the social worker really 
determined — it was scarcely a question of determination ; train- 
ing and experience made her course of action almost instinc- 
tive — was to become better acquainted with the soldier's wife. 
Indeed, her acquaintance had already begun. Before she had 
promised to call to see Mrs. Finnegan the next day — the rent 
was not due until Monday — she had learned that Mr. Finne- 
gan had been a street car conductor and that the company 
owed him fifteen dollars which his wife had been unable to 
collect. She had also gathered that the problem of helping 
this family might not be a simple one, for it became evident 
that Mr. Finnegan had been intoxicated when he left for 
England. 

The impression that Mrs. Finnegan might need much more 
than money was confirmed during the visit the following 
morning. The home was suffering because Mr. Finnegan 
had not been fulfilling his obligations. Mrs. Finnegan owed 
the grocer nearly thirty dollars and it was not longer possible 
for her to obtain credit. Her husband had just started work 
after an interval of idleness. Some time before he had been 
so brutal to her and had been intoxicated so often that she 
had made complaint to a magistrate, who had placed him 
under probation. 

Mrs. Finnegan showed the effects of this sort of life. She 
was not strong. Her youngest son — she had four children — 
was also pale and delicate. Mrs. Finnegan, however, had al- 
ready begun to make plans for supporting herself by obtain- 
ing work at a publishing house where she had formerly been 
employed. With all her courage she was plainly overwhelmed 
by the desertion of her husband, who had gone away without 
telling her where he was going. 

Getting Acquainted with Mrs. Finnegan 

This conversation — the social worker would have called it 
a first interview — was forwarding the acquaintance between 
the two women in two ways. In the first place, it was giving 
the social worker an insight into the character of Mrs. Fin- 
negan and her problems. In the second place, it was giving 
Mrs. Finnegan a feeling of confidence in the social worker, 
a feeling that of course the social worker encouraged by her 
genuine interest and sympathy. 

When she left Mrs. Finnegan, this growing acquaintance- 
ship had already indicated certain definite tasks for her. She 
must see that the family had food and that the rent was paid. 
She must go to the British consulate and apply for a pension 
for the family. She must try to obtain the money which the 
street-car company owed Mr. Finnegan — not an easy task, for 
the company naturally would object to giving it to anyone ex- 
cept the man himself, even though that person represented 
their employe's wife. 

Apparently the man had been more a liability than an asset. 
Still, in fairness to him, she ought to look up his record with 



the street-car company. She ought to visit the houses in 
which the family had recently lived. What was the attitude 
of Mr. Finnegan's family toward his wife? Now that he was 
gone, would they be a help or would they perhaps nag her, 
accuse her of having driven him to enlist, and thus add one 
more to her worries ? 

Mrs. Finnegan had also mentioned a kindergarten which 
her son Joseph had attended for a time. Ought not the social 
worker to see the teacher? Teachers usually get close to the 
lives of their pupils. Through this teacher the social worker 
might become better acquainted with the needs of the family. 

The British consul informed the social worker that Mr. 
Finnegan had enlisted as a single man. It would therefore 
be necessary to make proper identification and to fulfill other 
necessary requirements before a separation allowance could be 
granted to Mrs. Finnegan. He suggested that a certain pa- 
triotic society might be willing to pay the allowance in the 
interval. To this the society, at the solicitation of the social 
worker, agreed. 

A Liability Turned into an Asset 

After a great deal of negotiation, the money due Mr. Fin- 
negan was obtained from the street-car company. His record 
there had not been bad, but his sister spoke of him as a black 
sheep and clearly showed that they would do all they could 
to help his wife with friendship and goodwill. If their brother 
had been a liability they at least would be an asset to his 
family. The social worker, in furthering her own acquaint- 
ance with Mrs. Finnegan, had brought her relatives closer 
to her and had thus strengthened the life of the home. 

At an address where the Finnegans had formerly lived, the 
social worker found a Mrs. Brandon who turned out to be 
Mrs. Finnegan's oldest friend in America. They had come 
to the states from the same town in Ireland and had been in- 
timate friends until recently, when they had become estranged 
through the gossip and meddlesomeness of a common acquaint- 
ance. Mrs. Brandon said that she would be glad to renew the 
friendship and when next the social worker called to see Mrs. 
Finnegan she found the two women together. 

The kindergarten teacher, whom the social worker next 
visited, thought that adenoids were affecting Joseph's health. 
She had never been able to persuade his mother to have th( m 
removed. The social worker, however, in the course of a 
growing acquaintance with Mrs. Finnegan, readily arranged 
for this operation. Then, as the baby apparently was not 
thriving, she took the little girl and her mother to the milk 
station. The physician said that Mrs. Finnegan ought not 
to go to work — she had planned to seek employment again at 
the publishing company — but ought to stay home and nurse 
the baby. 

Although Mrs. Finnegan was not anxious to do so, the 
social worker persuaded her to follow the doctor's advice. 
Mrs. Finnegan, indeed, had by this time learned that she 
could always depend upon the counsel and good judgment of 
her friend. Without losing any of her self-reliance, she now 
always turned to the social worker for guidance before under- 
taking any important step* 

Thus the growing acquaintance between the two women 
opened to the social worker more and more possibilities for 
service. When she had finally completed her task the children, 
once delicate, were well. Their mother said that she was bet- 
ter off than when her husband was with her because she now 
had a regular income. First the patriotic society, then the 
British government had contributed an allowance. Mrs. Bran- 
don, a friend whom Mrs. Finnegan feared she had lost, had 
been restored to her, the back pay from the street-car com- 



92 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 28 , 1 9 17 



pany had been secured. The health of the baby and that of 
the mother, too, had been conserved by the timely acceptance 
of the doctor's advice. 

Perhaps the greatest accomplishment of all was the estab- 
lishment by the social worker of that pleasant relationship 
which enabled her to do for this household those many things 
— impossible to record — which in the more intimate life of 
the country a capable, kindly neighbor runs across the street 
to do for friends who have had "a run of hard luck." 

The first family that applies to the civilian relief com- 
mittee may present just as great a field for service as did Mrs. 



Finnegan. There is only one way to tell, and that is to learn 
to know the family. In the first interview — that is, the first 
real good talk that one has with the family — one will find a 
dozen different things that need to be learned or to be done 
before one can feel justified in discharging a family with no 
help other than money. Surely, the wife and children of a 
soldier- are above all other women and children entitled to the 
most painstaking, sympathetic and understanding work that 
we can offer. No possible opportunity to be of assistance 
should be overlooked. And the only way to make certain 
of giving this maximum service is to get acquainted. 



Reorganizing the State Board of 
Charities in New York 



By Winthrop D. Lane 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



AN event long looked for occurred last week at Al- 
bany. A bill giving effect to Commissioner Strong's 
report on state charitable administration was intro- 
l duced into the Senate of the New York legislature. 
This is a matter of high importance not only to 37,000 de- 
pendent children in private institutions of the state, but to 
thousands of feebleminded and other wards as well, and to the 
technique of charitable administration throughout the country. 

It will be remembered that Charles H. Strong, a special 
commissioner appointed by Governor Whitman, made sweep- 
ing recommendations last November for the reorganization 
of the State Board of Charities and for the abolition of several 
other boards and commissions. Some of the groups and indi- 
viduals favoring his recommendations, and some of those not 
favoring them, have been trying since the appearance of the 
report to get together on a legislative program giving effect to 
its main features. The story of their negotiations is a story 
of utter failure to agree. Meanwhile, the legislature is within 
a few weeks of closing and there is slight chance that any 
headway will be made at this session. 

While Mr. Strong's investigation was still the indirect 
cause last summer of ill feeling and crimination, a hundred 
New York citizens came together and announced that they 
would stand behind the mayor and his commissioner of public 
charities, John A. Kingsbury, in the efforts of these officials 
to have the care of dependent children in private institutions 
improved and che state board made a more effective body. 
Promptly a committee of thirty prominent Catholic laymen 
came together also and announced that they would stand be- 
hind the institutions. George W. Wickersham, former attor- 
ney-general of the United States, was chairman of the exec- 
utive committee of the citizens' committee, which called itself 
the Citizens' Committee on Dependent Children, and Robert 
S. Binkerd, secretary of the City Club, was secretary. William 
D. Guthrie, John G. Agar, Frederick R. Coudert and Adrian 
Iselin were among the members of the other group. 

Governor Whitman urged these unofficial groups to agree, 
if possible, upon legislation based on Mr. Strong's report. 
Formal and informal conferences began at once. The citizens' 
committee early declared that it would not insist upon full 
enactment of every detail of Mr. Strong's recommendations, 
but there were, it said, two things it did insist upon. These 



were the reorganization of the state board into a vigor- 
ous and aggressive body, and the creation within the board of 
a special bureau or agency to develop the policy of placing out 
children in family homes. 

The committee of Catholics was not entirely convinced, 
however, of the wisdom of this placing out. Neither it nor 
the state board thought that the latter needed reorganization. 
So matters dragged. Then the board began to draft bills 
embodying its own ideas of what ought to be done. 

These bills, said members of the citizens' committee when 
they saw them, went only part way. They restored to the 
board some of the lost powers that Commissioner Strong had 
said ought to be restored, but they did not provide for that 
reorganization of the board upon which Mr. Strong had predi- 
cated the increase of power. 

The board's bills restored to the board power to make rules 
for the reception and, retention of inmates in state institutions 
(the board now has that power for private institutions), they 
abolished the useless commission on sites, grounds and build- 
ings, and they rendered clear the power of the board to pass 
upon plans for new almshouses and public hospitals. But 
they made no internal changes in the board itself. Not only 
did the board remain a board of twelve unpaid members, but 
it remained the same twelve, appointed in the same way, 
serving for the same time, with the same absence of qualifica- 
tions specified in the law. In short, nothing was done to make 
the board a more expert; a more vigorous or a more enlight- 
ened body. 

In a final effort to come to some agreement a special confer- 
ence was called for March 17. At this conference the board 
replied to criticisms of its own bills by declaring that these 
bills embodied all of the "important" changes recommended 
by Mr. Strong. The matter was discussed in all its phases. 
No apparent headway was made and the gloom of a seeming 
deadlock descended upon the meeting. Then Mr. Binkerd 
came forward with a drastic compromise. He did not say 
that the citizens' committee had agreed to the compromise, 
but he threw it out for discussion. 

Mr. Binkerd proposed that the governor be given power 
to appoint to the board immediately three members-at-large, 
to be additional to the present membership; that as the term 
of one member expires each year this member be not replaced, 



THE SURFEY FOR APRIL 28, 1 9 17 



93 



so that the board would in a few years be reduced to eleven 
or nine ; that the directors of the two new bureaus recom- 
mended by Mr. Strong, one for mental deficiency and one for 
dependent children, be paid between $6,000 and $7,500 a 
year and that they either be members of the board or not, as 
might be worked out afterward. 

The board turned the compromise down cold. All effort 
at agreement thus came to a standstill. The meeting ad- 
journed and the citizens' committee set immediately about 
drafting a bill embodying its original ideas of what ought to 
be done. This measure is the one introduced last week by 
Senator Mills. 

The state board is entirely reorganized in this bill. In- 
stead of a board of twelve unpaid members, one residing in 
each judicial district of the state and three in New York 
city, as now, it becomes a board of nine members, appointed 
by the governor, three of whom are to be paid and six unpaid. 
Instead of holding office for eight years, members are to serve 
during good behavior and until removed by the governor on 
notice for cause. The governor is to designate the president, 
and this official is to be paid $7,500 a year. The two other 
paid members are to be chairmen of the two new bureaus 
created by this act, one a bureau for mental deficiency and 
one a bureau for dependent children. The chairman of the 
first is to be paid $6,000 a year, the chairman of the second 
$5,000. The board is required to hold one regular meeting 
each month. 

At least one of the members must be a woman. Under the 
present law no special qualifications are required. Under the 
new, one member must be a penologist, one an educationist, 
one a physician with special knowledge of tuberculous diseases, 
one a general practitioner with experience in the work of 
hospitals and dispensaries, one a physioian with special training 
in psychiatry, one a lawyer, one a specialist in the care of 
children in private institutions and in foster homes, and one 
a person generally conversant with dependency and the sev- 
eral forms of poor relief. The physician with special training 
in psychiatry is to be chairman of the bureau for mental de- 
ficiency, and the specialist in the care of children is to be 
chairman of the bureau for dependent children. 

The president becomes the chief executive officer of the 
board. In him are vested the fiscal powers now belonging to 
the fiscal supervisor of state charities, an office which Mr. 
Strong found tending to control policies as well as expendi- 
tures and which, along with the commission on sites, grounds 
and buildings, is abolished by this bill. The president is to 
represent the board "in the discharge of its duty to seek ade- 
quate appropriations, for maintenance and new construction at 
existing state institutions and for the extension and improve- 
ment of the inspection service over public and private institu- 
tions subject to the supervision of the board." 

The chairman of the bureau for mental deficiency is to 
supervise the state institutions for the mentally defective in 
regard to the care of patients, and in general is charged with 
the enforcement of laws relating to mentally defective persons 



and epileptics. He is authorized, with the approval of the 
board, to license private institutions for the mentally den 
He is specifically charged with conducting research into the 
"medical, social and economic relations of mental deficiena." 

The chairman of the bureau for dependent children is to 
direct the work of the board and its officers in regard to de- 
linquent children not in state institutions and in regard to 
dependent children. His work will consist largely in seek- 
ing to improve standards in the care of dependent children. 
He is specifically charged with promoting the "placing-out of 
normal dependent children in superior free or boarding 
homes," and such homes are to be subject to the supervision 
of the hoard. 

The state board is given power to enforce its standards of 
care in private institutions by a change in the general munici- 
pal law. Payments by counties, cities, towns and villages to 
private institutions are conditioned upon the issuance of a 
certificate by the board that its rules are complied with. At 
present these payments are conditioned only upon compliance, 
without a certificate of the board being required. 

These comprise the major recommendations of Commis- 
sioner Strong. The story, however, does not end here. While 
these events have been taking place the state board has already 
achieved a measure of internal reorganization at the sugges- 
tion of its new secretary, Charles H. Johnson. These changes 
have already been provided for in the general appropriation 
act and have been approved by the governor. 

The changes recast the board's machinery into the follow- 
ing six divisions: the chief clerk and division of statistics, 
which existed in other forms before, and the new divisions 
of children, mental defectives and delinquents, adult wards 
and medical charities. Each division has a chief at the head, 
for whom a salary of $4,500 was asked but who was given 
by the legislature only $3,500. The divisions come into 
existence July 1. Six standing committees of the board are 
created to correspond to these divisions. 

It is intended that the division chiefs shall exercise two 
main functions, those of bringing institutions up to the highest 
possible efficiency, and of studying the social aspects of the 
problems confronting them and working for preventive 
measures. 

The board has secured four new inspectors, bringing its 
total up to twenty-two. Since January 1 it has had four in- 
vestigators conducting a study into the causes of delinquency 
and dependency in Oneida county. This is part of what it 
hopes to make a state-wide investigation. 

The board itself, it will be seen, is not changed by these 
alterations. All hope of securing such a reorganization seems 
to be centered upon the bill now before the legislature. The 
bills drafted bv the board itself, already referred to, have not 
been introduced, and counsel for the board declares that they 
will not be pressed at this time. The measure drawn by the 
citizens' committee has been referred to the Senate Com- 
mittee on Finance, and various interested organizations are 
preparing to push its passage at the present session. 



*-"**gg 



C0929SO; 




PLANS OF THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE COUNCIL 

EIGHT national committees have 
been created, under the general 
supervision of the Committee on Labor 
organized by Samuel Gompers as one 
of the Advisory Commission of the 
Council of National Defense. These 
committees, with their respective chair- 
men, are: Wages and Hours, Frank 
Morrison, Washington ; Mediation and 
Conciliation, V. Everit Macy, New 
York; Welfare Work, L. A. Coolidge, 
Boston ; Women in Industry, Mrs. Bor- 
den Harriman, Washington ; Informa- 
tion and Statistics, Frederick L. Hoff- 
man, Newark; Press, Grant Hamilton, 
Washington; Publicity, Edward T. De- 
vine, New York; Cost of Living and 
Domestic Economy, S. Thurston Bal- 
lard, Louisville. 

Thus far the scope of the work of 
only a part of these committees has been 
defined. No final decision has been 
reached as to the problems to be studied 
by the committees on Women in Indus- 
try, Information and Statistics, Press, 
and Cost of Living and Domestic Econ- 
omy. 

The committee on Wages and Hours 
will have four sub-committees, in this 
order: 

1. Government regulations: a. Gen- 
eral rules; b. special rules (to cover 
overtime, night shifts, Saturday after- 
noon and Sunday work, federal or state 
enactments) ; c. model federal labor law 
(to establish uniform labor conditions) ; 
d. analysis of state laws and incorpora- 
tion of best provisions in one model. 

2. Standards of working conditions: 
a. For federal and state laws (lighting, 
drinking water, ventilation, sanitary de- 
vices, etc.) ; b. Specifications by muni- 
tions board (welfare requirements under 
which munitions and supplies shall be 
made) ; c. Administration of labor laws. 

3. Trade Agreements in Industry: 
a. Trade conferences, national and local. 

4. Coordination of employment 
agencies : a. Employment ; b. mobiliza- 
tion of women for industrial service; 
c. sources of supply of workers. 

The Committee on Mediation and 
Conciliation has thus far agreed that 

94 



its work shall deal with national, state 
and local or plant machinery for adjust- 
ment of disputes. Thus in plants oper- 
ated by the government, and in those 
where government supplies are pro- 
duced, there will be adjustment boards 
under the supervision of this agency. 

Welfare work, as defined by the 
Labor Committee for the purposes of 
this undertaking, is the "maintaining and 
improving of the working and living 
conditions of employes; it is especially 
applicable to mines, railroads, factories, 
stores and public institutions." Types 
of employes to be considered are: a. In- 
dustrial ; b. public ; c. soldiers and sailors 
and their dependents; d. field-mechanics 
in active service. 

A sub-committee on general welfare 
conditions for men and women workers 
will deal with industrial safety and with 
sanitation. Under the term industrial 
safety is included accident prevention, 
structural safety, fire protection, and 
protection against dust and fumes — all 
of these factors to be taken up in con- 
nection with transportation, mining, 
commercial, industrial and government 
establishments. Sanitation is an omni- 
bus term applied to sewerage, ventila- 
tion, and light for the shop, the indus- 
trial town and the public generally; to 
drinking water, wash-rooms, drying- 
rooms, lockers, hospital service and med- 
ical supervision, to seats, rest periods for 
women, rest rooms, laundries, women's 
elevators, lunch rooms, diagnostic clinics, 
industrial clinics, industrial diseases, 
fatigue, personal hygiene, domestic hy- 
giene, home nursing, food values, house- 
keeping efficiency and other matters re- 
lated to physical health. 

Other sub-committees on welfare 
work will take up vocational education, 
housing, recreation, public education in 
health matters, cooperation through fed- 
eral, state and municipal boards, and 
issuance of standard guides to employers 
as to welfare requirements under which 
munitions and supplies shall be made. 
A separate sub-committee will seek to 
correlate the work of various national 
organizations covering welfare activities. 

Publicity is to be given in a campaign 
of education on the labor problems in- 
volved in the war. 



RED CROSS CIVILIAN RELIEF 
ORGANIZATION 

AS a step toward preparing itself 
effectively to give relief to the de- 
pendent families of men joining the col- 
ors, the American Red Cross has created 
a new position within its department of 
civilian relief to be known as the director 
of family relief. Eugene T. Lies, who 
for five years has been general superin- 
tendent of the United Charities of Chi- 
cago, has been appointed to this position 
and has been granted a leave of absence 
to accept the call. He begins his work, 
with headquarters in Washington, this 
week. 

Meanwhile plans are being laid for a 
national campaign for funds with which 
to support this relief work. At a meet- 
ing held in Washington last Saturday, 
called by President Wilson and attended 
by a score of prominent men throughout 
the country, a committee, of which Cleve- 
land H. Dodge, of New York city, was 
elected chairman, was named to take 
charge of the campaign. Six vice-chair- 
men were named from as many cities, 
and these with a number of others con- 
stitute the executive committee. This 
committee, it was announced, would 
meet in New York city April 25 to per- 
fect plans. 

The campaign will probably end with 
a special Red Cross day next month, to 
be designated by presidential proclama- 
tion. Secretary Baker attended the meet- 
ing in Washington and told of the War 
Department's plans for assisting the 
dependent families of soldiers and sailors, 
but said that additional relief would be 
needed in many cases and it was here that 
the Red Cross must assist. It was 
pointed out at the conference that the 
finance committee probably would oper- 
ate in two ways, nationally, and through 
the local Red Cross chapters, of which 
there are now 460 and which are increas- 
ing at the rate of several a day. 

The new director of family relief will 
be the executive officer in the administra- 
tion of this assistance. Red Cross chap- 
ters will be required to use people trained 
in family rehabilitation in administering 
it. The country will be divided into dis- 
tricts and a supervising director will be 
appointed in each district. These direc- 



THE S U RV EY FOR APRIL 28 , 1917 



MS 



tors will report to the director of family 
relief in Washington. 

Another important new service being 
organized by the Red Cross is that of 
the Red Cross relief reserve. This is to 
consist of a large number of trained relief 
agents who will enroll and hold them- 
selves in readiness to respond to a call 
for their services. This reserve is some- 
what analogous to the enrollment of 
nurses by the Red Cross. Those who 
enroll will be used both in disaster and 
war relief and will be expected to re- 
spond, if it is practicable, whenever they 
are called upon to do so. The organiza- 
tion of this reserve is in the hands of J. 
W. Magruder, general secretary of the 
Baltimore Federated Charities, who has 
been loaned to the Red Cross. Mr. Ma- 
gruder is also organizing a number of 
new institutional members of the Red 
Cross. 

ARMY PAY BASED ON SIZE 
OF FAMILIES 

MEANTIME the San Francisco 
Associated Charities has come for- 
ward with a plan which its president, 
O. K. Cushing, is urging upon Secretary 
Lane, Senator Hiram Johnson and Con- 
gressman Julius Kahn of California, 
who is the ranking Republican member 
of the House Military Affairs Commit- 
tee and is in charge of the administration 
conscription bill. 

Mr. Cushing and Katharine Felton, 
secretary of the Associated Charities, 
propose that, if possible, no married men 
be enlisted; that the government grant 
an allowance of $30 a month to a man's 
dependent wife, father or mother with 
$10 additional for each dependent child; 
that the money be paid out directly by 
the government to the families without 
administration by any intermediate body 
or visiting by representatives of the gov- 
ernment or of private agencies or funds. 

This, they contend, is the only demo- 
cratic way for a democratic country to 
care for its soldiers; there is no merit 
in giving them part pay, part allowance 
and part charity — to expect them to 
serve in the army for less than a living 
wage any more than if they were serving 
as letter carriers. Nor can they find 
any excuse for visiting an enlisted man's 
family without invitation any more than 
if he were at work for a private em- 
ployer. To the objection that such a 
plan might interfere with the spirit and 
fact of patriotic sacrifice, they would 
reply that a man who gives or offers his 
life has made the supreme sacrifice — no 
man can do more — and he should not 
have the financial sacrifice of his fam- 
ily's standard of living added to it. 

To the general idea of an adequate 
government allowance based on the 
number of a soldier's dependents, Ernest 
P. Bicknell believes the Red Cross 
would give hearty assent. The San 
Francisco plan would leave to the Red 
Cross the care of exceptional families 



S no 

or mt 1 







&Z\%L-> >"}■: 




Hy Mayer's contribution to the health survey of the Chelsea Neighborhood 
Association in New York city 



in which, through sickness, accident, 
child-birth and the like, the allowance 
would not suffice, or for the -care of 
more distant dependent relatives whom 
the government might feel it could not 
support. 

The government is committed to .a 
policy of barring married men from the 
army, and Secretary Baker has author- 
ized the discharge of married guards- 
men, except men who have an income or 
a business that will support their fam- 
ilies. There will remain, however, 
some married men who are bound to 
enlist, the married regulars, some men 
with dependent fathers and mothers and 
the likelihood of many young married 
men being accepted after the first volun- 
teers and the youngest class under the 
proposed conscription, the percentage of 
unmarried men of course declining 
rapidly with every year after twenty 
and the number of dependents as rapid- 
ly increasing. Already some militia- 
men's families are being cared for by the 
Red Cross — twenty-five in New York 
county — and some army families by the 
regular army relief fund. 

Congressman Kahn is opposed to en- 
listing any married men ; English experi- 
ence shows, he says, that a young man 
with a promising family costs the nation 
more than a general. 

The San Francisco plan is interesting 
in its departure from the established 
federal pensions to follow the widows' 
pension practice of payment according 
to the number of dependents. And, 
from another point of view, it would be 
a striking innovation for the govern- 
ment, as an employer, to pay those who 
serve it according to their needs rather 
than the going rate of pay — a family 
wage distinguishing between the numer- 
ous Joneses and the childless Robinsons. 



TAMMANY LEGISLATING FOR 
THE NATION 

LAST week the Democratic caucus 
came within an ace of- adopting na- 
tional prohibition during the war as a 
party measure. It had, in fact, so acted 
by a vote of 87 to 60, when the Tam- 
many congressmen from New York 
threatened to bolt and the caucus voted 
to await action by the President. 

Opposition by these and by some other 
representatives of the wet states of the 
Northeast is believed to be all that stands 
in the way now of federal action. Back- 
fires in this section of the country are 
being lighted to overcome it. 

Through Elizabeth Tilton, chairman 
of its Poster Campaign Against Alcohol, 
the Boston Associated Charities has called 
upon chambers of commerce, churches, 
social workers and others in the wet 
states to wire or write their congressmen. 
In Boston, big business men have been 
enlisted in numbers to make up the dele- 
gation of war-prohibitionists whom Gov- 
ernor McCall has agreed to receive offi- 
cially. In New York, Mary K. Simkho- 
vitch, head worker of Greenwich House 
and president of the National Federa- 
tion of Settlements, has called a meeting 
for Friday night to line up the settle- 
ments. The Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America has sent 
the President an urgent message, signed 
by Gov. Carl E. Milliken, of Maine, 
the Rev. Frank Mason North and the 
Rev. Charles S. Macfarland, in behalf 
of the 18,000,000 church members in its 
constituency. Governor Capper, of Kan- 
sas, reports that only two governors have 
refused to join him in his plea to Con- 
gress to shut down the breweries and dis- 
tilleries during the war — Lowden, of Il- 
linois, and Ferguson, of Texas. Colonel 
Roosevelt has endorsed the move. 



96 



THE S U RV EY FOR APRIL 28 , 19 17 



At Washington, the members from dry 
states are said to be ready for a deter- 
mined drive on alcohol as soon as the 
more urgent war legislation is enacted. 
The Council of National Defense is re- 
ported to be favorably disposed. 

THE WORLD AND ITS FOOD 
SUPPLY 

ACCORDING to Mr. Hoover, the 
total stock of food available in the 
allied countries is not sufficient to last 
until September if America continues its 
present rate of production and consump- 
tion. Hence the most effective partici- 
pation of this country in the war is to 
see that as large a surplus of food as 
possible becomes available for export. 

In the matter of added cultivation, 
the efforts noted in last week's Survey 
have become more crystallized. Secre- 
tary of Agriculture Houston on April 
20 informed the Senate that enlargement 
and cooperation of the demonstration 
forces of the government and the states 
and of the experts in home economics was 
being worked out. These merely aid, of 
course, the measures already undertaken 
by the great farming organizations to 
secure maximum yields. In the South, 
the principal result of this campaign, 
which emphasized a steady educational 
effort dating back over a quarter of a 
century, has been that a largely increased 
number of farmers are abandoning the 
one-crop system. 

The labor shortage is still everywhere 
the crux of the problem. So far no mo- 
bilization of farm labor on a national 
scale has matured, though the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture and the Depart- 
ment of Labor are cooperating to bring 
it about. It has become apparent that 
the question is not one merely of trans- 
ference or of preventing farm laborers 
from enlisting. New forces must be 
brought into the field, if this year's pro- 
duction is to be of normal size, not to 
speak of additions to the cultivated area. 
The latter is strongly advocated by Sec- 
retary of the Interior Lane, who urges 
the adoption by Congress of a "bill to 
stimulate the production of food upon 
private and public lands within reclama- 
tion projects." There are over 700,000 
acres of such land upon which, the de- 
partment claims, water may be placed 
this season. 

Since the chief reason for the idle- 
ness of these tracts is shortage of labor, 
the bill provides for the creation of a 
voluntary War Maintenance Corps of 
farmers moving from field to field with 
as many gang-plows, harrows and seed- 
ers as can be bought or borrowed. "In 
this way, with adequate machinery and 
competent farmers, one man can do the 
work of twenty or more in a day." 

As to an increase in the efficiency of 
farmers and farm laborers, there are re- 
ports from many states that the services 
rendered by state departments of agri- 



culture, experiment stations, agricultural 
colleges and county agents are much 
more appreciated now than is usually 
the case. Patriotism is serving as cure 
for conservatism. In South Carolina, 
the merchants have been enlisted by a 
Commission for Civic Preparedness for 
War to sell seed at reasonable prices, 
perhaps at cost. A special committee 
of Negroes has been appointed by the 
governor. 

Additional adult labor, in spite of the 
many appeals made, does not seem to be 
forthcoming to any extent for this plant- 
ing season. In the meantime, the organ- 
ization of child labor is proceeding rapid- 
ly. The National Child Labor Com- 
mittee's plan for safeguarding children 
is given on page 86 of this issue. 

How to secure for the farmers an 
adequate return and at the same time 
prevent excessive prices is a problem so 
closely bound up with that of produc- 
tion that the two can hardly be dis- 
cussed separately. Gov. Lynn J. Fra- 
zier of North Dakota, recently elected 
on a farmers' vote by the Non-Partisan 
League of that state, is strongly of opin- 
ion, speaking for the farmers, that gov- 
ernment regulation of both farmers' 
prices and retail selling prices is a nec- 
essary precaution against speculation and 
the coining of fortunes out of the coun- 
try's need by middlemen. George W. 
Perkins, chairman of the Mayor's Food 
Supply Committee, New York city, 
starting at the other end from a study 
of the consumer's interests, has arrived 
at much the same conclusion. 

Already an investigation made by 
Health Commissioner Robertson, in 
Chicago, shows that speculators in that 
city are cramming warehouses in an ef- 
fort to corner certain foodstuffs. The 
practice of the large dealers had an im- 
mediate effect upon consumers, who 
started to lay in such large stores that 




BACK FROM SIBERIA 

Drawn by Boardman Robinson for 
the campaign of the Friends of Rus- 
sian Freedom, to raise a large fund 
for the relief of political exiles re- 
turning from Siberia 



retailers, for their own protection and 
that of their regular patrons, were 
obliged to impose quantity restrictions. 

EFFICIENCY AND THE LABOR 
LAWS 

DESPITE the experience of Eng- 
land, which indicates clearly that 
excessive overtime in munitions factories 
is not a war-time economy, the move- 
ment for breaking down the labor laws 
goes steadily on. Of four bills intro- 
duced at Albany last week as emergency 
war measures, three would remove labor 
restrictions. One suspends the railroad 
full-crew law for the duration of the 
war. Another provides that children of 
twelve years or older may leave public 
schools from April 1 to November 1 of 
each year during the war and for two 
months after its termination, to work 
en farms. The third restrains the In- 
dustrial Commission from enforcing the 
labor law if, after investigation, it shall 
appear that its enforcement would inter- 
fere with the effective prosecution of the 
war. 

Opponents of these bills make it clear 
that they stand for the effective prosecu- 
tion of the war — that is exactly their 
reason for opposing the bills. The labor 
of children, they declare, leads to na- 
tional weakness, instead of strength ; 
English experience shows that a break- 
down in labor standards means loss of 
efficiency. To be sure, the bill proposes 
that the laws shall be suspended only 
if it appears that their enforcement will 
interfere with the war, but since we 
know, they argue, that enforcement of 
the laws will not have that effect, why 
give the Industrial Commission power 
to suspend them? 

In this connection attention is called 
to a significant statement of Secretary 
Daniels made last week in response to 
an inquiry from Prof. Irving Fisher, 
president of the American Association 
for Labor Legislation: "It is of great 
national concern," said Secretary Dan- 
iels, "that at the outset of war this 
country shall maintain a scientific pro- 
gram of legal protection for workers in 
the interest both of maximum produc- 
tion and human conservation. We must 
not permit overzeal to lead to the weak- 
ening of our protective standards and 
hence to the breaking down of the health 
and productiveness of labor." 

On March 23 when the entrance of 
the United States into war appeared im- 
minent the executive council of the 
American Association for Labor Legis- 
lation issued a public announcement 
warning against the danger "that men 
may be sacrificed to materials in the 
erroneous belief that unrestricted en- 
deavor increases output," and outlining 
the essential minimum requirements "for 
the protection of those who serve in time 
of stress the industries of the nation." 
This was followed bv a conference at 



THE SURVEY J OR APRIL 2S, 1917 



<)7 




PATRIOTS DAY PARADE IN NEW YORK 

A few soldiers, some women and thousands of boys and girls, marched down Fifth avenue on the anniversary of Paul 
Revere's ride. Boys in the cadet corps of private and church schools carried guns. Boys from the public schools and 
Boy Scouts in seemingly endless files carried hoes and rakes under the banner, "Every Scout Will Feed a Soldier" 



Washington with the Secretary of the 
Navy, who declared that protective 
standards for workers who serve their 
country will be maintained at all costs. 

WAR-TIME GAINS OF THE 
SUFFRAGISTS 

PRESIDENTIAL suffrage was grant- 
ed to women last week by the leg- 
islatures of Michigan and Rhode Island, 
and Nebraska is expected to follow suit 
in a few days. Votes-for-women thus has 
not only spread in neighborly fashion 
from state to state — Illinois to Ohio to 
Indiana to Michigan — in the past four 
months but leaped overland to the At- 
lantic seaboard itself. 

It was as a war measure of democracy 
and justice that Gov. R. L. Beeckman 
urged suffrage on the willing Rhode 
Island legislature, and that Senator 
Walsh, of Montana, proposed it for all 
women in the United States at the hear- 
ing on the Susan B. Anthony resolution 
before a Senate committee on April 20. 
And Jeannette Rankin made her first ap- 
pearance before a committee of either 
house to plead against the state-by-state 
plan of enfranchisement of her sex. She 
analyzed the difficulties presented in the 
constitutions and the legislative proce- 
dure of the states, and declared that New 
Mexico, the home of Chairman Jones, 
of the Senate Committee on Woman 
Suffrage, has a constitution which is vir- 



tually beyond human possibility of 
amendment on any subject. Three- 
fourths of both houses of two successive 
legislatures, and three-fourths of the vote 
of every county in the state must ap- 
prove any change. 

Carrie Chapman Catt, speaking for 
the National American Woman Suffrage 
Association, asked the committee not 
merely to report favorably upon the reso- 
lution, but to prove their desire to make 
an immediate and determined fight in the 
Senate for the passage of the resolution 
at this time. She brought to the hearing 
the flags of 22 countries, including parts 
of the British empire, that have gone 
ahead of the United States in recogniz- 
ing the political rights of women, and in 
each case by act of the central govern- 
ment. Mexico and Russia were the latest 
to grant suffrage, and even Hawaii, she 
declared, had adopted a full suffrage law 
which had been sent to Washington for 
ratification by Congress, and which had 
been "buried in some forgotten pigeon- 
hole." Disfranchisement, she argued, 
cheapened women in their own ey s and 
in the eyes of the government, and hence 
lessened their efficiency in war time. She 
asserted that "today the women — the 
greatest force our nation possesses for 
the creation of public sentiment — are 
asked to mobilize their forces in aid of 
a government which has wronged them." 

Senators Shafroth, of Colorado; Ken- 



drick, of Wyoming; Thomas, of Kan- 
sas ; Thomas, of Colorado, and Smoot, of 
Utah, spoke for the resolution, Senator 
Thomas, formerly chairman of the com- 
mittee, taking occasion to express his dis- 
approval of the tactics of the National 
Woman's Party. 

In view of the agreement of party 
leaders that none but war measures shall 
be considered during the present special 
session, it is doubted whether the suf- 
frage resolution will come to a vote this 
year. 

OHIO ACTS FOR THE PUBLIC 
WELFARE 

OHIO'S eighty-second General As- 
sembly, now adjourned, has, by a 
forthcoming report of the Ohio Insti- 
tute for Public Efficiency, taken impor- 
tant steps toward dealing with "the 
underlying causes of poverty and crime 
and to promote the general welfare of 
the state." 

The commission to stud) health and 
old-age insurance, previously noted in 
the SURVEY, has an appropriation of 
$25,000 for use in the preparation of 
its report for the 1919 session. The 
governor is reported to be giving un- 
usual care to the selection of the seven 
members of the commission, who will be 
announced when the act becomes opera- 
te e in the summer. 

Eleven new cottages, to house 6 SO 



98 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 2 



1 9 1 7 



patients — an increase of 30 per cent — 
are to be added to the Institution for 
the Feebleminded, and 600 additional 
patients at the Hospital for Epileptics 
are provided for. Building and equip- 
ment were provided for the new Bureau 
of Juvenile Research, which, with the 
cooperation of mental clinics throughout 
the state, will make mental and physical 
examinations of all committed children 
and send them to the institution best 
fitted to meet their needs. The bureau 
was created two years ago, but has been 
almost inoperative for lack of funds. 

Amendments to the workmen's com- 
pensation act increase the maximum 
death benefits from $3,750 to $5,000, 
the minimum from $1,500 to $2,000 and 
extend the payment period from six 
years to eight. Another act gives the 
Industrial Commission authority in un- 
usual cases to pay from the state insur- 
ance fund more than the present $200 
for medical services and care. By in- 
creasing the per capita amount paid by 
the state to public schools for classes 
for the blind, more vocational training 
can be given and boards of education 
may board out blind children. An abate- 
ment and injunction law, similar to the 
pioneer Iowa statute, was passed. 

The fifty-four-hour law for women 
was amended to prohibit work more than 
nine hours a day (excepet Saturday, 
ten), six days a week or fifty hours a 
week. The act is broad in its appli- 
cation, covering not only factories but 
telephone and telegraph establishments, 
restaurants, mercantile establishments 
and the distribution and transmission of 
messages. But the canneries are com- 
pletely exempted from its provisions. 

Courts of domestic relations, now ex- 



isting in Hamilton and Montgomery 
counties, were authorized also for Lucas, 
Mahoning and Summit counties. A state 
board of education was created to enable 
the state to cooperate with the federal 
government under the vocational educa- 
tion act. A commission was appointed 
to establish an institution for crippled 
children. The release, parole and pro- 
bation of all state prisoners was placed 
in the hands of a new Board of Clem- 
ency. Inmates of children's homes were 
required, wherever possible, to be sent 
to the public schools; where not pos- 
sible, the institution school is placed 
under the control of the board of edu- 
cation. The granting of presidential 
suffrage to women has been previously 
noted. 

INDIANA'S NEW SOCIAL LEG- 
ISLATION 

STATEWIDE prohibition which, 
properly enforced, "will greatly les- 
sen the state's burden of vice and crime 
and degeneracy," is placed first in the 
summary of social legislation issued by 
the Indiana Board of State Charities. 
The so-called unfit dwelling-place law, 
applying even to the most solitary farm- 
house, supplements the law of 1913, 
which applied only to incorporated cities 
and completes the housing program of 
Albion Fellows Bacon, "the tireless 
champion of 'the homes of Indiana'." 
And Mrs. Bacon, be it noted, is enfran- 
chised, together with all the women of 
the state, except for the offices named in 
the state constitution. 

In the field of medical social service, 
the law providing for the registration of 
cases of tuberculosis is so amended as to 
be more readily enforced. Following the 



BABY WEEK 
EXHIBITS, 
MOVING 
MODELS AND 
LANTERN 
SLIDES FOR SALE 
OR TO RENT 

Our Big Baby Week Catalog sent for 2 two cent stamos 

IT IS FULL OF PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS 





How to arrange exhibits in halls 
or store windows. How to 
make Pin Maps. How to give 
illustrated lectures. How to 



arouse public interest. How 
to enlist school children. 
New ideas for inexpensive, 
interesting displays. 



426_Custom House 
Street 



'DUCATIONAlUa 
,XHHS0TIOINs!s 



Providence, R. I. 
U. S. A. 



filing of a petition, the people are given 
the right to vote on the establishment of 
county tuberculosis hospitals, supplement- 
ing the earlier law which permitted coun- 
ties to unite in district sanatoria, and 
cities of less than 10,000 population are 
given permission to assist private hos- 
pitals. 

The jurisdiction of the contributory 
delinquency law was made to apply to 
girls of 18 — hitherto 17 — and, under 
specified conditions, the records of juve-i 
nile courts and correctional institutions 
are to be obliterated in the cases of per- 
sons under 21 years of age. The state's 
policy is declared, by statute, to be to 
abolish contract labor, a combination of 
the "state use" and "state account" sys- 
tems of convict labor being established 
for the three institutions for men. In- 
stitution farming and gardening are to 
be extended. 

Dependents from other jurisdictions 
must, under the new deportation law, be 
reported to the Board of State Charities 
and returned to their places of legal set- 
tlement. Joint purchasing of institu- 
tional supplies is authorized "whenever 
such purchases shall be deemed advis- 
able," and an emergency maintenance 
fund of $350,000 is placed in the hands 
of the governor together with $300,000 
to buy land and extend the industrial ac- 
tivities of any institution. The insane hos- 
pitals get a quarter million dollars for 
extensions. Out of a total of some seven 
million dollars available for institutional 
purposes in the next two years, the state 
board points out that more than half is 
for provision for mental defectives. 

CLINIC FAMILIES AND BIRTH 
CONTROL 

THAT ignorance of methods of con- 
trolling birth is not only a great 
factor in producing large families but 
also causes many abortions, is indicated 
by a study just made public by Dr. 
Morris H. Kahn, chief of the clinic for 
heart diseases at Mt. Sinai Hospital, 
New York city. For several years, as 
physician to the tuberculosis clinics of 
the New York city Department of 
Health, he has been quietly giving in- 
formation about contraceptives to the 
poor women with whom he came into 
contact in the dispensaries of the depart- 
ment. In doing this, "I ignored," says 
Dr. Kahn, "section 1142 of our penal 
code." This section makes it a misde- 
meanor not only to sell or give a con- 
traceptive to another person but even 
to describe "such an article." 

While dispensing this information, 
Dr. Kahn gathered certain information 
about these women. Of 464 who came 
under his observation, 192 knew of no 
contraceptive methods whatever. The 
remaining 272 knew of one or more 
methods, more or less effectual. More 
than one-half of those who were ignor- 
ant — 104 — had a history of abortions, 



! 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 28 , 1 9 ' 7 



OQ 






with a total of 202, or an average of 
nearly two abortions each. Of the 272 
women who were acquainted with con- 
traceptives only 72, or about one-fourth, 
had had abortions. These had had 122, 
or an average of 1.7 each. 

"I doubt," says Dr. Kahn, "if any 
physician will prove himself selfish or 
ignorant enough to withhold any knowl- 
edge he may have on birth control from 
his patients." 

GROWING PAINS AND HOUS- 
ING REFORM 
BROOKLYN'S growing pains have 
caused a split in the ranks of hous- 
ing reformers. At a hearing at Albany, 
Lawrence Veiller announced that he had 
resigned as secretary of the Tenement 
House Committee of the Charity Or- 
ganization Society — the pioneer commit- 
tee — and declared in substance that it 
had become a reactionary body willing 
to please real estate owners at the ex- 
pense of tenement dwellers. 

The split came over the Lawson bill, 
amending the tenement house law to 
permit three-family use of old dwellings. 
Brooklyn is full of such buildings. No 
longer desirable for single families, in 
sections not yet ready for tenement 
buildings, they are becoming lodging 
houses, with the familiar social and 
moral evils which have been studied 
for years by South End House, Boston. 
And they are, in fact, used to a consid- 
erable degree by tenants who, sub-letting 
a floor, do much if not all of their cook- 
ing on the premises. One of the argu- 
ments urged in favor of the Lawson bill 
is that it would place the supervision of 
such houses in the Tenement House De- 
partment. 

Brooklyn as well as New York hous- 
ing committees have now approved the 
bill, and the New York committee has 
issued a statement through its chair- 
man, Paul D. Cravath, stating that 
while "living conditions in the converted 
three-story dwellings permitted by the 
amended Lawson bill will be by no 
means ideal," a majority of the com- 
mittee "has voted not to oppose the bill 
in its present form." 

"As pointed out in the committee's 
earlier statement, the chief objection to 
the Lawson bill in its original form was 
that it permitted the conversion of three- 
story private dwellings into three-family 
tenement houses provided with 'unsani- 
tary air-shafts totally inadequate in size 
to provide sufficient light for the toilets 
that are to open upon them' and which, 
serving several apartments, may easily 
become channels for the communication 
of disease. 

"This objection has been met by 
amendments which in effect provide, 
that in the case of such converted dwell- 
ings not more than forty-seven feet in 
depth (exclusive of bay windows and 
existing extensions) the following ar- 
rangement may be adopted in lieu of the 



usual inner court arrangement: a. The 
bathroom and toilet of the first story 
apartment to be lighted and ventilated 
from the outer air (usually from the 
rear) ; b. the bathroom and toilet of 
the top story apartment to be lighted 
and ventilated either by a window to 
the outer air or by a suitable skylight 
as now permitted by law; c. the inter- 
mediate (second story) apartment to be 
lighted and ventilated either by a win- 
dow to the outer air or by an air-shaft 
not less than three feet wide and having 
a horizontal area of at least fifteen 
square feet, which shall begin at the 
ceiling of the second story bathroom and 
extend through the top apartment to the 
roof and serve no other purpose and 
have no other openings. 

"A majority of the committee believe 
that such an air-shaft, serving the bath- 
room and toilet of but one apartment 
and extending through a single story, 
would not be seriously objection- 
able. . . . 

"Behind all these questions lies the 
radical question as to the wisdom of 
legislation intended to encourage the 
conversion of existing three-story and 
basement residences into three-family 
apartments. ... A majority of the 
committee believe that it is to the in- 
terest of the community that it be made 
economically possible to convert them 
into three-family tenement houses pro- 
vided with fire-escapes and other essen- 
tial safeguards for the protection of life 
and health and subject to inspection and 
regulation of the Tenement House De- 
partment. . . . 

"A minority of the committee, how- 
ever, while giving weight to these con- 
siderations, are, nevertheless, opposed to 
the introduction of the air-shaft, even 
if confined to shallow dwellings not 
more than forty-seven feet in depth and 
serving only a single bathroom and 
toilet ; and their opposition is due not 
only to the inherent objections to the 
air-shaft, but to their fear that its in- 
troduction into three-family dwellings, 
however safeguarded, may lead to pres- 
sure for legislation authorizing its use 
for deeper dwellings and to serve more 
than one apartment, which all the mem- 
bers of the committee would deem ob- 
jectionable." 

DR. SACHS' NAME OFFICIAL- 
LY CLEARED 

THE memory of Dr. Theodore B. 
Sachs and his administration of the 
Chicago Municipal Tuberculosis Sana- 
torium have been officially cleared in a 
report just made by the Finance Com- 
mittee of the Chicago City Council. 
Friends of Dr. Sachs in every rank of 
social work and medicine have, of course, 
realized that the charges were part and 
parcel of the spoils of politics which took 
charge of the sanatorium at the opening 
of Mayor Thompson's administration, 
forced Dr. Sachs' retirement and led to 



New York 

Charities Directory 

1917 

This encyclopedia of social work 
in New York describes the 
activities of 1,500 churches 
and 1 ,300 social agencies, in- 
cluding national organizations. 
The date of incorporation, 
the purpose, the scope, the 
personnel, and the work of 
most of these agencies are 
stated. 

The Directory contains, also, a name 
index of 5,400 persons engaged in 
social and religious activities and 
a topical index in which the 
names of the charities in New 
York are listed in groups, ac- 
cording to the nature of their work. 



Cloth: 8vo; 500 pp. Price. $1.00 postpaid. Charity 
Organization Society. 105 East Twenty-second Street, 
New York City. A few copies of the edition of 
1916 remain. They may be had for 50c. each. 



HEADWORKER — HOSPITAL 
SOCIAL SERVICE DE- 
PARTMENT 

Competent headworker wanted 
for social service department in a 
large New York hospital; organi- 
zation includes twelve paid work- 
ers, undergraduate pupil nurses, 
district physicians, and volunteer 
Auxiliary. Graduate nurse with 
executive training preferred. 
Knowledge of German desirable, 
but not indispensable. Apply to 
Dr. S. S. Goldwater, 1 East 100th 
Street, New York City. 



The Minimum Cost of Living 

WINIFRED S. GIBBS 
Lecturer on Houieho'd Economist. 7>or»er» College. 
Columbia Vnirereitv 
■ abbs' book Is a study of 100 family budgets. 
I from the records of her ten years' work 
In New York city with the Association for Im- 
proving the Condition of the Poor. It shows how 
In the family Income were made the basis 
of instruction In foods, diet, sewing, etc.. and 
ics the minimum on which a family may live, 
are included, showing the "budget book" 
used by the Association. "No corrective is more 
eiTn-tive than a record of an unwise expenditure." 
■ays Director Burrltt In his Introduction. 
Under terms of contract with the publishers, the 
\ I C. P. has a number of copies for sale t» 
social workers at the special price of fifty cents. 
Address orders to 

W II. Mm-thews. A. I. C P.. 
105 East i2nd Street. New York City. 



100 



THE SU RV EY FOR APRIL 2 



1 9 1 7 



THE NEW YORK SCHOOL OF PHILANTHROPY 

EDWARD T. DEVINE, Director 

A two-year course of training for social and civic work. 
Spring entrance examination: May 5. 

Application blanks and catalogue with information 
about fellowships available to college graduates will be 
sent on request. 

105 East 22d Street, New York. 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL FOR SOCIAL SERVICE 

Eighth year begins September 1st, 1917 

Courses in Social Case Work, Industrial Problems, Public Hygiene, Social Statistics, Medical 
Social Service, Probation, etc. Well-organized practice work under careful supervision. For 
1917-1918 Bulletin, address REGISTRAR, 425 South 15th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates are: Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travel, Real Estate, 
twenty cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various 
headings "Situations Wanted," ."Help Wanted," 
etc., five cents each word or initial, including 
the address, for each insertion. Address 
Advertising Department, The Survey, 112 East 
19 St., New York City. 



SOCIAL WORKERS' EMPLOYMENT 
EXCHANGE: The Department for Social 
Workers of the Intercollegiate Bureau of 
Occupations registers men and women for 
positions in social and civic work, the 
qualifications for registration being a de- 
gree from an accredited college, a year's 
course in a professional school training for 
social or civic work, or experience which 
has given at least equivalent preparation. 
Needs of organizations seeking workers 
are given careful and prompt attention. 
EMELYN PECK, Manager, 130 East 22d 
St., New York City. 

SITUATIONS WANTED 

MAN AND WIFE, thoroughly versed in 
modern institution methods, seek appoint- 
ment as Superintendent and Matron of 
Orphanage located in country. Address 
2493 Survey. 

6 2 ai\d NO WORK 

Many years in charge of large stables; once hotel room 
clerk; can keep single entry books; active for my 
years but can't do prolonged heavy physical work. 
Wife excellent plain cook. Urgently desire posi- 
tion for one or both of us; caretakers, watchman, 
timekeeper; in hotel, in stable, in garage; any- 
thing to keep us from the poorhouse. Good habits 
and references. 

Chas. T. Gilmore, care Morrison, 
1205 Bergen St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

HELP WANTED 

WANTED : Supervisor for boys from 9 
to 15 years in an institution. Must have 
had experience. Apply Industrial School 
Association, 141 South Third Street. 
Brooklyn. 



THE POSITION OF GIRLS' WORKER 
in a large, well-equipped social settlement 
will be open June 15th. Must be mature 
and have had some experience in social 
work. Jewess preferred. Give full in- 
formation in your application as to experi- 
ence, salary expected, references, etc. Ad- 
dress 2496 Survey. 

A WOMAN COLLEGE GRADUATE 
for important social work in placing and 
supervising Jewish orphan children in pri- 
vate families. Salary $1,200 per annum. 
Must have superior personality and some 
experience in social work. Communicate 
in writing with Dr. L. B. Bernstein, Pleas- 
antville, N. Y. 

WANTED — Supervisor, Home for Crip- 
pled Children. Address Connecticut Chil- 
dren's Aid Society, Brown Thomson Bldg., 
Hartford, Conn. 

WANTED — Jewish workers for case 
work and direction of Settlement. Ad- 
dress 2502 Survey. 



THE WORD OF THE TRUTH 

A Theological Education for One Dollar 

A complete Harmony and Exposition of the Whole 

Gospel, in simple words and order. 

Everyone May Understand the Word of God. 

Description sent on request; or the Book, tor $1. 

The Truth Publishing Foundation, Eufaula, Ala. 



The Growth of a Creed 

An anti-theistic pamphlet by 
ELIZABETH PATTEN, ENGLEWOOD, COLO. 

Price, prepaid, 10c 



The SURVEY will publish next week 
the third article in the series on The 
Task of Civilian Relief Work. Readers 
are urged to call these articles to the 
attention of volunteer social workers and 
Red Cross members. 



his suicide as a protest against the rape 
of the institution by contractors and po- 
litical doctors [the Survey, April 8, 
1916]. But they welcomed the official 
report. That, together with other im- 
provements in the Chicago situation, 
have made it possible to drop the work 
of the Committee of One Hundred citi- 
zens who have watched over the sana- 
torium and worked to clear Dr. Sachs' 
name. 

The committee's secretary, Frank E. 
Wing, will go shortly to Rochester as 
secretary of the United Charities. Fol- 
lowing his work on the Pittsburgh Sur- 
vey and as a science teacher, Mr. Wing 
went to Chicago in 1908, serving two 
years as superintendent of the Tubercu- 
losis Institute. He followed Dr. Sachs, 
then president of the institute, into the 
city service and was business manager of 
the sanatorium during its building and 
until he, too, was caught by the poli- 
ticians and tricked out of his place 
through a juggling with the civil service 



MINERS' WAGES FOLLOWING 
FOOD UPWARD 

SOMETHING new in the industrial 
history of America — a 20 per cent 
increase in wages in spite of a wage con- 
tract that has a year still to run and as 
the result of a friendly conference in- 
stead of a strike — was brought about last 
week by representatives of the operators 
and the 225,000 miners in the bituminous 
coal fields of Indiana, Ohio, Illinois and 
western Pennsylvania. Immediately after, 
arrangements were made for a similar 
meeting in the anthracite field where the 
agreement has two years to run. 

These conferences have grown out of 
the great increase in the cost of living. 
It was announced by the union that the 
miners were making no threats and that 
there would be no strike if the operators 
refused to grant the increases. 

At the close of the conference, John 
P. White, president of the United Mine 
Workers, contrasted these orderly nego- 
tiations with the turmoil in England soon 
after the outbreak of war. There, it will 
be remembered, the workers were caught 
between the rising prices on one hand 
and the denial of the right to strike on 
the other. At the same time it was 
known that colossal profits were being 
made by coal operators, and consequently 
in the summer of 1915 there was a strike 
of 200,000 Welsh coal miners, despite 
the law which established compulsory ar- 
bitration and forbade all strikes. To re- 
store peace in a vital industry, the gov- 
ernment overlooked the infraction of the 
law and brought pressure on the employ- 
ers to grant the miners' demands. The 
action just taken has greatly improved 
the relations between the operators and 
the miners union, and will avert, it is 
believed, all danger of a stoppage of 
work during the war. 





semv€s/ 



Oil Pointing by Itldor Kallmann 




FRIDAY EVENING ON THE "EAST BROADWAY OF A TYPICAL RUSSIAN GHETTO ;• 

Americanizing^the Jewish Immigrant 

By Israel Friedlaender 

Tuberculosis in France 

J3y Hermann M. Biggs, M. D. 

The Nature and Uses of Social Evidence 

By Mary E. Richmond 



Price 25 Cents 



May 5, 1917 



CONTENTS for MAY 5, 1917 The GIST of IT 



Volume XXXVIII, No. 5 
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

The Americanization of the Jewish Immigrant - 

ISRAEL FRIEDLAENDER 103 

The Nature and Uses of Social Evidence - - - - - 

MARY E. RICHMOND 108 

A Settlement War Program - -. - 

MARY K. SIMKHOVITCH 111 

Tuberculosis in France ----- 

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M. D. 112 

Foreign Students in America - 

CHARLES D. HURREY 114 

Nature's Dwarfs ""*'". "" 

ALBERT A. HANSEN 116 

The Task of Civilian War Relief. Ill - - - 117 

The Challenge, a Poem ... - - - 

PAUL LYMAN BENJAMIN 119 

COMMON WELFARE 

Conscription Adopted by Congress --------- 120 

Small Nations Leagued Together -120 

The New Committee on War Prohibition - - - - - - 121 

Special Hospitals for War Shock ---121 

Watchmen on the Walls of Labor - - 122 

"Hysterical Demands for Economy" --------- 123 

Tuberculosis at Home and Abroad --,.-• - 123 

Smallpox Epidemic from a Single Imported Case - - 124 

Mooney's Part in Foreign Relations - - 124 

Daylight Saving Before Congress - 125 

Family Limitation Centers in Chicago - - - - 126 

Social Activities of the City of Moscow - -129 

A Ten-Year Program for the Insane - - - - - 130 

For Nationalizing the Neighborhood - - -131 

The Way Toward a Peace That Shall Last ----- - 132 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers 

ROBERT W. de FOREST. President 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG. Secretary FRANK TUCKER, Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

112 East 19 street, New York 2559 Michigan ave., Chicago 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, Chairman 



JANE AD DAMS. Chicago. 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL, Washington. 

RICHARD C. CABOT, Boston. 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS, St. Louis. 

EDWARD T. DEVINE, New York. 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, Boston. 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo. 

SAMUEL S. FELS, Philadelphia. 

LEE K. FRANKEL, New York. 

TOHN M. GLENN, New York. 

C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 

WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York. 

WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego. 



MORRIS KNOWLES, Pittsburgh. 
ALBERT D. LASKER, Chicago. 
IOSEPH LEE, Boston. 
IULIAN W. MACK, Chicago. 
V. EVER1T MACY, New York. 
CHARLES D. NORTON, New York. 
SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia. 
JULIUS ROSENWALD, Chicago. 
NATHAN A. SMYTH, New York. 
GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago. 
FRANK TUCKER, New York. 
ELIOT WADSWORTH, Washington. 
LILLIAN D. WALD, New York. 



ALFRED T. WHITE; Brooklyn. 

Survey Associates, Inc., is an adventure in cooperative journalism, incorporated under the laws of the 
state of New York, November, 1912, as a membership organization without shares or stockholders. 
Membership is open to readers who become contributors of $10 or more a year. It is this widespread, 
convinced backing and personal interest which has made The Survey a living thing. 
The Survey is a weekly journal of constructive philanthropy, founded in the 90's by the Charity Organi- 
zation Society of the City of New York. The first weekly issue of each month appears as an enlarged 
magazine number. 

From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an educational 
enterprise, to be employed and developed beyond the limits of advertising and commercial receipts. 

PRICE 

Single copies of this issue, 25 cents. Cooperating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular subscriptions 
weekly edition $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.50 extra. Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscription once- 
a-month edition $2 a year. Foreign postage 60 cents extra. Canadian 35 cents. Changes of address 
should be mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing practice, when payment 
is by check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1917, by Survey Associates, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act 
of March 3, 1879. 



MARKET GARDENERS might give us 
pointers on Americanizing immigrants. In 
transplanting grown plants, or even seed- 
lings, they keep as much as possible of the 
old soil, and they crowd down the new soil 
so that the roots shall have full contact with 
the nourishing earth. For the first day they 
protect the leaves from withering sun and 
slashing wind. Now with immigrants, Dr. 
Friedlaender tells us, the trouble is lack of 
equilibrium; with transplanting to the New 
World we must bring as much as we can of 
the old culture and of the protective social 
customs and relationships. Page 103. 



CONSCRIPTION is adopted as the policy of 
the United States in raising an army of one 
million men in addition to the regulars and 
the militiamen. Only the conflicting details 
in House and Senate bills remain to be 
worked out. Army pay is doubled. Mar- 
ried men, those necessary in industry, includ- 
ing agriculture, and conscientious objectors 
who are church members, are exempt. Page 
120. 



SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS have agreed on 
five major planks in a war platform. Page 
111. 



SOCIAL WORK, for its own uses and for 
all those who have to make decisions about 
men and women, is working out a technique 
in the seeking and use of evidence. It is not 
bound down by scientific fact, as is medicine, 
nor by rigid rules and antipathy to credible 
hearsay, as is law. A discussion of it by the 
dean of case workers. Page 108. 



ORGANIZING its forces in every state, the 
Consumers' League proposes to watch over 
and preserve the women and children called 
on for war sacrifices. Page 122. 



WAR DISEASES of the old sort, such as 
typhoid and measles, sent a soldier to the 
hospital, where he either got well or died. 
But the war diseases of this war are social 
diseases — tuberculosis, syphilis, alcoholism — 
which cripple the man and follow him back 
into his family and his community. Dr. 
Biggs, home from France, reports on the sick- 
ening toll of tuberculosis among an indif- 
ferent people when war has run up an al- 
ready high death rate. Page 112. A new 
committee has been organized to crystallize 
into action the widespread desire for war 
prohibition. Page 121. 



MEN of tomorrow — the leaders in every part 
of the world — are students today in Ameri- 
can colleges. A committee at work to take 
them into our homes and factories and social 
agencies as a hospitable measure of good 
will. Page 114. 



AN arbor vitae tree fifty years old but scarce 
six inches tall gives a botanist a text for a 
sermon on the children of the slums. Page 
116. 



TRUE acquaintanceship based on many in- 
terviews and the following up of every clue 
are at the basis of relief work for soldiers' 
families as they are of all good case work. 
Page 117. 



REPRESENTATIVES of the small nations 
have joined forces to have their say at the 
peace conference after the war. Page 120. 

IT took a cable from Petrograd to wake up 
this country about "a Socialist named 
Mooney" who was about to be hung on ques- 
tionable evidence. Page 124. 



HALF oriental and but just freed from au- 
tocratic misrule, the city of Moscow is un- 
dertaking a wide range of municipal social 
activities. Page 129. 



-*"*** 








The Americanization of the Jewish 

Immigrant" 



By Israel Friedlaender 



CHAIR OF BIBLICAL LITERATURE, THE JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA, NEW YORK. 



THE Jewish immigration into the United States has 
for more than a generation proceeded in the main 
from the lands of eastern Europe, which in the 
course of the great world war have served as the 
battle-ground between Teuton and Slav. Competent ob- 
servers of European conditions are strongly of the opinion 
that Jewish immigration from the same territories will at 
the close of the war assume 
even larger proportions than 
prior to it. Crippled by the 
terrible ravages of war and 
famine, of both of which they 
have borne more than their 
fair share, caught, as in a vise, 
between the conflicting aspira- 
tions of Russia, Germany and 
Poland, the Jews of eastern 
Europe will, in the judgment 
of these observers, turn their 
hopes to these shores where 
they may be assured of a free 
human existence, as part of the 
American commonwealth. 

Be this as it may, at this 
serious hour in the history of 
our country, when America is 
engaged in the process of self- 
determination and is taking 
stock of the human and mate- 
rial resources at its disposal, 
the question of the adaptation 
of the immigrant population 
to the American environment 
calls for calm and careful con- 
sideration. And the Ameri- 



Oil Painting by Max Fabian 




1 This article was written before the 
."Russian revolution. — The Author. 



EMIGRANTS 



canization of the Jewish immigrant forms by no means the 
least important phase of this great problem. 

In discussing the question of the Jewish immigrant in rela- 
tion to the American environment, I propose to dissociate it 
entirely from the general question of Judaism, about which 
there exists an infinite variety of opinion and emotion no less 
among the Jews than among the non-Jews. Laying aside 

all personal convictions and as- 
sociations on the subject of 
Judaism, I shall endeavor to 
view the problem before us 
from a position which is far 
removed from the battlefield 
of controversy : from the point 
of view of the humanitarian 
who is interested in the 
Jews, not on account of his 
racial or religious kinship with 
them, but as a section of hu- 
manity to which he is bound 
by no other tie except that of 
a common mankind. 

It would lead me too far 
afield to enter into a discus- 
sion of the immigrant problem 
at large. It will suffice for 
our purpose if we start from 
the premise which will be 
granted by all: that the solu- 
tion of the immigrant prob- 
lem consists in making the im- 
migrant cease to be an immi- 
grant, i. e., in common par- 
lance, in making the immi- 
grant, who is a stranger in our 
gates, feel as if he were at 
home, in transforming him 



103 



104 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1 9 j 7 



into a happy and useful member of the new environment. 
As applied to the immigrant problem in this country, it means 
the Americanization of the immigrant, in the best and loftiest 
connotation of this term. 

The solution of this problem is a twofold one: on the one 
hand, it is of an external nature. We must endeavor to ac- 
quaint the immigrant with the conditions of the new land and 
to enable him to fight successfully in the struggle for exist- 
ence, so that he may obtain and assume his rightful share in 
the benefits and responsibilities of the country which he has 
chosen for his abode. 

Equilibrium Lost by Transplanting 

The second solution of the problem is of an internal, or 
spiritual, character. Perhaps it may best be formulated as the 
attempt to restore the equilibrium of the immigrant. Equi- 
librium has been defined as "a condition of equal balance be- 
tween opposite or counteracting forces." In the life of the 
body, the most important sense, without which animal life is 
practically impossible, is the sense of equilibrium, that sense, 
as has well been said, "by which we have a feeling of security 
in standing, walking, and, indeed, in all the movements by 
which the body is carried through space." In spiritual life 
the equilibrium of man, with the possible exception of a few 
geniuses, is the product of the social forces of his environment. 
As long as man remains within his natural surroundings, he 
is endowed with that sense of equilibrium — whether we call 
it habit, tradition or association — which gives him the feeling 
of security in all functions of life. For the environment dic- 
tates to him his form of speech, shapes his thoughts, colors his 
sentiments, determines his manners and customs. In the case 
of the immigrant, i. e., of the man who has been detached 
from his accustomed environment, this equilibrium is disturbed. 
He is deprived of the constant, though unconscious, guidance 
of his social group, and the result is the same as in the life 
of the body when the sense of equilibrium is impaired. He 
loses his feeling of security; he reels; he is swayed to and 
fro by the slightest touch of the new environment ; he becomes 
unnatural and unhappy. Unless he be a man of exceptional 
ability, the most valuable in him, his personality, the outcome 
of long years of breeding and training, is destroyed, and he is 
in danger of becoming a moral wreck, a menace to himself 
and a menace to his neighbors. 

The solution of the problem, therefore, must consist in the 
restoration of his equilibrium, in the recreation of a social en- 
vironment for him which, amidst the puzzling conditions of 
the new land, would offer him that spiritual anchorage with 
which his former environment had provided him ; in making 
him again the unit of a social group, the mandates of which he 
could obey, and in enabling him to regain the sense of se- 
curity which had formerly guided him in all the functions 
of life. 

The Jewish immigrant problem in its internal or spiritual 
aspect — its external phase, which is a matter of common agree- 
ment, may well be left out of consideration — is essentially the 
same, except that it is greatly aggravated and complicated by 
the peculiar conditions of the environment from which the 
Jewish immigrant comes. For it is obvious that the greater 
the divergence between the old and the new environment of 
the immigrant, the greater must be the disturbance of his 
equilibrium. The English-speaking immigrant, or the Scan- 
dinavian, and the German, whose former environment is 
culturally similar to our own, find it comparatively easy to 
adapt themselves to the new conditions of this country. The 
Italian, the Slav, the Syrian find this adaptation increasingly 
difficult. 



Now it may be asserted, without fear of contradiction, that 
in no case is the contrast between the old and the new wider 
and deeper than in the case of the immigrant Jew. For the 
Jewish immigrants who in their overwhelming majority hail 
from the lands of ancient Poland, from western Russia, 
Galicia and partly from Roumania, come not only from 
countries whose general civilizations are vastly different from 
that of our own land ; but they come, in addition, from a 
purely Jewish environment, which in itself is radically differ- 
ent from the non- Jewish environment of the country in the 
midst of which it is situated. In most of the towns from 
which the Jewish immigrant hails the Jews form the bulk of 
the population and live entirely apart from the non-Jews. 
There are localities — some of them the writer remembers from 
his early associations — in which the only non-Jewish resident 
is the Shabbes goy (the gentile who assists Jews in their do- 
mestic arrangements on the Sabbath day) and in which the 
approach of the Sabbath is still heralded on the market place 
by the Jewish beadle. 

It is absolutely essential for us to realize the full character 
of this Jewish Ghetto environment if we may ever hope to 
solve or even to mitigate the difficulties confronting the Jew- 
ish immigrant. It is generally known and taken for granted 
that the sum and substance of Jewish life in the former en- 
vironment of the immigrant Jew is the Jewish religion. This 
to a large extent is correct, but it is necessary to bear in 
mind that religion, as conceived by Judaism and as carried to 
its extreme consequences in the development of Polish Judaism, 
is infinitely more than what is associated with it in the modern 
world. Religion, from this point of view, is co-extensive with 
that which, in modern parlance, goes by the name of social 
and cultural life. Judaism, in this formulation, regulates 
practically all the functions of life, even those which the 
Christian would never think of associating with religion, such 
as food and drink, as well as the manners and customs of 
every-day life. As a result of this development, the immigrant 
Jew possesses his own language, or rather languages. For, 
while he uses Yiddish as a vernacular, he employs Hebrew not 
merely as the language of prayer and study but also, to a very 
considerable extent, as a medium of literature and correspond- 
Both languages (Yiddish to a lesser degree than He- 



ence. 



brew) are regarded by him as part of his religious tradition. 
He wears in his homeland his own form of dress which is no 
less hallowed by religious associations. 

Religion Dominating Social Life 

In A word, religious tradition dominates the entire range 
of his social life, which is thus, except for the external points 
of intersection with the economic and political factors of the 
outside world, wholly and exclusively Jewish. 

This all-embracing influence of the Jewish religion is even 
more marked in the domain of his cultural activities. For, 
in a country in which compulsory education is unknown and 
in which the striving of the Jew for general culture is cruelly 
hampered, Jewish education is limited, almost by force, to 
the study of Judaism, as represented by the Bible and, still 
more so, by the Talmud and post-Talmudic literature. The 
extraordinary love of learning which, inculcated by Jewish 
religious tradition, is characteristic of eastern European Jews 
to a truly astonishing degree, and the one-sided limitation of 
these intellectual endeavors to the literary sources of Judaism 
have resulted in the evolution of a peculiar Jewish mentality 
and, if I may use the expression, of a peculiar Jewish senti- 
mentality, which marks off this type of Jew from his Christian 
fellow-citizens as well as from his coreligionists in other lands. 

True, in recent times a large number of Jews in eastern 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



105 

Oil Pawting 6ji I. PUtchomkl 




YOM KIPPUR [DAY OF ATONEMENT] 



Europe have drifted away from the religious moorings of 
Judaism and have become indifferent and even hostile to re- 
ligion. But it would be a serious mistake to regard this es- 
trangement from the Jewish religion in the light of the west- 
ern European or American tendency of Jewish assimilation. 
These radicals or free-thinkers are, in most cases, just as keenly 
interested in the preservation of Jewish distinctiveness as are 
the old-fashioned orthodox Jews, except that what the latter 
regard as a mandate of the Jewish religion, the former justify 
by the authority of Jewish nationalism. 

This Jewish isolation which, as has been pointed out 
above, covers the whole domain of life, has undoubtedly bred 
grave defects which considerably mar the complexion of the 
immigrant Jew, such as pettiness, suspiciousness, hypersensi- 
tiveness and hyper-cleverness, excessive individualism, lack 
of organizing ability, disregard of externalities, often result- 
ing in uncouthness and uncleanliness, and other shortcomings 
of this kind. But it has at the same time been productive of 
positive characteristics, which to the outsider are perhaps less 
palpable, because, unlike the others, they do not lie on the 
surface, yet are of immense intrinsic value and far more than 
make up for his defects: his extraordinary mental vigor, his 
unconquerable thirst for knowledge, his boundless respect for 
learning, his passionate love of liberty, his profound sense of 
justice, his power to endure suffering, his frugality, his gen- 
uine warm-heartedness, and a variety of other virtues which 
are best evidenced by the fact that his enemies openly justify 
their cruelty by his enormous superiority over the native popu- 
lation, a superiority which he has been able to maintain in the 
face of inconceivable misery and persecution. 

It may now be realized in what a terrible conflict the Jew- 



ish immigrant must find himself when, having left his Ghetto 
environment, he suddenly emerges on the shores of the new 
world. Not only are the external conditions of life in this 
country diametrically different from those he had left behind 
— the inner forces of life, the social and cultural influences, 
are no less conflicting. For the ideals which underlay the 
whole social stratification in his old environment were pri- 
marily of a Jewish character: Jewish learning and Jewish 
piety, i. c, knowledge of the Jewish religion and the ob- 
servance of its practices. These qualifications, far more than 
wealth, determined the position of the Jew in his social group, 
and provided the incentive for his rise and progress. 

Mangled Souls in Our Ghettoes 

On arriving in this country, the immigrant discovers that 
they are not only valueless, but that they are a hindrance and 
sometimes a nuisance in the eyes of his fellow-men. We are 
horrified by the sight of physical cripples. But were it given 
to us, by some kind of spiritual X-rays, to perceive the frac- 
tures in the souls of men, we would be a thousand times more 
horrified by the sight of the untold numbers of mangled human 
souls which are writhing in inexpressible suffering in the midst 
of our Jewish immigrant population. No one except he who 
has an intimate knowledge of the conditions of old-fashioned 
Jewish life in the Ghetto can adequately appreciate the ex- 
cruciating mental agony which the immigrant Jew must experi- 
ence when, for instance, for the first time in his life he is forced 
to violate the God-given command of abstaining from work 
on the Sabbath day, or to transgress any of the Jewish regula- 
tions concerning food which in his eyes are clothed with the 
authority of the Divine will. Nor can the outsider fully 



106 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



realize the inexpressibly tragic gap which opens up in the soul 
of the immigrant when he discovers that what he has held 
sacred and dear in the past is valueless, and less than value- 
less, in the eyes of his new neighbors. The result of this con- 
flict is in innumerable cases a complete loss of equilibrium and 
the destruction of that feeling of moral and mental security 
without which man is degraded into a beast, and life becomes 
a meaningless and brutal discharge of mere physical functions. 

The Social Life Left Behind 

This change of environment has also another aspect which 
is more specific but which deserves mention in this connection 
because it is a prominent feature of the activities of the Amer- 
icanizing agencies in this country. I refer to the social life of 
the immigrant in the narrower sense of that term. In the. 
Ghetto, with all its economic misery, ample provision was 
made for the recreational phase of life. Social life, in the 
sense of sociability, strange though it may sound, was perhaps 
nowhere so fully developed as in the Ghetto. The Beth 
Hamidrash, "the house of study," and, in the provinces in 
which the sect of the Hassidim (pietists) prevail, the Klaus 
or "meeting house" formed the social center of the community 
where the Jews met day in and day out not only for mental 
recreation by studying jointly the sources of Judaism, but also 
for social entertainment in the form of friendly chats and, very 
frequently, of common meals, generally accompanied by sing- 
ing and even dancing. The Jews of the Ghetto, in very truth, 
lived up to the biblical adage that man doth not live by bread 
alone but by what proceedeth from the mouth of the Lord. 
For, while they often lacked bread, they found supreme com- 
fort and happiness in the study and contemplation of the word 
of God. As one who has had occasion to observe, at close 
range, the social and recreational aspects of Jewish life not 
only in the heart of the Russian-Jewish Ghetto but also in 
the leading Jewish communities of western Europe and Amer- 
ica, I make bold to assert that modern Judaism, with all its 
wealth and splendor, has nowhere been able to produce even 
the shadow of a substitute for that invigorating and ennobling 
joyousness which the immigrant Jew found provided for him 
in the Shiur (Talmud course) given at the Beth Hamidrash 
or in the Shalosh Seudoth (the Sabbath afternoon meal, 
mostly consisting of bread and herring) arranged in the Has- 
sidic "meeting house." 

On arriving in this country, the Jewish immigrant finds 
himself deprived of all these social stimuli. He may still 
cling to the outward forms of Judaism, if he can. But the 
spirit which gave them life and meaning has gone. Judaism 
had been to him like a beautiful painting, delighting his soul 
by the warmth of its colors and the loftiness of its composi- 
tion. Now he discovers that the colors are rapidly fading, 
and that all that is left to him is nothing but a crude and 
colorless canvas, without beauty, meaning or comfort. 

This change of environment would perhaps not be so pain- 
ful to the immigrant if, on arriving in the new land, he were 
to find a uniform and firmly settled culture into which, with 
some effort on his part, he might become assimilated. This, 
however, is not the case. Life in the large American cities, 
and particularly life in New York, is neither uniform nor 
definitely settled. The immigrant cannot help being utterly 
confused by the disharmony and instability of the new environ- 
ment. It is a matter of common knowledge that, when com- 
ing in contact with a new culture, men are invariably apt to 
notice and to imitate that which is superficial and, therefore, 
least valuable in it. This fact is well known to every student 
of the history of human civilization. One need only think of 
the effect of French culture on the native masses of the Le- 



vant or of English culture on the inhabitants of India. In 
the interior of British South Africa one may come across 
natives in a state of complete nakedness except for a silk hat 
and a colored waistcoat which they evidently regard as the 
sum and substance of English civilization. The imigrant 
Jew, with all his mental agility, and with all his traditions of 
an ancient culture, can only see the superficialities of American 
life and, not being steadied by the equilibrium of his own 
heritage, he seizes upon them as the true manifestations of 
the new environment. 

While he does not, and, indeed, cannot perceive the great 
ideals underlying the American commonwealth, he quickly 
enough notices those negative, though accidental features which 
lie on the surface of American life : The hunt after the dollar ; 
the corrupt state of politics ; the hankering after publicity ; the 
drift toward materialism ; and he is forced to the dangerous 
and cynical conclusion that America — and here I merely re- 
peat what one may frequently hear from the lips of Jewish 
immigrants — is the land of bluff; that religion, morality, poli- 
tics, learning are a sham ; and that the only thing of value and 
power in this country is almighty mammon. 

The result is obvious. The immigrants with a nobler fiber, 
in whom the traditions of the old environment are firmly 
rooted, are bitterly disappointed. They turn away with dis- 
gust from the new environment, which is utterly miscon- 
ceived by them, and — here again I refer to a phrase current 
among this type of Jewish immigrant — they deprecate the 
memory of Columbus for having discovered America, where 
their hopes for a happier and loftier existence have been cruelly 
deceived. Thousands of these immigrants would be happy to 
return to the old country if external conditions permitted 
them to do so. 

The others, however — those who are of a cheaper mental 
grade — are quickly reconciled to the new state of things and, 
throwing off the former restraints of Judaism, are ready to 
play the game. They enter fully into what they believe to 
represent American life and bring to bear upon it their innate 
cleverness and resourcefulness. 

What then is the remedy for the evils attending this radical 
change of environment on the part of the Jewish immigrant — 
evils which, if not checked in time, may give rise to serious 
and complicated problems? To my mind, there is only one 
remedy: the restoration of the equilibrium of the Jewish im- 
migrant. It goes without saying that we must acquaint the 
immigrant with the conditions of the new land, not only to 
strengthen him in his struggle for existence but also to enable 
him to realize the true foundations of American life and 
American culture. But it is just as important, if not more 
important, because more promising of results, that we make 
him again a social unit, that we recreate his natural environ- 
ment for him. 

Tempered Americanization 
Were it possible to make the Jewish immigrant a com- 
pletely new man by uprooting all his previous traditions and 
habits and by turning him into a full-fledged member of the 
American environment, one might feel inclined, looking at 
the problem from the purely humanitarian point of view, to 
recommend the process of uncompromising Americanization. 
Although even in this case, from the same humanitarian point 
of view, one would greatly regret the tremendous waste of 
mental and moral energy which this hot-house transformation 
is bound to entail, to the detriment of this country, which de- 
pends for its progress on the best that its citizens can con- 
tribute to it. But the Jewish immigrant, like all other human 
beings, cannot be made a new man. The human soul is not 
a tabula rasa. The impress of centuries is indelibly stamped 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, igi 7 



upon it, and no mechanical process can undo the organic de- 
velopment of many generations. 

Hence the only solution left to us is to reconstruct, or 
rather to help the Jewish immigrant to reconstruct, his old 
environment, to reawaken and reinforce the social influences 
of his former surroundings, so that they may once again pro- 
vide him with guidance and inspiration, that he may once more 
possess the sense of equilibrium, that feeling of security which 
makes a man a normal being and his life a normal process. 

It may be argued against this view of the problem that the 
remedy proposed might stand in the way of the American- 
ization of the immigrant which, as Americans, we must all 
have at heart. But such an argument is fallacious. The in- 
fluences in this country making for Americanization are so 
extensive and so powerful that, whatever procedure we may 
choose to adopt, the Americanization of the immigrant can 
only be retarded ; it certainly cannot be checked. But even 
if the handicap to the process of Americanization were real, 
it would be infinitely less harmful than the dangers lurking 
behind a de-Judaized and superficially Americanized Jewish 
immigrant population. The writer for one, and here again 
he is speaking purely as a humanitarian, prefers the kaftan- 
clad old-fashioned Jew, with his unattractive appearance and 
ungainly manners, whose whole life is dominated by the ideals 
and mandates of an ancient religion and civilization, whose 
mind has been cultivated by the subtleties of the Talmud 
and whose conduct is regulated by the restraints of the 
Shulhan Arukh, to that modernized amphibious creature, the 
gaudily attired, slang-using, gum-chewing, movie-visiting, 
dollar-hunting, vulgar and uncultured, quasi-Americanized 
"dzentleman." 

Old Environment in the New World 

It is obvious, therefore, that our method of Americanization 
— an Americanization which is constructive and not destruc- 
tive — must consist in restoring the impaired or destroyed equi- 
librium of the immigrant Jew by enabling him to recreate for 
himself his former environment. It is not enough that we 
tolerate his old Jewish associations ; we must call them forth 
where they are dormant and strengthen them where they have 
become weakened. Of course, we do not wish to reproduce 
the old Jewish Ghetto in the new land. Nor does the Jewish 
immigrant desire it. 

The immigrant Jew who flees to this country as a haven 
of refuge and is anxious to throw in his own lot and that of 
his children with the new land is fully alive to the obligations 
imposed upon him by American life and citizenship. Those 
who are intimately acquainted with the life of the immigrant 
in his old and new home and do not base their judgment on 
ignorance and superficial observation are frequently amazed 
at the readiness with which the immigrant Jews make con- 
cessions to the American environment. With few exceptions, 
even the most conservative and most backward among them 
are happy and proud to entrust their children to the American 
public school, although in their old country they had shunned 
the secular school as a de-Judaizing agency. They have 
scarcely touched these shores when they throw off their ancient 
costume which in eastern Europe is the peculiar mark of 
their race and is hallowed by the traditions of centuries. 
They are eager, perhaps more so than other immigrants, to 
acquire the English language, and though they themselves 
may fail in these endeavors, they watch with delight the 
linguistic progress of their children. 

In a word, the immigrant Jew does not object to the modi- 
fications in his old mode of life which are necessary to har- 
monize it with American conditions. But he insists, as he 
has a right to insist, that these modifications do not encroach 



107 

Oil Painting kit L. PUichoutU 




LEISURE HOUR 

on the essential character of his religious tradition. We must 
then adapt the immigrant Jew to the new environment, but 
we must do so cautiously, gently and sympathetically, ever 
alive to the dangers of a rapid and artificial Americanization 
which may destrov old values without building up new values 
in their stead. 

And it is just as obvious that those entrusted with the task 
of Americanizing the Jewish immigrant must be men and 
women who know and understand him. It would seem pre- 
posterous that we should have to insist on such a truism 
were it not for the fact that in the practical execution of 
the work of Americanization this simple demand is so fre- 
quently disregarded. A person who would set out to cure 
the bodily ills of his fellow-men without an adequate knowl- 
edge of the structure of the human body would be scorned 
as a quack. But where human souls are concerned, it would 
almost seem as if ignorance were bliss. Constructive Amer- 
icanization must be based upon knowledge. Only an intimate 
acquaintance with the life of the Jewish immigrant in his old 
and in his new environment, only a full understanding of his 
mentality and psychology, and an adequate appreciation of his 
traditions and associations may succeed in bridging the terri- 



108 



THE SU RV EY FOR MAY 5 , 1 9 1 7 



ble chasm between his past and present, in creating a proper 
outlet for the immense stores of energy that lie dormant in 
him, and thereby transforming him into a happy and valuable 
citizen of our great republic. 

The humanitarian method of dealing with the problem of 
the Jewish immigrant may perhaps be best illustrated by a 
striking utterance of the late Yiddish writer, • Sholom- 
Aleichem, a subtle observer and powerful portrayer of Jewish 



immigrant life. Addressing himself to those who are engaged 
in Americanizing the Jewish immigrant, he reminded them 
of the fact that the biblical injunction commands us to love 
the stranger. To pity him is not enough. Pity may suffice 
in the case of animals; it cannot satisfy the needs of human 
fellowship. It is only by loving the stranger that we may 
ever hope to solve the delicate task of transforming his soul 
without destroying it. 



Nature and Uses of Social Evidence 1 

By Mary E. Richmond 

DIRECTOR, CHARITY ORGANIZATION DEPARTMENT, RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION 



FROM the beginning of his task the social case worker 
deals with testimonial evidence in a way shaped by 
the end for which it was obtained ; namely, the social 
treatment of individuals. As he proceeds he often 
finds himself in need of more knowledge as to the weight which 
should be attached to the social evidence he has gathered. Are 
there rules of evidence, principles of choice, that can guide him 
in selecting from a group of unassorted observations and testi- 
monies those which he can rely upon from those which must be 
accepted "with a grain of salt"? If so, are these principles 
peculiar to social work, so that its practitioners will be obliged 
to dig them out from their own experience alone, or may they 
hope to find them already identified in law book or labora- 
tory? 

That there are such rules to guide the social worker is in- 
timated by a correspondent who had gone from a charity or- 
ganization society to a society to protect children from cruelty. 
He writes: 

As a result of my experience both with Charity Organization 
Society and with Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Chil- 
dren investigators, there seems to me a weakness in the training of 
the Charity Organization Society district secretary, who from the 
nature of her duties is constantly required to weigh evidence but 
who has not got clearly in mind the fundamental differences between 
different classes of evidence and their different values. I do not 
now refer to the nice discriminations; those I am content to leave 
to trained lawyers to squabble over. Not only would the co- 
operation with a Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children 
be at once improved but evidence as it stands in a Charity Organi- 
zation Society investigation would be increased in value and reduced 
in bulk. I confess to considerable impatience at times when I find 
district secretaries of some and even of great experience apparently 
•valuing every statement equally and then adding the items together 
to find a total. 

Many will share this correspondent's impatience with such 
arithmetic. Nevertheless, no considerable group of social case 
workers — whether in a society to protect children or a charity 
organization society or anywhere else — seem to have grasped 
the fact that the reliability of the evidence on which they base 
their decisions should be no less rigidly scrutinized than is that 
of legal evidence by opposing counsel. On the other hand, 
the question of admissibility, the rules for which were framed 
mainly to meet the average juryman's lack of skill in testing 
evidence, does not enter into the weighing of facts as gathered 
by an agency all in whose service are, or can be, trained to this 
special task. Skill in testing evidence, as leading to such proof 
as social workers need, is in no way dependent upon a knowl- 
edge of the legal rules of admissibility. Social evidence, like 
that sought by the scientist or historian, includes all items 
which, however trifling or apparently irrelevant when regarded 
as isolated facts, may, when taken together, throw light upon 
the question at issue ; namely, as regards social work, the ques- 

1 A chapter from Miss Richmond's work, Social Diagnosis, published this 
week. Copyright, 1917, by Russell Sage Foundation. 



tion what course of procedure will place this client in his right 
relation to society? Many an item, such as a child's delayed 
speech, for instance, may have no significance in itself, whereas 
when considered in connection with late dentition and walk- 
ing and with convulsions it may become a significant part of 
evidence as to the child's mentality. 

Social evidence, then, has an advantage over legal evidence 
in that it can include facts of slight probative value. Without 
this advantage social case work would not be possible, since 
the problem of the orientation of a family or individual is far 
more complex than the single question as to whether or not a 
litigant or a defendant is to be penalized. Moreover, facts 
having a subjective bearing, like that of delayed speech just in- 
stanced, are especially characterized by their cumulative signifi- 
cance. Variations between people in mental endowment, in 
"personality," display themselves ordinarily not in a few con- 
spicuous acts, but in a trend of behavior evidenced by innumer- 
able trifling remarks or by a succession of decisions and im- 
pulses each unimportant in itself. Evidence of this cumulative 
sort therefore, is essential wherever, as in social work, deci- 
sions rest upon intimate understanding of character. 

In examining the reliability of evidence, social case work 
should make its own application of universal tests ; and, coming 
late to the task, should be able to profit by the experiences not 
merely of law, but of history and of natural science. The 
various professions apply rules of evidence for arriving at 
truth, each according to its own special conditions. The scien- 
tist uses controlled experimentation because he works with ma- 
terial which may be brought under complete control. He may, 
for instance, till half of an orchard whose physical conditions, 
soil, grade, exposure, etc., are the same throughout. If the 
tilled half bears much better than the untilled, he concludes 
that tilling increases the product of fruit trees. When, how- 
ever, the farmer in the fable digs in his orchard for buried 
treasure, and in place of gold finds his promised fortune in an 
unprecedented yield of fruit, he probably draws no causal in- 
ferences whatever. 

Should a social worker have the task of showing whether 
the farmer's labor had paid or not, he would get the testimony 
of the farmer, of his family, and his neighbors as to the previous 
care of the trees; their evidence as to any other measures of 
improvement he might have taken, such as pruning, thinning 
out, etc. ; their recollection, corroborated by governmental re- 
ports, of weather conditions, pests, etc., of preceding years. 
He would take account of hearsay evidence, of persistent ru- 
mors, of the general appearance of the man's farm and home. 
As a result, the social worker might establish or discredit the 
value of tillage in this instance with a fair degree of proba- 
bility. 

Suppose on the other hand some decision in a law court 
should turn on the question whether or not it was his tilling of 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



109 



the soil that had brought the farmer an increased yield of 
fruit. The court would deal in the main with the same facts 
as the social worker, namely, with the testimony of witnesses, 
with government reports, or with an inspection of the premises ; 
the difference would be that a court would guard with scrupu- 
lous care the admission of hearsay evidence and would exclude 
rumors; that it would, in short, hold each witness to a re- 
sponsibility for his statements, allowing him in the main to 
say nothing of which his own knowledge was not first-hand. 
This evidence might or might not satisfy the court beyond a 
reasonable doubt that it was justified in concluding that til- 
lage had increased the farmer's yield. But these restrictions 
upon evidence are necessary in law because of the obligation 
the judge is under of sifting evidence for a jury who are liable 
to allow undue weight to items which have small value as 
proof. 

The common difference between the point of view of social 
worker and court stands out in the following instance of 
alleged parental neglect: 

Social Evidence Which Led a Reasons Why the Society to 

Case Work Agency to Ask Protect Children Believed 

Court Action Through a So- That the Court Would Not 

ciety to Protect Children Act 

1. Three rachitic children aged 1. "No doctor has yet made a 
seven, five, and three years; the definite statement as to the se- 
oldest could not walk at all at rious result of failure on the 
four years; the second and third parents' part to follow direc- 
had bowed legs and walked tions in the treatment of these 
with difficulty at three years children." A court would not 
old. Although the oldest child accept a layman's judgment 
has been three and a half years even on so obvious a matter as 
in a hospital, where it was sent extremely bowed legs, because 
by a social agency, the parents this might establish a precedent 
omitted to take the other chil- which in most instances would 
dren to the dispensary for ex- work badly. A layman's opin- 
amination and advice. The so- ion in such a case as this is a 
cial worker made seven calls to less responsible one than a doc- 
urge them to do this. They as- tor's, since the latter's profes- 
sented each time, but were in- sional standing is involved in 
creasingly resentful at what his statements. Even with a 
they regarded as an intrusion physician's statement "it is very 
into their private affairs, and difficult to make such neglect 
did nothing. The social worker the basis of a case in court." 
construed this as parental neg- The father supports his family, 
lect. the mother gives good care as 

she understands it. The court, 
fearing that doctors may dis- 
agree, hesitates to force a de- 
batable treatment upon well- 
meaning, if ignorant, parents. 
One might venture to predict 
that courts will more readily 
consider neglect of this sort as 
they grow inclined to take com- 
mon sense risks instead of rest- 
ing on the letter of precedent. 

2. This family has lived for six 2. The sunniness of the tene- 
years in two tiny rooms on ment and the fact that the 
the top floor. Although their mother keeps it clean would 
tenement rooms are sunny and prevent a court from regarding 
clean, the children do not get these cramped quarters as evi- 
sufficient exercise or air. The dence of culpable neglect. Pub- 
parents refuse to move, as the lie opinion would not uphold 
rent is small. the court in making an issue 

over home conditions that were 
not considerably below the ideal 
held by social workers. The 
social worker often forgets this. 

3. A year and a half after hav- 3. "While it looks as if the fam- 
ing been urged to have the two il y had been neglected in years 
younger children examined, the past, either deliberately or 
mother took the youngest child through ignorance, or both, the 
to the hospital and promised to situation today is not clear." 
bring the second child. Eight The oldest child is still in the 
months later she had not done hospital, the youngest has re- 
ceived hospital care, and the 
mother has promised to take the 
second child to the out-patient 
department. With this evidence 
of good intentions, a doctor's 
statement (see 1) would be nec- 
essary to satisfy a court of pres- 
ent neglect. 



this. 



Here was a deadlock. In asking court action on the ground 
of parental neglect the social worker was in effect calling 
upon the court to accept his interpretation of the evidence 
as establishing the fact of neglect, and to order the children to 
be submitted to physicians for treatment. The court, on the 
other hand, as interpreted by the society to protect children, 
would require the physician's testimony as a link in establish- 
ing the fact of neglect and would be unlikely to act until the 
social worker himself had done the thing he was asking the 
court to do ; namely, confront the case with a doctor. It would 
seem to a layman as if in such a case the court might safely 
summon the parents and child into court, admit the child's 
bowed legs and the social worker's efforts to persuade the 
family as evidence, and put this father and mother on proba- 
tion to consult any reputable doctor they chose. 

It is clear, then, that whereas social evidence is distinguished 
from that used in natural science by an actual difference in the 
subject matter, it differs from legal evidence not in the sort 
of facts offered, but in the greater degree of probative value 
required by the law of each separate item. The additional 
testimony which the court would have asked in the instance 
cited was not different in kind from what the social worker 
already had. 

In short, social evidence may be defined as consisting of any 
and all facts as to personal or family history which, taken to- 
gether, indicate the nature of a given client's social difficulties 
and the means to their solution. Such facts, when duly tested 
in ways that fit the uses to which they are to be put, will in- 
fluence the diagnosis of physical and mental disorders, will 
reveal unrecognized sources of disease, will change court pro- 
cedure with reference to certain groups of defendants, and will 
modify methods in the school class room. To a certain extent 
social evidence is already exerting this influence, but the de- 
mand for such evidence is likely far to outstrip the supply dur- 
ing this next decade. 

The Wider Use of Social Evidence 

Scattered and tentative as they still are, the signs of such 
coming demand are nevertheless unmistakable; the uses of so- 
cial evidence in the older professions are beginning to multiply, 
as the following illustrations will show: 

A specialist in the diagnosis of feeblemindedness committed two 
difficult girls to custodial care, largely on the facts supplied him 
from first-hand observations by a children's aid society as to the 
characteristics of these girls and of their families. The "stream 
pictures" furnished in summaries of two case records, covering two 
years in one instance and nine in the other, were his most conclu- 
sive evidence. 

The nature of these stream pictures may be gathered from 
Dr. W. E. Fernald's discussion {American Journal of Insan- 
ity, April, 1909) of the evidence needed by the psychiatrist 
for making a diagnosis of mental defect. Some of this evidence, 
although obtainable by social workers, is of course medical in 
character, that is, delayed dentition, late walking, delayed 
speech, a history of convulsions in the first few years of life, 
the presence of degenerative stigmata. Much of it, however, 
is precisely the slight but cumulative evidence which social 
workers habitually gather as bearing on disabilities; namely, 
facts of family and personal history with special reference to 
the period of infancy and early childhood, a relatively long 
continuance of untidy habits (of childhood), the public school 
grade in relation to age, inability on the part of the patient 
to apply himself continuously either in school or in any other 
occupation without constant supervision. In some cases with 
only slight intellectual defect, the inability to "make good" 
socially will be a deciding factor in the diagnosis. 

All of this information, including the medical, should be 



110 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5 , 1 9 1 7 



given in the history of a client which the social worker is 
preparing to submit to a psychiatrist. 

Social Work and Medicine 
The contributions of social work to medicine are not con- 
fined to the diagnosis of feeblemindedness. Medical diagnosis 
and treatment are beginning to show the influence of the social 
evidence gathered in the medical-social departments of hospi- 
tals and dispensaries. Also the children's courts of the United 
States owe their existence to social workers. These courts 
supplement legal evidence by social. Not only have the courts 
come to recognize the value of a more liberal inclusion of im- 
perfectly relevant evidence in disposing of child offenders; 
they are growing to feel that even the method of gathering 
this evidence has an influence upon the welfare of the child 
They believe that such investigation should be inspired not by 
the ambition to run down and convict a criminal but by a 
desire to learn the best way to overcome a boy's or girl's dif- 
ficulties. The need of modifying in these courts the usual 
legal procedure is thus commented upon by Flexner and 
Baldwin (Juvenile Courts and Probation) : 

The best interests of the child make it necessary for the court to 
consider hearsay a.id other evidence of a more or less informal kind 
which would ordinarily under strict rules of evidence be excluded. 
It is of the utmost importance that the court should avail itself of 
just the kind of evidence that the investigator [the probation officer] 
presents. If it should finally be determined that the laws as drawn 
do not permit the introduction of such evidence, express provision 
should be inserted in the statutes allowing its use. 

Another court having its origin in needs brought to light by 
social work is the court of domestic relations, which may in 
time be merged with the children's court. It suffers at present 
from inability to secure and me the necessary social evidence. 
This experiment, like many others, will continue to fall short 
of full usefulness until social workers develop the diagnostic 
skill that will enable them to offer to the court authenticated 
and pertinent information. The following is a case in point: 

A court of domestic relations sentenced a man for desertion and 
non-support on the testimony of his wife. The wife then applied 
to a charity organization society for relief for herself and four 
children. The district secretary, assuming that on the face of it 
this convicted man was good-for-nothing, asked her committee to 
arrange for assistance to the family. It was with reluctance that 
the secretary, at the suggestion of her committee, agreed to make 
what she regarded as a superfluous investigation of the man's side 
of the story. This inquiry, however, brought statements from em- 
ployers, former neighbors, relatives, etc., which showed that the 
trouble lay not with the man, who was a decent enough fellow, but 
with the woman, who was probably mentally unbalanced. Instead 
of voting relief, therefore, the district committee asked the judge to 
release the man. 

In short, the secretary in question would hardly have been 
qualified to persuade a court of the helpfulness of social evi- 
dence, while she herself was capable of treating an inference — 
that as to the man's character — as if it were an evidential fact. 

Many educators, even though not thinking in terms of 
social work, are recognizing their need of obtaining social his- 
tories of pupils and of giving differential treatment based upon 
them. The social worker's method they sometimes take over 
with little understanding of its details. For instance, Madame 
Montessori in her Pedagogical Anthropology makes a plea for 
differential treatment of pupils and gives a whole chapter to 
the question of securing the biographical history of the pupil 
and of his antecedents, but she apparently has little conception 
of the varying reliability of the different sources from which 
such social evidence must be had, or of the tests that could 
be applied to assure reliability. 

Stuart Courtis, of the New York Committee on School In- 
quiry, who starts with an effort to test, by measurements based 
upon arithmetic alone, the efficiency of school and children, 



arrives finally at two interesting conclusions: First, that life 
histories alone can make plain the play of those hidden fi rces 
which are constantly modifying the results of educational ef- 
fort; and second, that where marked differences in the social 
life of the different types of children exist, those differences 
must be reflected in school methods. For reasoning cannot be 
taught from a text alone. "Reasoning is a process of adjust- 
ment to a situation, and only as children have experienced the 
fundamental characteristics of a situation can they intelligently 
make the necessary adjustments to it." 

The beginnings of social case work in a field closely allied 
to education, in vocational guidance, serve to illustrate how, in 
the enthusiasm of promoting a new discovery, the need of 
social evidence may be overlooked. In this line of endeavor 
(though not in some others, where the illustration may still 
serve as a warning) the oversight was only a temporary one. 
The first volume of advice (Choosing a Vocation, Parsons), 
addressed to what were to be known as "vocational counselors" 
gave specimen interviews for their instruction. One of these 
is with a lad of nineteen in Boston who comes for vocational 
guidance and says that he wants to be a physician. The fol- 
lowing is a part of the counselor's printed report: 

He was sickly looking, small, thin, hollow-cheeked, with listless 
eye and expressionless face. He did not smile once during the 
interview of more than an hour. He shook hands like a wet stick. 
His voice was husky and unpleasant, and his conversational power, 
aside from answering direct questions, seemed practically limited 
to "ss-uh," an aspirate "yes, sir," consisting of a prolonged s fol- 
lowed by a non-vocal uh, made by suddenly dropping the lower jaw 
and exploding the breath without bringing the vocal cords into ac- 
tion. He used this aspirate "yes-sir" constantly, to indicate assent, 
or that he heard what the counselor said. He had been through 
the grammar school and the evening high ; was not good in any of 
his studies, nor especially interested in any. His memory was poor. 
He fell down on all the tests for mental power. He had read prac- 
tically nothing outside of school except the newspapers. He had 
no resources and very few friends. He was not tidy in his appear- 
ance, nor in any way attractive. He knew nothing about a doctor's 
life; not even that he might have to get up any time in the middle 
of the night, or that he had to remember books full of symptoms 
and remedies. 

The boy had no enthusiasms, interests, or ambitions except the 
one consuming ambition to be something that people would re- 
spect, and he thought he could accomplish that purpose by becom- 
ing a physician more easily than in any other way. 

When the study was complete, and the young man's record was 
before him, the counselor said: 

"Now we must be very frank with each other. That is the only 
way such talks can be of any value. You want me to tell you the 
truth just as I see it, don't you? That's why you came to me, isn't 
it — not for flattery, but for a frank talk to help you understand your- 
self and your possibilities?" 

The Incomplete Diagnosis 

"When the study was complete!" Psychologists realize now 
that tests of memory, like most other mental tests, must be 
repeated to eliminate accidental factors ; but assuming that 
the counselor had made the psychological tests with care, he 
still has ignored many factors, which though not measurable 
by tests would yet modify the social diagnosis. He tells the boy 
that he cannot be a doctor, that he might succeed in some 
mechanical or manufacturing industry, that he must cultivate 
a cordial smile by speaking before a glass, that he must read 
solid books, study to prepare for citizenship, and so on. Such 
unconstructive vocational guidance the counselor apparently 
supposed to be a form of social treatment. Had he used his 
opportunity to acquire social evidence as well as psychological, 
he might have instituted treatment that would have struck at 
the root of the boy's difficulty. Here is a boy who has been 
attending the evening high school for several years. Has he 
been employed during the day; if so, at what? Is this work 
of a kind that would account, in part at least, for his failure 
as a student? Are there removable causes not only for his 
lack of success but for his physical condition as well? In the 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



111 



case of such a boy, should not a medical diagnosis precede vo- 
cational advice? What are his home surroundings? Have 
his parents plans for him or aptitudes of their own that would 
suggest possibilities in him ? Are any of his family already 
known to some of the hundreds of social workers in Boston ? 
If so, a summary of this social work experience might be sug- 
gestive. 

The book containing this illustrative interview was written to 
aid vocational counselors, presumably busy men. Nevertheless 
the question as to what a boy is to do with his working days 
for years to come is too vital a one for such summary disposal. 
The interview here quoted, ignoring the possible aid of other 
specialists, professes to be complete in itself, whereas a few let- 
ters and telephone messages to employers, teachers, confidential 
exchange of information, and the boy's parents, together with 
a reference to a competent physician, would have brought to 
light social and physical factors which contributed to the 
boy's ill success, and would have indicated how to remove 
them. 

The counselor dealt with symptoms only. He assumed that 
an examination of the boy as regarded his appearance, speech, 
and mental reactions, during that brief cross-section of time, 
would give all the data necessary for treatment. Only to one 
who was all-wise and all-knowing could a single examination 
have been thus fruitful. 

Variations of these same ideas crop up in unexpected places. 
Scientific shop management has accepted the principle of study- 
ing the personal traits of the individual workman and of bas- 
ing his advancement upon such study, but for lack of social 
technique its present application of the principle is often too 



crude and sometimes too undemocratic to illustrate our theme. 

It would seem that social evidence is beginning to receive 
recognition. The endeavors of social workers are bringing to 
light ways of thinking and doing that prove useful in quite 
other fields. The fact that law, medicine, history and psy- 
chology, in their effort to break new ground, have been open- 
ing the same vein of truth, shows a growing demand for the 
kind of data that social practitioners gather. The absence of 
any generally accepted tests of the reliability of such evidence, 
however, still keeps this new demand itself ill defined and un- 
standardized. Personal histories which might appear suffi- 
ciently authenticated to a shop manager might strike a neurolo- 
gist as inadequate for conclusions, while they would certainly 
be open to objections from a court. Progress on the social side 
of these several fields of endeavor will be hastened as social 
workers subject their own experiences to a more critical and 
searching analysis. 

It was not to be expected that industry, or education, or ju- 
risprudence, or medical science, or preventive social legislation 
should wait, before they developed in harmony with the 
thought of today, until the arts of social diagnosis and treat- 
ment had caught up. All of these went forward in their several 
ways, but their very advance has emphasized the need of skill 
in this newer art. Technique has not occupied the attention 
of the social workers themselves so much as has the rapid de- 
velopment of new social specialties, some of them ill considered, 
perhaps, but all following inevitably upon that flowering of 
social ideals in this country which belongs to the last fifteen 
years. The time has now arrived to take fuller advantage of 
these new developments. 



A Settlement War Program 



By Mary K. Simkhovitch 

PRESIDENT NATIONAL FEDERATION OF SETTLEMENTS 



o 



N April 24 I sent out a letter to the settlements of 
the country affiliated with the National Federa- 
tion of Settlements, asking their opinion in regard 
to the following program : 

1. National prohibition as a war measure in order to increase the 
food supply. (This will release millions of bushels of grain.) 

2. Continuing the general social activities of the settlements which 
make for civilization. (Early in the war juvenile delinquency in- 
creased owing to the neglect of counteracting social agencies. In 
Canada the settlements which abandoned their regular work in the 
early part of the war reverted to it as their absolutely necessary 
and distinctive patriotic service, and they even increased their work.) 

3. Opposition to any efforts leading to the breakdown of existing 
protective labor legislation. (The experience of countries at war 
being that industrial protection is a most important element in 
national efficiency.) 

4. In granting government contracts for the furnishing of soldiers' 
clothing, preference to be given to firms using the protocol. (Or 
such other measures as would hinder the employment of sweated 
labor.) 

5. Adequate compensation to soldiers, that those dependent upon 
them may not become objects of charity. An American standard of 
living for soldiers and their families must be maintained. 

_ 6. Opposition to a tax on sugar — a special hardship on the fami- 
lies for whom we are in some sense the spokesmen. 

Replies indicate in general an acceptance of this program. 
All the settlements, without exception, feel the absolute neces- 
sity of continuing their distinctive work. 

Americanization must take place through constant con- 
tact and fellowship if it is to be genuine and effective. Those 
who sincerely desire Americanization should be the very 
ones to be staunch supporters of the settlements at this time. 



Prohibition as a war measure was favored by all — even 
by the few who would not favor it in times of peace. A few 
of the settlements indicated in their replies that they believed 
that discretionary powers should be given communities to 
abrogate existing labor legislation where deemed absolutely 
essential as a war measure; but most of the settlements felt 
that such discrei;ionary power, while it might be advisable 
from a theoretical point of view, would be most risky to 
undertake as a practical measure. Some of the settlements 
felt, and, as it seems to me, wisely, that it would be better 
to word No. 6 in a more general way, as follows: 

That such taxes should be avoided as fall on general articles of 
consumption. 

Several of the settlements indicated their conviction that 
governmental control of food supply is necessary. 

It would be fair to sum up the result of this referendum 
to the settlements as follows : 

1. National prohibition to be favored as a war measure. 

2. The absolute necessity not only of not decreasing the social 
activities of the settlements, but also of increasing them at this time. 

3. Opposition to the lowering of such labor legislative standards 
as exist, or, if changes are made, that they should be surrounded by 
adequate safeguards. 

4. The American standard of living to be the standard by which 
compensation to soldiers and their families should be measured. 

5. Taxation on general articles of consumption to be avoided. 

President Tucker, of Dartmouth, in his interesting article 
on settlements, in the May number of the Atlantic Monthly, 



112 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5 , i 9 1 7 



concludes with this statement: "In the searching trial through 
which we are now passing I believe it will be found that 
after the public school, the social settlement has been the 
most direct and effective agency at work for the coherence 
and the integrity of the nation." 

Organized labor can speak for its own group, but for the 
great mass of wage-earning people, who have no other spokes- 
man than ourselves, we claim the right to be heard at this 
time. 



A distinguished gentleman connected with a mission to 
France impressed me greatly in a recent conversation by speak- 
ing of the work of reconstruction that is going on in France 
at this time. In the very midst of her terrible struggle, France 
is rebuilding her cities and villages, replacing her old struc- 
tures and replanning her city life. 

And so, too, our work of civilization must go on and must, 
indeed, be increased at this time in the interest of the very 
ideals for which we have gone to war. 



Tuberculosis in France 1 

By Hermann M. Biggs, M. D. 

COMMISSIONER NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 



THE military operations in Europe during the great 
war now in progress have presented a remarkable 
experimental confirmation on a large scale of cer- 
tain fundamental facts with relation to the develop- 
ment and extension of tuberculosis, facts which most of us 
have long believed to be true but which have often been 
disputed. 

I would refer first to the conditions under which tubercu- 
losis has developed in the army and among the civil population 
of the countries at war, and the methods of extension of the 
disease and also to the conclusions which may be drawn from 
what has occurred with reference to its epidemiology. It may 
be said in passing, that all of the great epidemic diseases 
which have acted as deadly scourges to the armies in the field 
in most former wars have been brought practically under con- 
trol by the application of modern preventive measures. Ty- 
phoid and typhus fever, smallpox, cholera, bacillary dysentery, 
cerebro-spinal meningitis and similar diseases have prevailed 
only in certain isolated localities at certain definite times when 
and where the application of preventive measures had been ig- 
nored, neglected or been rendered impossible because of ex- 
isting conditions. 

So far as I know, tuberculosis has never before played a 
very large part in the sanitary history of any great war, but 
it is playing such a part in the present struggle. While most 
of us have believed and strongly maintain that the modern 
popular anti-tuberculosis campaigns so widely carried on in 
this country, and in Great Britain and Germany, and the 
public health measures which have been adopted in most Eng- 
lish-speaking countries, have been responsible for the steady 
and continuous decline which has taken place in the rate of 
sickness and death from this disease — I say, while most of us 
have strongly believed this to be the fact, this opinion has 
been vigorously opposed. The conditions in Europe lend 
strong confirmation on a very large scale to our views. 

For many years in England an active anti-tuberculosis cam- 
paign has been carried on, and there has been a steadily and 
constantly decreasing death rate from it. The death rate from 
pulmonary tuberculosis there now is about 1 per 1,000 of the 
population, as compared with 1^4 in New York state and 3 
in France. England has the lowest rate of any of the great 
countries of the world. 

In contrast to England, France had done practically noth- 
ing before the war for the prevention of tuberculosis. Such 
anti-tuberculosis movements as had been undertaken had been 
local and sporadic in character and had been solely the result 
of private initiative. The sanitary authorities have never taken 
official cognizance of the disease and notification of it is not 



See page 123. 



required anywhere in France even now. There have been no 
provisions for institutional care, of either early or advanced 
cases, and but few dispensaries. 

At the beginning of the war there were in the whole of 
France only 1,000 sanatorium beds for tuberculosis and these 
were in private institutions. There were no provisions for 
the care of advanced cases excepting as they were received 
in the general wards of the general hospitals. You will re- 
member that this method of care was prohibited more than 
twenty years ago in New York city. 

The death-rate from tuberculosis in France has been con- 
tinuously high, and especially high in the cities, and has de- 
creased slowly and but little. For the whole of France before 
the war it was nearly 3 per 1,000 and in many of the cities 
it was much higher. In some cities, as for example, in Havre, 
the death-rate last year was more than three times that of 
New York city and the tuberculosis death-rate alone of Havre 
was equal to 40 per cent of the total death-rate from all 
causes in New York city. 

With such conditions existing among the civil population 
of France in 1914, it would have been possible to have an- 
ticipated to a large extent the precise results which have fol- 
lowed. With pulmonary tuberculosis thus widely disseminated 
in the general population, France mobilized a great army with 
great rapidity and without thorough physical examination of 
those enrolled. Under the stress of the situation such ex- 
aminations were impossible and, consequently, a large number 
of early, latent and arrested cases of pulmonary tuberculosis 
were mobilized. Many men thus enrolled in the army rapidly 
developed pulmonary tuberculosis in the preliminary training 
camps, while still more broke down with active disease when 
subjected to the strains and hardships incident to life at the 
front. 

I think few of us realize how different are the living con- 
ditions imposed on the troops by modern warfare from those 
obtaining in most previous wars. They are absolutely un- 
like those which we are accustomed to associate with an army 
in the field. We think of armies as living in tents in the open 
air under the best hygienic conditions — at least, so far as 
light, fresh air and life in the open are concerned. In France 
during the present war quite the reverse of this has been the 
case. The troops, instead of living in tents and in the open 
air when they go to the front, live in trenches, often wet and 
always damp and cold, or they are in dugouts underground, 
still more damp and colder. When relieved from duty in 
the front fighting lines, they are billeted in peasant houses in 
towns and villages, or in farm houses and outbuildings near 
the front, in very much overcrowded rooms without ventila- 
tion or fresh air or sunlight, and even with very little diffuse 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



113 



daylight. These peasant houses in France are provided with 
few windows and doors and these are rarely open, owing to 
the strong national aversion of the French people to fresh air. 

In other words, the French troops are at all times, except- 
ing when on the march, living under unfavorable hygienic 
conditions, those under which this disease is especially likely 
to be transmitted. 

Generally speaking, the peasants from whom the soldiers 
are largely drawn are not cleanly; the results, as I said, are 
exactly what one would have anticipated — the development of 
tens of thousands of cases of tuberculosis among the troops. 
By the end of December, 1915, 86,000 soldiers had been re- 
turned to their homes with active tuberculous disease. In 
February of this year it was estimated that about 150,000 had 
thus been returned and more are constantly being discharged 
for this cause. 

The history in France has been repeated, I believe, from 
such data as are obtainable, in Austria, Hungary and Russia, 
and to a less extent also in Germany. Only England has not 
suffered to any great degree and this is because: First, of the 
low prevalence of the disease in the civil population of Eng- 
land previous to the war; second, because the army was 
mobilized deliberately, careful physical examinations were 
made and those applicants who had suspicious histories or 
signs were excluded ; and third, because the English troops 
live under distinctly better conditions at the front than do 
the French, because as a nation they are fond of fresh air 
and the outdoor life. 

What has occurred in the army has occurred also among 
the prisoners of war, especially in Germany, who have been 
greatly under-nourished and over-crowded and have lived un- 
der the most unhygienic conditions. It has also occurred 
among the French and Belgian refugees and among the civil 
prisoners of war in Germany and, to a less extent, in the 
general civil population of all the countries at war. All the 
medical reports which have been received from all of these 
countries record a great increase in the number of cases of 
tuberculosis in all classes of the population, especially among 
the young; and there is the added history of many cases in 
whom the disease had long been arrested that had again 
broken down and in whom the disease has again become 
active. 

How enormous the problem is in France one begins to real- 
ize when we attempt to estimate the number of cases, as nearly 
as may be, which would be found in various groups of the 
population of France if war were to be terminated at once. 

We have, first, about 150,000 discharged soldiers with tu- 
berculous disease. Second, it has seemed to me that an esti- 
mate of 3 or 4 per cent of the cases of tuberculosis among 
people who formerly lived in the departments of France 
which have been in German occupation would be a very con- 
servative estimate. As this number before the war was about 
4,250,000, we may perhaps safely say that there are at least 
125,000 more cases among these people. 

Two Million Refugees 

Remember in the departments of France which are occu- 
pied by the Germans, or were until the recent retreat, there 
were before the war about four and one-quarter million 
people. About one-half of these, two million people, fled from 
their homes before the first German invasion and after the 
battle of the Marne and the establishment of the western 
lines, which have been so long held. These refugees were 
scattered along the front and in the villages and towns nearest 
their previous homes, and a good many of them remained in 
Paris, which was not far from the front. At one time the 
German army was only fourteen miles from Paris, and even 



during the past winter the nearest point of the lines was 
only about forty miles from Paris. 

These two million people have been living in the villages 
and towns near the lines under the most unfavorable condi- 
tions. They are homeless, absolutely without resources 
and dependent entirely upon charity organizations for their 
living, and there has been an enormous amount of tuberculo- 
sis among them, how much, of course, it is impossible to 
determine accurately. 

Aside from these there are about two and one-quarter mil- 
lion people back of the German lines, civilian prisoners in 
Germany, who are living partly in their homes, partly in 
concentration camps and partly deported into Germany. All 
of those in the middle age of life, both men and women, prac- 
tically all of them between the ages of 15 and 45, have been 
deported into Germany, and the rest, young men or old, were 
either in concentration camps or in their homes. Of these, 
large numbers were being returned from time to time to 
France, either as they became ill and in bad physical condi- 
tion and were a serious burden upon their captors, or when 
some military operations which were being contemplated had 
rendered it desirable to evacuate the portion of the territory 
they occupied. 

One in Four of the Refugees Infected 

When we were there, about ore thousand a day were being 
returned through Switzerland by Avion and Geneva, and 
these people came back in the most deplorable condition. Of 
the 20,000 of these civilian prisoners returned, it was said 
that 5,000 were suffering from tuberculosis. They returned 
in the middle 'of the year 1915, in July and August. They 
had been back of the German lines for about eight months 
and the majority of them had never had their clothes off from 
the time they had been taken from their homes. They had 
been kept in Germany and had been returned to France wear- 
ing the same clothes which they wore when they left France 
seven or eight months before. You can readily imagine the 
condition of these people ; the estimate that 5 or 6 per cent 
were suffering from tuberculosis is probably very conservative. 

Third, there are now between 350,000 and 400,000 French 
prisoners of war in Germany. It seems wholly conservative 
to estimate that at least 5 or 6 per cent of these are suffering 
from tuberculosis — the French estimates run as high as 30 
or 40 per cent. This would give over 20,000 more cases. 

Fourth, there are now probably more than four million men 
in the active army of France and cases are still being discharged 
from the army. It is perhaps safe to estimate that at least 
]/2 of 1 per cent of men in the army are suffering with the 
disease, or will be at the termination of the war. This would 
give 20,000 additional cases. 

Fifth, there were more than 100,000 deaths annually from 
tuberculosis of all forms in the whole of France before the 
war. If we estimate the number of cases in the civil popula- 
tion on the basis of deaths occurring annually, and allow two 
cases for each death from tuberculosis of all forms, there 
would have been 200,000 cases of the disease in the total civil 
population before the war. But more than one-quarter of 
the total population has already been accounted for in the 
groups previously considered ; i. e., in the civilian prisoners in 
Germany, the prisoners of war in Germany, the refugees and 
those who have died from wounds or in battle. These latter, 
we are informed, numbered up to February 1,350,000. All 
of the groups thus referred to number more than 10,000,000, 
or more than one-quarter of the total population of France. 

It does not seem likely that the cases of tuberculosis in the 
civil population have decreased since the war began and an 
estimate of 150,000 in the 30,000,000 not accounted for would 



114 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 19 17 



not seem to be excessive. There would, therefore, be alto- 
gether probably not far from 500,000 cases of tuberculosis 
in France to be dealt with if the war were to be terminated 
at once. An estimate of 400,000 cases would seem to be really 
conservative. 

To deal with these, there are available in France at the 
present time, first, in the so-called sanitary stations which have 
been provided since the war began and in the special hospi- 
tals and sanatoria for tuberculosis, about 11,000 beds. It is 
hoped before the end of the year to increase this number to 
15,000 or 16,000. Second, there are a few dispensaries, well 
organized, well equipped and administered — perhaps a dozen 
in all — and a few more small dispensaries which have done 
comparatively little work. Third, there are practically no 
trained nurses or trained social service workers, but there are 
a few women who have been or are being given three months' 
courses of training at the present time at the Laennec Hospital. 
Fourth, there are but few physicians in France who have given 
any special attention to the tuberculosis problem — hardly more 
than a dozen — very few who have had sanatorium experience 
and still fewer who are familiar with the tuberculosis work 
of others. 

The situation thus is certainly a very serious and threaten- 
ing one — 400,000 cases of disease and practically no facilities 
for caring for them or supervising them. 

The French government has in part realized the situation 
and is trying to meet the problem by the establishment of well- 
organized dispensaries in all the populous regions of France, 
with trained or partially trained social service workers at- 
tached to them to visit the cases in their homes. The ma- 
chinery for the establishment of these dispensaries has been 
created under a special law, and the cost of the administration 
has been apportioned under this law on the municipalities, 



communes, departments and the state. The application of 
the law, however, is not mandatory. Local initiative is de- 
pended upon to establish these institutions and this will cer- 
tainly be lacking in many of the localities which seriously need 
them. 

In Havre, while we were there, although the death rate 
last year from tuberculosis was 5^2 per 1,000, the tuberculo- 
sis dispensary which had been in operation previous to the 
war was closed, because there was no physician to operate it 
and no nurses and workers available. There is urgent need 
for physicians and nurses, but it is essential that both of these 
speak French. Dr. Loir, the health officer of Havre, told us 
that in that city with a population of about 140,000 before 
the war, there were at the present time only seventeen physi- 
cians, or one to 8,000 of the population. A similar condition 
exists to a greater or less extent everywhere in France. 

The contrast between the present situation with reference 
to the tuberculosis problem as it exists in England and as it 
exists in France is most striking and most instructive. France 
has suffered from the war infinitely more than England has 
thus far. Great Britain has raised an army of over 5,000,000 
men and no new or serious tuberculosis problem has been 
created, while France has a problem of such magnitude that it 
even threatens the future vitality and economic development 
of the French people. In England the tuberculosis problem 
had been efficiently met before the war ; in France, on the 
other hand, practically nothing had been done. 

It is not, therefore, because measures for the prevention 
of tuberculosis are wanting or inefficient that tuberculosis has 
become such a serious problem in so many European countries, 
but it is simply because the well-tried measures have not been 
applied, both before and since the outbreak of the war, in 
an efficient way. 



Foreign Students in America 



By Charles D. Hurrey 

GENERAL SECRETARY, COMMITTEE ON FRIENDLY RELATIONS AMONG FOREIGN STUDENTS, 

NEW YORK CITY 



w 



ii ""W~W T"HAT is going to happen to me in the event of 
war between the United States and Ger- 
many?" recently inquired an anxious Turkish 
student in one of our American colleges. "Re- 
mittances from Constantinople are delayed and may be cut off 
entirely," he continued; "if I am not interned, I suppose I 
shall have to quit college and go to work for my living; do 
you know where I could secure a position?" He is one of 
6,000 foreign students in the United States, but he has given 
expression to the anxious fears of several hundred of his 
colleagues. 

In American educational institutions there are at present 
175 students from the German Empire, 45 from Turkey, 
110 from Mexico, 30 from Bulgaria, fully 1,000 from 
Japan, 1,500 from China and 1,200 from South and Central 
America. According to the Directory of Foreign Students 
recently published, the following institutions enroll the 
largest number of foreign students: 

Columbia University, 193; University of Pennsylvania, 183; Har- 
vard University, 175; University of Illinois, 140; Cornell University, 
138; University of Michigan, 134; Howard University, 119; Uni- 
versity of California, 107; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
104; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 90; American International 
College, 78; Yale University, 73; Dubuque German College and 
Seminary, 72; New York University, 70; University of Chicago, 62; 



Ohio State University, 62; Tulane University, 62; Leland Stanford 
University, 60; George Washington University, 58; University of 
Maryland, 55; Tuskegee Institute, 54. 

For a period of two years, 250 Armenian students have 
received no communication from home save the reports of 
devastation and massacre. Scores of Russian students are still 
waiting for some hopeful word from relatives in the thick 
of the fight. 

The patience and the silent suffering on the part of many 
of these students is a stimulus and rebuke to American college 
men and women. We have recently heard of a Russian 
woman student in the middle West who, in addition to 
maintaining herself in college, has earned sufficient money by 
selling life insurance to enable her mother and sister to start 
for this country. A few weeks ago I talked with a foreign 
student who is working as a fruit peddler and hod-carrier; 
he had studied for two years in the universities of Belgium 
and is now making a brilliant record in one of our prominent 
municipal universities. 

In these trying times future leaders of many nations are 
in need of our sympathy and support. Some are eager for 
an opportunity to earn money during the summer vacation, 
others need a temporary loan of a few dollars, a few are in 
ill health and discouraged. All would welcome an invitation 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, i 9 i 7 



115 




FOREIGN DELEGATES AT THE NORTHFIELD STUDENT CONFERENCE OF THE Y. M. C. A. 



to our American homes. Nothing could be more offensive 
than to treat them as objects of charity; they are ambitious, 
cultured young people representing influential families, and 
many of them enjoy the support of a government scholarship ; 
but unless their needs and problems are brought forcibly to our 
attention they will return to their homelands impressed by 
our selfishness, arrogance and prejudice. 

The Committee on Friendly Relations Among Foreign 
Students, with offices at 124 East 28 street, New York city, 
is endeavoring to serve these representatives from abroad by 
ascertaining their wishes and difficulties and promptly relat- 
ing them to persons and agencies which can be most helpful. 

It is very important that assurance of friendship be given 
to all students representing the nations with which we are 
now at war. In our conversation, correspondence, and in all 
that we write or speak as well as through deeds of kindness, 
we can reveal a spirit of brotherhood and good will. In a 
number of universities groups of foreign students under the 
leadership of competent guides have inspected settlements, 
playgrounds and various welfare institutions; this effort has 
resulted in giving knowledge of the genius and method of 
America's institutions for social betterment. 

A few weeks ago the foreign students in the city of Balti- 
more were entertained in a beautiful country home near the 
city; the Japanese students of Boston recently enjoyed a visit 
to a large dairy farm, and several Latin-American students 
accepted an invitation to inspect a modern office building. 
Three hundred and thirty foreign students representing thirty 
nations were received last June in student conferences con- 
ducted by the Young Men's Christian Association. Among 
these students, who were entertained as guests of American 
friends, were the brother of the president of one of the Latin- 
American republics, the nephew of a former prime minister 
of China and many other future leaders. It is the unanimous 
testimony that these ten days of work and play with hundreds 
of America's best students and professors have made a 



profound impression in favor of international brotherhood. 

Employment -in offices, homes, factories and on farms dur- 
ing the summer has been found for promising students who 
otherwise would have been unable to complete their education. 
In Chicago, Philadelphia, New York, Boston and other cities 
hikes and excursions under able leadership have afforded 
opportunity to inspect manufacturing plants or places of 
historic interest. In at least one university a group of foreign 
students was invited once a week to a private home to spend 
the evening in discussing American etiquette and idiomatic 
expressions. Many clubs, churches and societies are taking 
advantage of the opportunity for addresses, concerts and enter- 
tainments which can be given by foreign students. Informa- 
tion regarding the activities and problems of foreign students 
in America is to be gained from such magazines as the Chines.*' 
Students' Monthly, official organ of the Chinese Students." 
Christian Association in North America, and the bi-montMy,- 
Japanese Student. 

Future promoters of trade, captains of industry, university 
presidents, diplomats and builders of international friendship, 
are now with us as students. The Japanese ambassador ini 
Washington and the Japanese representative at the Court ofr 
St. James were fellow-students at De Pauw University a few 
years ago. The Chinese minister in London is a graduate 
of Cornell University, China's minister in Washington of 
Columbia, the vice-speaker of the Chinese Senate of Yale, 
the Chinese minister in Berlin of Virginia, the Chinese min- 
ister of finance of Yale, and the private secretary to the presi- 
dent of China of Pennsylvania. The brother of the king of 
Siam is studying at Harvard, and the son of the president of 
the Imperial University in Tokyo is following in his father's 
footsteps at Yale. The ambassador from Mexico is a graduate 
of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

Winning the confidence and esteem of such men is an ex- 
pression of wise statesmanship, sound business sense and> 
genuine religion. 




Nature's Dwarfs 

Stunted Trees from the Seed that Fell on 
Stony Soil Close Kin of the Chil- 
dren of the Slums 

By Albert A. Hansen 

DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, PENNSYLVANIA STATE COLLEGE 



DURING a recent visit to New York city, the writer 
had occasion to go into the slum districts. The 
day was ideal ; the bright sun had lured thousands 
of children into the street, for the municipality had 
furnished them with no other convenient playground. One 
could hardly help noticing the puny, stunted growth of many 
of these thin, underfed youngsters. The children of the poor 
are usually an ill-fed, poorly nourished portion of humanity; 
the result of this malnutrition is plainly indicated in the 
undersized and stunted condition of their bodies. How can 
these diminutive children hope to grow into vigorous and 
healthy manhood and womanhood ? 

While traveling along the rocky shores of Lake Superior 
during the past summer, the writer found similar conditions 
of poverty existing among plants. Growing upon the bare 
rocky ledges, many plants were struggling hard for life, fight- 
ing an uneven battle against the insufficient supply of food 
which nature had allotted to them in this bleak and dreary 
situation. The most noticeable feature of this unfortunate 
flora was the undersized condition of practically all the plant 
inhabitants. Here, indeed, was nature's slum! The shrubby 
cinquefoil, which under ordinary conditions becomes a fair- 
sized shrub, was here reduced to a tiny plant barely three 
inches high. Asters and goldenrods which grew in glorious 
splendor and profusion a few yards away from the rocks, 
shrank into diminutive plants of almost insignificant propor- 
tions. Here among the barren rocks even trees could be found 
waging a bitter struggle against the adverse conditions of 
nourishment which was their unhappy lot. Seeds which in 
rich soil could develop into magnificent individuals, as evi- 
denced by the forest not far distant, here in the rock crevices 
had become merely dwarfed and stunted eccentricities of 
nature. 

In this lilliputian forest, the writer found a miniature spruce 
tree, scarcely a foot high, whose annual rings numbered eigh- 
teen. What tragedy had marked these eighteen years of toil 
and struggle against the harsh environment! Each annual 
ring bore mute evidence of the fierceness of the uneven con- 
test; the trunk of this undersized tree was so small that the 
eighteen rings could be seen only by the aid of a hand lens. 
Not far distant, in a shallow crevice almost devoid of soil, 
grew a tiny but perfectly formed arbor-vitae, fourteen inches 
high. Sections of its stocky little trunk were carefully cut 
with a razor, but the annual rings were too small to be accu- 
rately counted with the hand lens. The services of a micro- 
scope of high power revealed the startling fact that this 
miniature individual was in reality a tree of mature age, since 
over fifty annual rings could be counted. Surely the zenith 

116 



of this marvelous natural dwarfism had here been reached! 

Further diligent exploration, however, was rewarded with 
the most remarkable tree which it has ever been the good 
fortune of the writer to behold. In a tiny rock fissure, barely 
an inch wide, grew an arbor-vitae of perfect symmetry, about 
six inches high, whose adult condition was attested to by the 
perfect little cones on the uppermost branches of the crown. 
Under normal conditions the arbor-vitae is a tree of imposing 
size, growing from forty to seventy feet in height. Harsh 
indeed must have been the environment which caused its 
starved progeny to reach maturity when the plant was only 
half a foot in height. 

The main factor which produced these natural curiosities 
was the lack of proper nutrition. The food contained in the 
scant crevice soil was insufficient to mature a tree of normal 




rHE environmental conditions must have been very 
severe which permitted this arbor-vitae to grow to a 
height of barely a foot in over fifty years. The annual 
ring count discloses the age. The curious little arbor-vitae 
at the top of the page is really a mature tree, as is shown 
by the fruit which may be seen on the upper branches. The 
cones bear perfect seed. The entire tree is about twice the 
size of an ordinary watch. 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, iqi 7 



117 



size. In consequence of these conditions of extreme poverty 
the unfortunate little pygmy trees never exceeded a seedling 
in size. 

That adverse conditions do produce dwarfs in nature is a 
fact that is verified in fields other than those just described. 
The Shetland pony was reduced in size because of the harsh 
and adverse conditions to which it was subjected on the cold 
and barren Shetland Islands. Lack of nutrition has exacted 
the toll from this diminutive member of the equine family, 
until it has become so dwarfed in size that it is used as a play- 
thing for children. 

It may be asked why anyone should feel concerned about a 
mere question of size. Almost everybody knows persons of 
small stature who are in perfect health and, on the other hand, 
giant families which are the victims of hereditary disease. It 
is quite true that the factor of shortness in itself does not indi- 
cate a state of disease; often it is due to selection, either un- 
conscious — as in the case of unusually small families — or deter- 
mined — as in the case of many types of lap dogs which are 
the result of generations of the most careful breeding. The 
instances here considered, however, are not examples of size 
reduction by breeding. In their case, stunted growth is a 
symptom of organic malformation caused by lack of food and 
an unfavorable environment. They do not by any means ex- 
haust the list of examples which nature furnishes of dwarfing 
attributable to malnutrition and other adverse conditions. 

The general principle that nature punishes any infraction 
of her laws, as illustrated by the three cases previously con- 
sidered, is capable of a practical application. If the farmer 
desires strong and vigorous crops he must feed his plants. 
Without the proper plant foods, whether they be supplied by 
the application of commercial fertilizers or proper crop rota- 
tion, the land cannot yield an abundant return of large and 




HOW ABOUT BABIES? 

healthy plants. If the gardener desires his garden to produce 
a robust flora, he must pay attention to the feeding of the 
inhabitants, and his efforts will be richly rewarded. 

Nature could- present us with no stronger argument for 
the proper nutrition of her living progeny than is so power- 
fully brought to our attention by these dwarfed products of 
the rocky, barren and desolate shores of Lake Superior. 



The Task of Civilian War Relief 

The third of a series of articles based upon a course of lectures upon civilian relief now be- 
ing delivered in New York with the sanction of the American Red Cross by Porter R. Lee of 
the staff of the New York School of Philanthropy. The articles are being written by Karl de 
Schweinitz of the New York Charity Organization Society 

III 



THE nation may know precisely what it wants to have 
done for the families of men who enlist. It may 
insist that no home suffer unnecessarily because 
of the absence of one of its members in the army. 
But beyond the payment of a separation allowance the coun- 
try is not likely to know what steps should be taken to ac- 
complish what it thinks ought to be accomplished for families 
in need of special assistance. 

This is the function of the trained Red Cross civilian re- 
lief worker. To help a family handicapped by the loss of a 
father to maintain a normal standard of living requires as 
special a kind of knowledge as does the building of the house 
in which the family lives. 

Who is there who does not know what sort of house he 
would like to have, who could not even tell a contractor how 
he would like to have it look? Few indeed, however, are 
the people who could put the house together. That requires 
a particular kind of technique. A sick man may desire health 
•ever so ardently but without some one who through experi- 
ence with hundreds of other sick persons understands the 



method of cure he cannot take the steps necessary to achieve 
his purpose. 

Similarly one may know that the ideal for a family in 
trouble is to get out of trouble and to achieve all the health, 
self-dependence and self-reliance of which it is capable, but 
this does not mean that one understands the steps by which 
that ideal can be attained. Such knowledge comes only 
after training, only after one has had the benefit of experi- 
ence, both personal and vicarious, in helping many families 
out of trouble. It is because such a body of experience exists 
that the Red Cross civilian relief worker knows how to pro- 
ceed, knows what to do next, in discharging the obligations 
of the country over against those families who may be in 
distress by reason of the mobilization of troops. 

To understand this method one need merely consider that 
most common instance of human need — the man who ap- 
pears at the back door and asks for money. Such a man, 
call him Albert Gough, 1 came to the office of a certain 



1 The story of Gough appears in more detail in Social Diagnosis by Mary 
E. Richmond, published this week by the Russell Sage Foundation. 



118 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 



j> > 



i 9 i 7 



bureau, said he was stranded and asked for help in getting 
to a town in another part of the state where he had formerly 
lived. The social worker to whom he had been sent might 
have done one of three things. She might have given him 
something to eat or money to get something to eat ; she might 
have dismissed him ; she might have bought him a railroad 
ticket. 

The First Step to Get Acquainted 
To have given the man something to eat would have only 
meant that a meal or two later he would have been obliged 
to apply to somebody else for assistance. To have dismissed 
him would have accomplished nothing for him and to attempt 
to buy railroad tickets for all who asked would be an under- 
taking indeed. There was one more possibility. She might 
have found work for him, but without knowing more about 
him she could not conscientiously have recommended him 
for a steady job and temporary work would merely have 
postponed his need a day or two. Besides he might refuse 
to work. 

What the social worker did was to have a talk with the 
man. Among other things he told her that he was fifty-three 
years old, that sixteen years before he had left his home 
which was with his two sisters and that he had since sup- 
ported himself by making and selling water colors. He men- 
tioned the name of a firm in another city with which he had 
been employed, and also the name of the man whom one of 
his sisters had married. 

Having gained Gough's confidence the social worker per- 
suaded him to go to a lodging house where he was able to 
work for his board and lodging. She wrote to his former 
employer to inquire about his ability and she asked a bureau 
in the town in which he had formerly lived to try to find 
his sisters. 

The letter from the employer told little about the man, 
but the bureau in the other town succeeded in discovering his 
sisters. Meanwhile Gough's actions caused the social worker 
to doubt his sanity. She learned that he had been in an insti- 
tution for the insane and through correspondence with the 
state board of insanity discovered that he had left the sani- 
tarium just ten days before. He was pronounced harmless 
and reasonably trustworthy. It was decided that inasmuch 
as his sisters were willing to take care of him he might safely 
make his home with them and the family was reunited. In- 
cidentally, had Gough through his own efforts succeeded in 
reaching his native city he would probably have not been able 
to find his sisters for they had moved to another part of town 
and only a painstaking and clever search enabled the bureau 
to discover their new home. 

The social worker did not do these various things by chance. 
They did not occur to her at the moment. She proceeded as 
training and experience had taught her to proceed. Her 
method is substantially the method which the Red Cross 
civilian relief worker must follow if she desires to be of real 
service to the families who need her assistance. 

The talk which the social worker had with Gough she 
called a "first interview." This interview was more than 
just a beginning. It was held in order that certain definite 
things might be accomplished. As a doctor cannot do much 
for a patient who has no confidence in him, so a social worker 
cannot hope to help a family or an individual unless they have 
confidence in her. Moreover she cannot successfully under- 
take any measures of assistance unless she knows what the fam- 
ily's plans for themselves are and what they think about their 
predicament. The social worker in her interview with Albert 
Gough learned the name of a former employer and the name 
of his married sister. This was not an accident. The social 



worker hopes in a first interview to find this out and also the 
family's previous places of residence, the name of the church 
with which the family is connected and the address of the 
school which the children attend. 

This information is not obtained by coming before the 
family with a schedule to be filled out after the manner of 
a census taker. Nor does the social worker win the con- 
fidence of the family by telling its members that that is what 
she wants. The method of the social worker here is not un- 
like that of an accomplished hostess who draws out a bashful 
guest and interests him in talking about himself ; and if it is 
true that often the guest leaves convinced of the amiability of 
his hostess and conscious of having enjoyed himself, so also 
the family finds itself placing reliance upon the social worker 
and discovering relief in meeting with some one who has a 
sympathetic interest in their troubles. 

The social worker sought out Gough's sisters for him and 
learned that they were willing to give him a home and assume 
responsibility for looking after him. Here, too, she was fol- 
lowing a well-understood method. Both as a source of help- 
fulness and as a means of interpreting a family's character 
and needs relatives are important. Frequently all the plans 
for a family's welfare depend upon the relations, their pe- 
culiarities, their strengths and their weaknesses. Furthermore, 
when one has come to know a family's kinship one has en- 
larged in a measure one's acquaintance with the family itself. 
Relatives indeed frequently explain their kindred. Often, 
too, they are already trying to help the family and without 
cooperation with them the social worker would be struggling 
at cross purposes. 

In negotiating a loan bankers are said to pay as much at- 
tention to a man's character as they do to the collateral he 
offers. A laboring man's work record is both his character 
and his collateral. It is the most important asset he possesses. 
For this a prospective employer or an employment bureau 
inquires first of all. If it is important to them it is also im- 
portant to the social worker. Frequently the employer knows 
about the health of his former employe and often he can be 
induced to reemploy him or to give him help in other ways. 
Social workers seldom consult the present employers of 
men in whom they are interested. There is always the danger 
that the man's job and his future may be jeopardized by an 
injudicious inquiry. 

Getting Facts Without Gossip 
Thus also it is unwise to talk with neighbors. Rather than 
do this social workers go to the family's previous addresses. 
The value of such a visit appears in the story of Mrs. Finne- 
gan, which was told in the Survey of last week. In a house 
where Mrs. Finnegan had formerly lived was found an 
old friend from whom through the meddlesomeness of an 
officious neighbor she had been estranged. The news of Mrs. 
Finnegan's trouble led to a reconciliation. Incidents of this 
sort do not always happen. Ordinarily the visit to the pre- 
vious address is just one more step in the process of becoming 
acquainted with the family. 

Albert Gough gave the social worker only the slightest 
hint of his insanity. She learned about his recent discharge 
from a sanitarium by communicating with the state board of 
insanity. Public records, vital statistics, marriage records, 
property records and the records of public institutions are 
invaluable in bringing the worker to a better understand- 
ing of the person she is trying to help. Just as the knowl- 
ede of Gough's mental weakness affected the whole prob- 
lem of his care, so the record of a marriage or a death may 
be of the greatest importance in the care of some other 
person. 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, igi 7 



119 



Whenever there are children in a family the school should 
be visited. Misfortune at home may explain to a teacher the 
reason for a boy's ineptness, and again upon the scholarship 
of a child may depend largely the character of the plans 
which the family and the social worker may make for his 
future. The school teacher can often give helpful informa- 
tion about the health of the children. 

What the school is to the child that and a great deal more 
may the church be to the family. The pastor has probably 
known the household for years. His assistance may help to 
make the man stop drinking or to prevent the son from grow- 
ing wild. In recreational and spiritual opportunities, in ma- 
terial relief, and as a social center the church is a source of aid 
that no social worker can afford to overlook. Incidentally, of 
2,960 families under the care of the New York Charity Or- 
ganization Society during a certain period last year only two 
were not affiliated with any church. 

Social agencies are another means of assistance to the social 
worker both for the insight they may have into a family's needs 
and for what they may be able to do to help that family. In 
nearly every large city there is a social service exchange or a 
registration bureau from which the social worker may learn 
by inquiry whether any other social agency in addition to the 
one which she is representing has had anything to do with the 
family which she is trying to help. 



The first interview, relatives, former employers, previous 
addresses, public records, school, church, social agencies — 
though not necessarily in this order — are the procedure of the 
social worker in helping a family. And as she consults one 
after another of these means and sources she finds her ac- 
quaintance with the family and her understanding of its needs 
increasing. More than this with each person whom she ap- 
proaches she accomplishes one thing more for the family so 
that her plan for its welfare becomes not something fixed 
and unchangeable but rather a development which with each 
visit becomes greater and more inclusive. 

This then is part of the method which social workers have 
found to be effective in their work with families. And as hu- 
man nature is the same everywhere despite the fact that 
no two individuals are alike, this method is applicable when- 
ever it becomes necessary to help anybody. With it the work 
of civilian relief can become a ministry effective and kind. 

To be sure this procedure must not be followed blindly. 
Much of the method just described did not apply in helping 
Albert Gough. It may not apply in every detail to many 
families of soldiers. The heart and substance of the method, 
however, is this, that wherever there is a person or organiza- 
tion which may be able to give information or help of any 
kind to a family, that person and that agency should be visited 
and that help and that information obtained. 



THE CHALLENGE 

By Paul Lyman Benjamin 

The Toiler speaks- — 

"I will give my hands — my hands 

Knotted with strain and toil, 
Torn with labor of all the lands, 

But you— will you give your spoil?" 

The Student speaks — 

"I will give my brain and my soul, 

I will not wince at pain ; 
I will pay to the full the toll, 

And you — will you give your gain ?" 

The Clerk speaks — 

"I will give my life — nay breath, 

Oh, God, I have no more ; 
I will laugh at a grisly death, 

But you — will you give your store?" 

The Poet speaks — 

"I will give my dreams and my songs, 

I will write with the sword ; 
I will challenge kings for these wrongs, 

And you — will you give your hoard?" 

The Young Man speaks — 

"I will give my youth — this youth, 

The glad, full flush of health ; 
I will kindle the torch of truth, 

But you — will you give your wealth?" 

The Mother speaks — 

"I will give mv sons- — these sons. 

All— all that I hold ; 
I will give my flesh for the guns, 

And you — will you give your gold ?" 



C092920: 




CONSCRIPTION ADOPTED BY 
CONGRESS 

WHEN it came to a vote on April 
28, both houses of Congress de- 
cided by overwhelming majorities in fa- 
vor of the draft as against the volunteer 
plan for raising the million or more re- 
cruits to the United States army in ad- 
dition to the regulars and the National 
Guard. 

As sent to conference committee of 
the two houses, both of the draft bills 
provide for an increase in the regular 
army to 287,000 men, and an increase 
in the National Guard to 625,000 men ; 
and they further authorize the President 
to raise 500,000 men by selective con- 
scription and an additional 500,000 men 
if needed. The Senate bill, in addition, 
provides for the recruiting of three addi- 
tional cavalry regiments for patrol duty 
on the Mexican border and permits the 
raising of one army division under 
Colonel Roosevelt's volunteer plan for 
immediate service in France. 

As the result of concerted attack made 
in the House upon the plan of fixing 
the age limits for conscription at 19 
and 25 years respectively, the House 
made the age limits 21 and 40 years, and 
the Senate 21 and 27 years respectively. 
All male citizens and male persons who 
have declared their intention to become 
citizens are, within these age limits, to 
be subject to draft. 

For the enforcement of the draft the 
secretary of war is authorized to estab- 
lish tribunals, the majority of whose 
members shall in all cases be civilians. 
Their number and location — whether in 
each voting precinct or assembly district 
or larger political division — is left to 
the judgment of the War Department. 

Exempted classes include the vice- 
president, the legislative, executive and 
judicial officers of the United States and 
of the states, members of established re- 
ligious organizations whose creeds oppose 
all war and clergymen of all denomina- 
tions. The Senate bill also exempts the- 
ological students who have partially com- 
pleted their courses. 

Provisional exemptions, to be deter- 
mined by the President, cover govern- 
ment employes in arsenals, navy yards, 

120 



armories, custom houses, the postal serv- 
ice and persons engaged as pilots and 
mariners in the merchant marine, or in 
industries including agriculture, found 
to be necessary to maintain the military 
establishment; the President may also 
exempt all persons having dependent 
families where such dependency makes 
it inadvisable to draft the supporting 
male member, and those found to be 
morally or physically deficient ; also such 
persons employed in the service of the 
United States as the President may 
designate. 

While the President may, by execu- 
tive order, remove all of the provision- 
ally exempt classes from the possibility 
of draft, it is considered likely that this 
action will be left to the tribunals, so 
that the circumstances of each particular 
case may be made the basis for a draft 
or release. 

The House voted that the rate of pay 
of all enlisted and drafted men should 
be $30 a month — twice the present rate. 
The Senate bill calls for a payment of 
$29 a month. This is a victory for the 
trade union members who criticized the 
under-payment of the troops. 

Prohibition of the sale of liquor to 
officers and enlisted men in uniform, 
and authorization to the President to 
regulate the sale of liquor near military 
camps, is a Senate amendment, adopted 
as a substitute for another Senate amend- 
ment which forbade the selling or giv- 
ing of intoxicants to a soldier. 



SOLDIERS' PAY 

r T 1 HE Council of Defense for 
-*• California endorses the prin- 
ciple of federal separation allow- 
ances and is strongly insistent 
upon a minimum allowance of 
thirty dollars monthly each for 
wives and dependent mothers and 
ten dollars monthly for each de- 
pendent child, and urges the 
"Survey" to give this endorsement 
publicity. 

JOHN R. HAYNES, 
Chairman Relief Committee, 
Los Angeles. 



SMALL NATIONS LEAGUED 
TOGETHER 

A LEAGUE of small and subject 
nationalities has been formed, with 
headquarters in New York, "to establish 
a permanent congress of the small, sub- 
ject and oppressed nationalities of the 
world ; to assert the right of each na- 
tionality to direct representation at the 
peace conference following this war, as 
well as at every international conference 
held thereafter for the discussion of ques- 
tions affecting its interests ; to present 
the case of these nationalities to the 
world ; to emphasize the importance of 
restoring to these nationalities the right 
of self-government as an indispensable 
condition for world peace; and to pro- 
mote a better understanding among all 
nationalities in America and thus broad- 
en the basis of American culture." 

The idea of such a league, conceived 
independently in at least three places, 
arose partly from the intense interest of 
the foreign-born and of their mutual 
sympathies in the struggle for national 
existence which the present war has 
brought about in so many different re- 
gions of Europe and Asia, and partly 
from a perception of the similar nature 
of the call for relief which has come 
from those smaller countries which have 
been maimed by the "steam-roller" prog- 
ress of contending armies. 

It is intended that the delegates to 
the council of the league shall, as far as 
possible, be chosen from among their 
most eminent representatives in this coun- 
try, whether American citizens or not. 
There is not, at present, contemplated 
any special pressure upon the government 
of the United States or of any other 
individual power, but rather preparation 
for joint participation in the counsel of 
the nations when such counsel is re- 
sumed. 

"The principle of 'no taxation without 
representation' is gaining new adherents 
almost every day," say the secretaries of 
the league, Vincent F. Jankovski (Lithu- 
anian) and Marion A. Smith (Scottish- 
American), "yet at the international con- 
ferences the great powers to this day fail 
to recognize the right of direct repre- 
sentation in them of the subject nationali- 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



121 



ties, the peoples of which are frequently 
burdened at such conferences with new 
taxes, indemnities, loss of territory, dis- 
section of nationality into several parts, 
without their consent, and are subjected 
like chattels to transfer from one power 
to another." 

Incidentally to its principal aim, the 
league hopes to promote better relations 
among the various peoples which, for 
political or economic reasons, have taken 
refuge in the New World. "Lack of 
acquaintance with each other and with 
Americans has created prejudice and a 
tendency to clannishness ; frequently, the 
true spirit of democracy is overlooked." 
To avoid anything in the nature of en- 
couraging separatism within the United 
States, the league hopes also to enroll 
Americans and American representatives 
of nations which do not come within the 
classification of "small" or "subject." It 
feels greatly encouraged by the speeches 
of President Wilson of January 22 and 
April 2, in which he referred to the 
equality of nations upon which lasting 
peace must be founded — not an equality 
of territory or resources, but of right. 
The purposes of the league will not be 
fulfilled with the end of this war, how- 
ever favorable that may prove for Po- 
land, Ireland, Bohemia and other subject 
nationalities, but will remain until 
all nations, however insignificant in 
size and population, will be secure in 
their freedom under a world democracy. 

THE NEW COMMITTEE ON 
WAR PROHIBITION 

LEADERSHIP in the movement to 
secure national prohibition, as a 
war measure of economy and efficiency, 
has been assumed by the newly organized 
Committee on War Prohibition, with 
Prof. Irving Fisher of Yale as president, 
ex-Gov. Eugene Foss of Massachusetts 
as chairman of the executive committee 
and William F. Cochran of Baltimore as 
treasurer. The vice-presidents are Dr. 
J. N. Hurty, health officer of Indiana; 
Prof. Edward A. Ross of Wisconsin, 
Pres. W. F. Slocum of Colorado Col- 
lege and Dr. Harvey W. Wiley. 

The committee's slogan is "Save 
11,000,000 loaves of bread a day." Its 
immediate object is "to secure prohibi- 
tion of the manufacture and sale of al- 
coholic drinks as a war measure, with 
no attempt to commit the country to 
prohibition permanently. The immedi- 
ate work of the committee will be to 
educate the public upon the need and 
benefit of such a measure as a war pro- 
vision, to encourage the growth of an 
already strong public sentiment in its 
favor, and to see that this sentiment 
expresses itself at the most effective times 
and to those upon whom decision in the 
matter depends." - 

War prohibition the committee holds 
to be a necessity, "first, as a means of 
conserving immense quantities of food 
material now consumed in the manufac- 



lleproiuced by courtesy 0/ Kennedy & Co., New York 




J POSTER for the Belgian Red Cross by Spencer Pryse, 
J± the English artist who has contributed his work to many 
good causes. One of his earlier posters for Belgian relief was 
reproduced in the Survey for December 4, 1915 



ture of alcoholic drinks; second, as an 
immense factor in bringing the produc- 
tion of the nation to the highest effi- 
ciency; and, third, as a vital means of 
preventing venereal disease in our army 
and navy." 

Professor Fisher and ex-Governor 
Foss are also the organizers of a Me- 
morial for National Prohibition, pre- 
pared before this country entered the 
war. It is to be presented to Congress 
in two large volumes containing the sig- 
natures of 1,000 prominent business 
men, bankers, college professors, physi- 
cians, journalists and others in all parts 
of the country. The text of the me- 
morial follows : 

In view of the scientifically proved un- 
favorable effects of the use of alcoholic bev- 
erages even in small quantities; 

And in view, therefore, of the colossal 
physical, mental, moral, economic, social 
and racial evils which the manufacture and 
sale of alcoholic liquor entail; 

And in view of the inadequateness of all 
methods hitherto employed to check or regu- 
late these evils; 

And in view of the great and rapid growth 
of public knowledge and sentiment on this 
subject as shown by anti-alcohol agitation 



and legislation through most of our national 
area ; 

The undersigned believe the time has 
come for the federal government to take 
steps looking to the prohibition in the United 
States of the manufacture, sale, import, ex- 
port and transport of alcoholic liquors (with 
the understood exceptions for medical, sacra- 
mental and industrial purposes). 

SPECIAL HOSPITALS FOR 
WAR SHOCK 

REPORTS from the European battle 
fronts of the large number of cases 
of shock and various nervous disorders 
resulting from the terrific noise of ex- 
ploding shells as well as from prolonged 
tension, give special interest to the latest 
announcements from the National Com- 
mittee for Mental Hygiene. Dr. 
Thomas W. Salmon has been appointed 
chairman of a sub-committee to furnish 
to the government psychiatric units of 
from 30 to 100 beds near the largest 
concentrations of troops. 

Dr. Salmon has just returned from 
an investigation at the Mexican border. 
He found that mental diseases were ap- 
proximately three times as prevalent 
among the troops at the border last 



122 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1 9 1 7 



Cesare in Mew York Evening Post 




"You are accused of wasting 

the grain supply of the United 

States" 



summer as among the adult civilian 
population of New York state. Dur- 
ing the Spanish-American war the in- 
sanity rate in the army rose from 8 to 
20 per one thousand. 

Special hospital wards and the attend- 
ance of trained psychiatrists will go far 
to facilitate the recovery of the soldiers 
and will also aid the general hospital 
work by removing different elements 
from their wards. The first unit has 
been provided for by Anne Thompson 
of Philadelphia, who has given $15,000 
to defray the expenses. This initial unit 
has been formally offered to the govern- 
ment. 

With Dr. Salmon, Dr. Pearce Bailey 
will serve ; also Dr. Stewart Paton, Dr. 
Lewellys F. Barker, Dr. A. M. Bar- 
rett, Dr. G. Alder Blumer, Dr. Owen 
Copp, Dr. George R. Kirby, Dr. Au- 
gust Hoch, Dr. Adolph Meyer, Dr. 
William L. Russell and Dr. William 
A, White. 

In New York, the State Hospital 
Commission has offered to establish a 
mental clinic or dispensary, with staff, 
at each of the larger military camps in 
the state. The Mental Hygiene Com- 
mittee of the State Charities Aid Asso- 
ciation will cooperate. 

WATCHMEN ON THE WALLS 
OF LABOR 

THAT certain interests in many 
parts of the country have been eager 
to take advantage of the recommendation 
of the Council of National Defense — 
that the legislatures give the governors 
power to modify the labor laws — is 
clearly indicated by reports from vari- 
ous states. So far, however, the other 
recommendation of the council — that no 
modification or suspension be authorized 
except when particularly asked for by 
the council — has been disregarded. 

Vermont has passed a law allowing 



the labor commissioner, on request of the 
governor, to suspend the law limiting 
the hours of work of women and chil- 
dren. A joint resolution proposed in the 
Iowa legislature, authorizing the govern- 
or in case of a serious labor shortage to 
suspend the child labor law, was de- 
feated. From Massachusetts comes 
word that a bill has been drafted after 
a conference between legislative leaders, 
the governor and members of the Public 
Safety Committee, which "will give the 
governor and council authority to sus- 
pend temporarily in case of need the op- 
eration of state laws relative to the hours 
ot labor and Sunday work, so that war 
orders may be filled in haste in case of 
extreme need." Similar efforts to break 
down existing laws are reported from 
Wisconsin and Oregon. 

Responding to this challenge and de- 
claring that "the Consumers' League is 
confronted by the gravest crisis in its his- 
tory" and that there is danger lest "its 



CopvHoM 1917 bv S. 8. McClure 




WHO GETS IT!' 



achievement of a quarter century may 
be largely undone in a few weeks in the 
effort to speed up our national industry," 
Florence Kelley has sent out an appeal 
and a program to members and friends 
of the league, of which she is secretary. 

There are many indications, says Mrs. 
Kelley, "in the present wave of patriotic 
fervor" of a widespread breakdown of 
the labor law. She mentions the bills, 
described in the Survey of last week, 
which at this writing are still pending 
in the New York legislature, and calls 
attention again to the situation in Con- 
necticut where women are employed ten 
hours at night. 

"In the light of the English experi- 
ence," says Mrs. Kelley, "it is clear that 
whatever emergency measures may be 
unavoidable in the United States (such 
as the executive order allowing ten hours 
of work instead of eight in ship-yards on 
account of shortage of labor) should be 
exceptional, and strictly temporary, and 
never precedents applying in any field 
beyond the one in which each is issued." 



She urges that as a legislative program 
every effort be made to: 

1. Preserve statutes prescribing short 
working hours wherever they exist; 

2. Maintain the present minima of sanita- 
tion and safety. 

The letter points out that even in 
the most prosperous times of peace, 
health departments, school boards and 
placement bureaus are insufficiently 
equipped. But "in war they are always 
and everywhere placed financially on a 
starvation basis." As a working pro- 
gram, therefore, for women who "can- 
not enlist for active service on ships 
and in the trenches," Mrs. Kelley sug- 
gests : 

1. That they lend their aid to federal 
placement agencies for women and girls in 
the maintenance of standards in establish- 
ments to which they send employes. 

2. That the local consumers' leagues make 
investigations and suggest better methods, 
preferably by engaging a trained investi- 
gator. 

3. That inquiries be made especially in 
communities where war supplies are being 
manufactured, with respect to safety and 
sanitary arrangements and housing facilities 
in the community. 

4. That wherever the present laws are 
relaxed, leagues cooperate with the officials 
and see to it that periods of overtime are 
limited and subjected to continuous inves- 
tigation. 

Finally, Mrs. Kelley urges that old- 
established principles be faithfully sup- 
ported and maintained. The work for 
the Saturday half-holiday in retail stores 
must be continued. There is special 
need for voluntary home and school 
visitors on account of the high cost of 
living, which "is making serious inroads 
on the health of school children. ... It 
is impossible," she continues, "to over- 
estimate the need that we keep espe- 
cially the soldiers' children in school by 
means of scholarships where necessary. 



Cesare in New York Evening Pott 




"Under cover of the battle our 
sappers made rapid progress" — 
Official Report 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, igj 7 



12: 



"We must strive to encourage enlight- 
ened public care for dependents so that 
there may be no mothers of young chil- 
dren tempted to try to work in manu- 
facture at night and care for them by 
day. In the tremendous demand for 
labor this is a real danger. The wide- 
spread new interest of inexperienced re- 
lief workers threatens that day nurser- 
ies may be instituted to encourage 
mothers to enter industry. 

"It is naturally not proposed that 
every league should undertake every one 
of the suggestions in this letter. Long 
experience proves, however, that there is 
an inexhaustible fund of good will in 
all communities, and ours is the espe- 
cial opportunity of affording it every 
possible outlet within our field of activ- 
ity in this tragic epoch. In the coming 
strain upon the nation the workers will 
bear the heaviest part. It is for us to 
see that they shall not be uselessly sac- 
rificed." 

"HYSTERICAL DEMANDS FOR 
ECONOMY" 

THUS Howard E. Coffin, member 
of the Advisory Commission of the 
Council of National Defense, character- 
izes the misguided patriotism of those 
who preach undiscriminating saving. 
"Some states and municipalities are stop- 
ping road building and other public 
work. General business is being slowed 
down because of the emotional response 
of the trading public to these misguided 
campaigns for economy ; savings are being 
withdrawn from the banks; reports show 
that some people have begun to hoard 
food supplies, and thousands of workers 
are being thrown needlessly out of em- 
ployment. All this is wrong." 

The psychological effect of this coun- 
try's entry of the war, in this respect, 
is almost identical with that noted in 
England in August, 1914. In spite of 
an unprecedented demand for workers 
in the munitions industry and the with- 
drawal of vast numbers through mo- 
bilization and recruiting, whole indus- 
tries became needlessly disorganized and 
whole trades unemployed because mis- 
guided corporations believed that the de- 
mand for goods other than war materials 
would stop or seriously diminish, whole- 
salers reduced their stocks to a minimum, 
and both manufacturers and tradesmen 
abstained from normal alterations and 
extensions of their business and became 
infected with the germ of fear which 
gave to their business policy the aspect 
of a rout rather than of a wise con- 
servatism. 

Public bodies, though not directly af- 
fected by business fluctuations to the same 
extent, are nevertheless influenced by the 
prevalent atmosphere; and, as a result, 
there was for a time a danger of whole- 
sale suspension of public improvements 
and other works of no immediate ur- 
gency. The Local Government Board 
and the national leaders of public policy 



Donnhrn in Cleveland Plain Dealer 




"It's always fair weather when good fellows get together" 



had the same difficulty which Mr. Coffin 
and his colleagues seem now to experi- 
ence here in persuading the local authori- 
ties that the abandonment of works al- 
ready commenced was not only unneces- 
sary, but often wasteful and, if it re- 
sulted in throwing men out of work, 
positively harmful. 

The Mayor's Committee on Unem- 
ployment in New York, which recently 
made a study of the relation of public 
employment to fluctuations in private 
employment, came to the conclusion that 
it is the business of a city "in executing 
permanent improvements, the appropria- 
tions for which have been sanctioned, to 
discriminate in the allotment of funds 
from current revenue and from corpor- 
ate stock in accordance with the respec- 
tive urgency of different expenditures, 
with the avoidance of waste from loss 
of interest incurred by delays in bringing 
improvements into use, with the cost of 
borrowing, of labor and of materials, 
and, finally, with the state of the labor 
market and the rate of unemployment 
prevailing in the city; and that, other 
considerations apart, the city's expendi- 
ture upon such improvements be made as 
far as possible inverse in total volume to 
the general rate of employment in the 
city." 

Mr. Coffin says: "Unemployment and 
closed factories, brought about by fitful 
and ill-advised campaigns for public and 
private economy, will prove a veritable 
foundation of quicksand for the serious 
work we have .at hand." From the ex- 
perience of the belligerent countries, he 
foresees that the demands of most of the 



national industries and upon public utili- 
ties will be increased, not diminished, by 
war. While it lasts, the added activity 
of the nation in military and naval pre- 
paredness, in shipbuilding and food pro- 
duction, will bring more money into cir- 
culation, and, for a time at least, stimu- 
late the demand for all manner of prod- 
ucts which are not directly needed for 
the prosecution of war. A disarrange- 
ment of the commercial and industrial 
machine would have disastrous conse- 
quences. "State activities, road building, 
public works, private industries, all must 
go on as before. Business must be in- 
creased, labor employed and the country 
kept going strongly ahead as a successful 
economic machine. We must have suc- 
cessful industries if successful tax levies 
are to be received." 

TUBERCULOSIS AT HOME 
AND ABROAD 

**TT 7AR conditions will intensify all 
VV the problems which social work- 
ers meet in their work with families," 
said Porter R. Lee, at a meeting of the 
Association of Tuberculosis Clinics held 
in the New York Academy of Medicine. 
Dr. James Alexander Miller, who pre- 
sided, called attention to the crisis faced 
by tuberculosis clinics in the city: First, 
by the probable withdrawal of workers, 
medical and social, for national service ; 
and second, by the deflection of funds — 
not deliberately but under stress of new 
conditions. In family work, Mr. Lee 
continued as he pleaded for continued 
interest and support of the clinics, the 
cost of living will mean closer planning, 



124 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, igiy 



more suffering than ever before, and an 
economy where in tuberculosis cases 
economy should least be practiced — 
in foods. The withdrawal of men from 
many homes, the probable exemption 
from school attendance given to school 
children, and the general unsettling of 
standards, Mr. Lee pointed out as grave 
elements in the present situation. 

Dr. Hermann M. Biggs, state com- 
sioner of health, spoke of conditions as 
he had seen them in France during his 
recent study abroad. Dr. Biggs' ad- 
dress is reproduced on another page of 
this issue. 1 

In closing, Frederick L. Hoffman of 
the Prudential Life Insurance Com- 
pany spoke of the race element in tuber- 
culosis. Race pathology had not been 
given sufficient attention, he believed. 
Race and heredity count in the spread 
of tuberculosis even more than occupa- 
tion, his observations showed. Statis- 
tics that point to a high incidence of 
tuberculosis in low-paid occupations 
sometimes forget to give the equally high 
or higher incidence in the highly-paid 
trades. Strongly Mr. Hoffman ex- 
pressed his belief that people would not 

1 See page 112. 



forget the work of tuberculosis clinics 
or allow it to disintegrate. One luxury 
surrendered, he said, would more than 
pay the cost of supporting this work. 

MOONEY'S PART IN FOREIGN 
RELATIONS 

AT almost the moment last week 
that a mob of radicals in Petro- 
grad was making a demonstration in 
front of the American embassy, be- 
cause of the alleged execution in the 
United States of "a Socialist named 
Mooney," Judge Franklin Griffin of 
the Superior Court in San Francisco, 
who in February sentenced Thomas 
J. Mooney to be hung, was telling the 
district attorney who prosecuted him 
that he ought to take steps toward a 
new trial for Mooney. 

Ten people were killed in San Fran- 
cisco and forty- five injured by the ex- 
plosion of a bomb during the "prepared- 
ness" parade on July 22, 1916. Four 
men and a woman, all connected in one 
way or another with the labor move- 
ment, were indicted by the grand jury. 
Warren K. Billings, former president of 
the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union of 




SMALLPOX 

*" W- Witerbury 

CjT Foci Traceable, to W 

O Foci Not Traceable to W 



CONNECTICUT 

STATE BOARD OF HEALTH 

MARCH 17,1917 



SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC FROM A SINGLE 
IMPORTED CASE 

rHE map prepared by the Connecticut State Board of Health shows how 
from a center in Waterbury smallpox has spread this past winter in all 
directions, even beyond the state lines. A colored girl from North Caro- 
lina was the first case in Waterbury. Since that city was, as a whole, 
opposed to vaccination, the disease made rapid headway, according to 
Commissioner Black. More than fifty school children had smallpox before 
January I, when vaccination was made compulsory; not one has had the 
disease since that time. The Waterbury Health Department has spent 
$20,000; the citizens have spent fully as much because of the epidemic; 
adding to this the loss of time, it is said to have cost Waterbury fully 
$100,000. The state of Connecticut spent not less than a quarter of a mil- 
lion dollars before the epidemic was fully controlled. Bridgeport, New 
Haven and Hartford, cities of larger population than Waterbury and only 
about thirty miles distant, have escaped infection. Vaccination is required 
in all three as a condition of entering school. The epidemic as a whole is 
reported as a mild form 



San Francisco, was the first of the five 
to go on trial. He was convicted last 
December of murder in the first de- 
gree and sentenced to a term of life im- 
prisonment. Mooney was found guilty 
in February and sentenced to be hung 
May 17. Unless something happens to 
prevent, he will be hung on that day. 

But something has happened which 
has already led Judge Griffin to insist 
upon a new trial for Mooney, and some- 
thing that is likely to have a very serious 
effect upon the testimony of the prose- 
cution's star witness. F. C. Oxman, an 
Oregon cattle man, testified that he was 
near the scene of the explosion on the 
day of the parade, and that he saw 
Mooney and the other defendants with 
a suspicious looking suitcase. It was 
largely on the testimony of Oxman that 
Mooney was found guilty. It has re- 
cently come to light, however, that Ox- 
man endeavored to bring an old ac- 
quaintance from Illinois to corroborate 
his testimony by stating that he saw 
Oxman at the point where he claims 
to have been during the parade of 
July 22. 

It is now admitted by the prosecution 
that on December 14, 1916, Oxman 
wrote to F. E. Rigall at Grayville, 111., 
as follows: "I have a chance for you 
to come to San Francisco as an impor- 
tant witness. You will only have to 
answer three or four questions and I 
will post you on them." 

On the eighteenth he wrote again to 
Rigall, offering to furnish expenses and 
saying: "You will only have to say you 
seen me on July 22 in San Francisco 
and that will be easy done." On Decem- 
ber 25, he wrote to Rigall's mother, 
offering to furnish her transportation to 
California. 

Rigall went to San Francisco in re- 
sponse to these requests, but did not take 
the witness stand. On hearing of the 
Mooney verdict he is said to have wired 
to Assistant District Attorney Conlin, 
"Congratulations on your victory. I 
believe my testimony will secure Mooney 
a new trial." He then offered to the 
defense the letters written him by Ox- 
man. 

The San Francisco Bulletin has been 
looking up Oxman's record and states 
that he was engaged in fraudulent land 
deals in Indiana several years ago. Ox- 
man has signified his willingness to go 
to San Francisco to meet the charge of 
attempting to secure perjured testimony. 

It was after the Oxman letters had 
been brought into court that Judge Grif- 
fin expressed the belief that there should 
be a new trial. He is reported to have 
interrupted the protests of the assistant 
district attorney to say, "I don't want 
any technicalities. This is no time for 
technicalities. A man's liberty is at stake. 
I have stated my position, and it is the 
one way to serve justice. As nearly as 
I can learn, there has been no denial of 
Oxman's authorship of these letters. I 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, i 9 i 7 



125 



believe you gentlemen should go at once 
to the attorney-general and ask that the 
trial be referred back to the Superior 
Court. If the district attorney does not 
take this action, it will be my duty to 
take it myself." 

New evidence has also come to light, 
it is said, tending to discredit the chief 
witness in the Billings case. 

As this goes to press District Attorney 
Fickert has taken no action in the case 
beyond denouncing Fremont Older, ed- 
itor of the Bulletin, which first printed 
the Oxman letters. He has given out 
a statement implying that Older had 
knowledge of the bomb explosion and 
threatening to bring him before the 
grand jury. 

DAYLIGHT SAVING BEFORE 
CONGRESS 

SENATOR CALDER on April 17 
introduced the bill drafted by the 
National Daylight Saving Association, 
which provides for setting back the clock 
by approximately one hour for the whole 
country during five months of summer. 
The bill has been drawn on the example 
of similar laws adopted in Great Brit- 
ain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, 
Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden 
and Portugal. It is strongly supported 
by the leading commercial organizations 
of the country, by the American Feder- 
ation of Labor and by various public 
authorities. The President in January 
endorsed the general principle. 

So many extravagant claims have been 
made for daylight saving as an economic 
and social measure that a certain amount 
of opposition was bound to develop. It 
does not, for the great majority of the 
workers, transfer a work hour from the 
hottest part of the day to a cooler one. 
It does not add to the time available 
for recreation — unless the extra hour is 
taken from those normally devoted to 
sleep. It does not appreciably diminish, 
in the summer months, the amount of 
industrial work carried on in artificial 
light and is not, therefore, likely to 
lessen the number of industrial accidents. 

For the great bulk of the urban popu- 
lation, the measure means that one hour 
of those given to recreation is transferred 
from artificial to daylight. And this, 
it need hardly be argued, is a material 
gain. The advantages are well sum- 
marized in a report of the special com- 
mittee on daylight saving of the Boston 
Chamber of Commerce, which groups 
them in three classes — health, morals 
and social welfare; efficiency; economy. 

As regards health, there is evidence 
that sleep during the dark hours of 
night is sounder and more beneficial than 
in the early morning hours. It may be 
feared, however, that to some extent the 
extra hour will come out of those usually 
given to sleep, and a new danger to 
health would result. The main benefit 
to health would come from the extra 



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hour available for outdoor recreation. 
A letter from the Cleveland Chamber 
of Commerce states that the adoption 
of eastern time in that city last summer, 
representing the putting back of the 
clock by approximately one hour, re- 
sulted in 2,000 more men playing base- 
ball and 1,000 more persons playing 
tennis each evening. 

Still more important, with the high 
cost of living, is the opportunity for 
putting in an extra hour after the day's 
work on growing vegetables. 

The Boston chamber, and many other 
advocates of the scheme, would prefer 
to see it applied all the year round. 
Only thus would all its potential social 
advantages become effective. It would 
then really lessen occupational work un- 
der artificial light, enable work girls to 
start home before dark, lessen eye strain 
for school children and make it possible 
for a larger proportion of city workers 
to commute without having to make 
both journeys in the dark, thus giving a 
new incentive to the relief of city con- 
gestion. 

The strongest objection to the plan 
is derived from its compulsory character 
and the needless self-deception, as some 
think. However, the experience of this 
as of every other country has shown 
that voluntary action on the part of in- 
dividual firms or even single cities is too 
difficult to realize, because, in the matter 
of time, we are too closely interlinked 



in our daily life to permit of the use of 
unrelated clocks and time schedules. 

The principal immediate economy, 
even under a restricted application of 
the plan for the summer months only, 
will be in the saving of illuminants. In 
Vienna, where it was in operation from 
April 30 to September 30 of last year, it 
is estimated that 158 million cubic feet 
of gas less were consumed in home light- 
ing and 14 million less in street lighting. 
Evidence before the parliamentary com- 
mittee in England, before the daylight- 
saving act of last year — just renewed for 
the present year by order in council — 
was passed, elicited the following esti- 
mates of saving: Sheffield domestic con- 
sumption of gas, $58,320; London 
County Council tramways, $48,600; 
London and Northwestern Railway, 
$447,120; the whole country about 
$12,500,000. The German Bundesrath 
introduced the scheme after being told 
that it would mean an annual saving 
of approximately $34,179,200; and in 
Austria, $17,089,600 (for the summer 
months only). In Cleveland and De- 
troit, which adopted the plan last sum- 
mer, about $200,000 each was saved in 
consumption of illuminants. 

The Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States points to other economies. 
With our present normal time schedule, 
municipal investments in recreation and 
parks are more wasteful than they need 
be — too many of our parks are empty on 



126 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



The Revolution 
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By Madeleine Z. Doty 

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your annual report a self-survey? 
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William H. Allen, Director 

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week days because the bulk of the popu- 
lation has not time to make use of them 
in daylight. There would also be better 
opportunities for parents and children to 
spend time together in outdoor pursuits, 
and, incidentally, social intercourse gen- 
erally would benefit. 

FAMILY LIMITATION CEN- 
TERS IN CHICAGO 

FOR some months it has been known 
to the newspapers in Chicago that a 
Citizens' Committee on Family Limita- 
tion had been formed, but very little 
was given out for publication beyond 
the names of the members, who consisted 
of a few university professors and their 
wives, three physicians, two lawyers and 
some men and women well known for 
philanthropic work. The first definite 
piece of information was an opinion 
given by the attorney general, Edward 
J. Brundage, in response to an inquiry 
of the committee, who wished to know 
whether it would be contrary to the law 
for a physician to give instruction as to 
birth control, when it was sought and 
in his opinion required. 

The letter sent to Mr. Brundage re- 
cited certain typical cases which the 
members of the committee believed to 
justify the giving of advice and instruc- 
tion and to illustrate the sort of need 
which appeals to the committee as gen- 
uine and deserving relief: 

A woman, twenty years old, married two 
and one-half years, one baby two years old 
and another nine months old; husband earn- 
ing twelve dollars a week. She is not at all 
robust and has very high ideals as to care 
of children and proper housekeeping. She 
comes and begs for advice. 

A woman, thirty-five years old, has seven 
children; husband for years has done only 
a little work through the summer months 
and the rest of the time the family is sup- 
ported by charity. The woman is worn to a 
thread and the children are little, puny, un- 
developed things. She comes and begs for 
advice. 

Mr. Brundage's comment on these 
cases is: 

It seems to me that in cases of the char- 
acter described, the matter of the giving of 
such advice is very largely discretionary 
with the physician, and that there is noth- 
ing in the statute which would prevent his 
giving advice relative to such matters in 
those cases in which it is his judgment that 
the physical health and welfare of the 
mother require that she be not subjected to 
the risk and strain of pregnancy and child- 
bearing. . . . There is no such statute in 
this state as in that of New York which for- 
bids and penalizes the giving of advice or 
information relative to the prevention of 
conception. 

The cases cited were chosen carefully 
by the committee to avoid any charge 
of exaggeration or overstatement ; any- 
one, it believes, who has had experience 
with poor people could relate instances 
far more dramatic and moving than 
these. 

[Continued on page 128] 



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the kindness, patience, insight, courage 
and organized effort which have won 
many a signal victory for human ad- 
vance ; 

the enemies still to be beaten — poverty, 
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unconcern ; 

the pitfalls of relaxation of social and 
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the illuminating experience of individuals, 
groups and communities all over the 
country in meeting the call of emergent 
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the counsel of those social and civic 
leaders who long have been 'in the thick 
of the struggle; 

the vision of a fraternal human race 
emerging from out the welter of the 
world war. 

Will you volunteer 

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127 



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THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



A New Work On Correction 
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THE 
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[Continued from page 126] 

The decision of the attorney-general 
makes it possible for the committee to 
proceed at once to start centers for the 
giving of instruction as to birth control, 
patterned after those of Holland, where 
physicians hold clinics and advise those 
who come to them for help. The gen- 
eral principles of this movement will be 
explained and advocated in public meet- 
ings, but instruction will always be pri- 
vately and individually given. There 
will be no general distribution of printed 
instructions, for the committee believes 
that when advice of this kind is given 
out indiscriminately and without confer- 
ence there is great danger that those 
who need it most, the very ignorant, may 
through lack of understanding, use it 
in such a way as to produce disastrous 
results ; if the movement is to be kept on 
a high plane it is essential that the teach- 
ing be carefully given to each individual 
and by a physician. 

Above all, the committee holds it is 
necessary to teach not only the people 
seeking advice, but the general public 
that there is the greatest difference be- 
tween the prevention of conception and 
the production of abortion, for the latter 
is a crime, unless it is done for the sake 
of saving the mother's life ; there seems 
to be much confusion on this point even 
among educated people, perhaps because 
state laws commonly treat the two 
procedures as if they were equally 
criminal. 

A movement conducted according to 
these plans is not expected to progress 
rapidly, but it is believed that it will 
go on without setbacks and that the 
avoidance of harmful results to the 
patients and of confusion and unde- 
served condemnation on the part of the 
public will more than make up for the 
lack of widespread propaganda and pub- 
licity. 

Just recently the committee sent to 
the papers a statement of the principles 
signed not only by the members of the 
committee, but by a large number of 
well-known citizens, including seventeen 
prominent physicians, lawyers, ministers, 
journalists and social workers. The 
statement begins with the following 
paragraph. 

We believe that the privilege of having 
children carries with it the responsibility for 
the happiness and welfare of each child. We 
contend, however, that it is inconsistent to 
preach the importance of healthy, wedl-de- 
veloped families to parents who are denied 
the knowledge whereby they can determine 
the size of the family for which they are to 
care. All too frequently, as a result of 
parental ignorance or helplessness, unde- 
sired children are born to ill-health and 
misery or are destroyed before birth by par- 
ents who feel themselves driven in desper- 
ation to this terrible recourse. Owing to 
fear of legal restrictions, real or fancied, and 
to general misunderstanding as well, the 
knowledge which might remedy these evils 
is withheld from great numbers in the com- 
munity. 



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THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5j i g i 7 



129 



Among those who signed the state- 
ment are: 

Dr. Isaac A. Abt, Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen, 
Mr. and Mrs. William F. Dummer, Dr. 
John Favill, Prof, and Mrs. James N. Field, 
Mrs. Walter L. Fisher, Dr. Alice Hamilton, 
Mrs. Charles Henrotin, Max Loeb, Judge 
and Mrs. Julian W. Mack, Prof, and Mrs. 
George H. Mead, Allen B. Pond, Mrs. Julius 
Rosenwald, Prof. Graham Taylor, Dr. 
Rachelle Yarros and Prof, and Mrs. Frank 
R. Lillie. 

The Chicago committee does not in- 
tend to court publicity, but hopes for a 
gradual change in the attitude of the 
public toward this long-forbidden sub- 
ject. 

SOCIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE 
CITY OF MOSCOW 

THE idea of Moscow as a city of 
semi-Asiatic lethargy is much exag- 
gerated to say the least, to judge from 
reports just received in this country of 
its present activities for the social wel- 
fare. The city is planning for this year 
a campaign of advance in work for chil- 
dren. A special committee has been ap- 
pointed to organize a central home for 
dependent children, two smaller homes, 
a residential industrial school, a bureau 
for the boarding out and supervision of 
•children placed with private families, and 
a bureau for the tracing of parents ana 
restoration of children to them. The 
latter has been necessitated by the influx 
of refugees. 

The city established a public employ- 
ment bureau in 1914, in a large building 
next door to one of several municipal 
lodging houses. During 1915, the bu- 
reau's first complete year, 77,855 persons 
applied for work and 56,813, 76 per 
cent, were placed. During the first six 
months of 1916, 36,686 persons applied, 
and 29,304, 74 per cent, were placed. 
In addition, the municipality operates a 
separate public employment bureau for 
skilled labor, which maintains five 
branches. In this department, 42,685 
applied for positions, and 28,447 were 
provided with work. 

Plans have been completed for a large 
model tenement, to be built by the city, 
at a cost of about $342,000, on a site val- 
ued at $380,000, given by private philan- 
thropy. This is the first municipal hous- 
ing enterprise in Russia; it is actually 
under construction, but its completion 
has been delayed by the war. It is to 
contain 551 rooms, exclusive of kitchens, 
and to be equipped with library and 
nurseries. Other similar houses are be- 
ing built, partly from private and partly 
from public funds, including one nearing 
completion begun by a gift of Mme. M. 
G. Mikhailova. The city also partici- 
pates in the administration of the Solod- 
nikoff tenements, model houses erected 
some time ago from a fund given by G. 
G. Solodnikoff to provide dwellings at 
low rents. 

Owing to the patriarchal spirit which, 



Social Problems of the War 

To be discussed at the National Conference 
of Charities and Correction at Pittsburgh 

JUNE 6-13, 1917 

An Important Series of Meetings Arranged Under 

the Leadership of an Ex-President of the 

Conference, Edward T. Devine 



International Service 
Domestic Economy 
Health Measures 
Community Organization and 
Co-operation 



Maintaining Industrial 

Standards 
Conservation of Child Life 
After-the-War Problems 
European Experience 



Speakers of unquestioned preeminence. A special handbook of 
addresses may be issued immediately after the Conference. 

IN ADDITION: The regular program of the Conference 
remains intact, covering all phases of social work. 



JOIN NOW 



COME TO PITTSBURGH! 



Address for Information ; 

National Conference of Charities and Correction 
315 Plymouth Court, Chicago 



Classified Advertisements 



SOCIAL WORKERS' EMPLOYMENT 
EXCHANGE: The Department for Social 
Workers of the Intercollegiate Bureau of 
Occupations registers men and women for 
positions in social and civic work, the 
qualifications for registration being a de- 
gree from an accredited college, a year's 
course in a professional school training for 
social or civic work, or experience which 
has given at least equivalent preparation. 
Needs of organizations seeking workers 
are given careful and prompt attention. 
EMELYN PECK, Manager, 130 East 22d 
St., New York City. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 



MAN AND WIFE, thoroughly versed in 
modern institution methods, seek appoint- 
ment as Superintendent and Matron of 
Orphanage located in country. Address 
2493 Survey. 



COLLEGE WOMAN— experienced 6 
yrs. public school work, \ l / 2 yrs. institu- 
tional (reformatory) — strong disciplinarian, 
executive, Protestant, aged 32, interested in 
wayward girls — like residential position, 
consider superintendency of small school or 
settlement, or educational supervisor in 
large institution. Go anywhere. Address 
2506 Survey. 



WANTED by a young woman, graduate 
Kindergartener, five years' settlement ex- 
perience with children; position of re- 
sponsibility in connection with children's 
work. Address 2503 Survey. 

COLLEGE STUDENT with secretarial 
training and experience wishes a secre- 
tarial position for the summer, preferably 
in the country. References upon request. 

Address 2504 Survey. 

BOYS' CAMP DIRECTOR with ten 
years experience in boys' Camps would like 
position for July and August in settlement 
camp or fresh air work with children. Is 
trained physical director. Prefers work 
with boys of "street boy" type. Opportunity 
for service rather than large salary is 
sought. Please write R. W. Noon, Prin- 
cipal Boys' Disciplinary School, New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

HELP WANTED 

THE POSITION OF GIRLS' WORKER 
in a large, well-equipped social settlement 
will be open June 15th. Must be mature 
and have had some experience in social 
work. Jewess preferred. Give full in- 
formation, in your application as to experi- 
ence, salary expected, references, etc. Ad- 
dress 2496 Survey. 



SETTLEMENT WORKER in city. Should 
have knowledge of stenography, playground 
activities and industrial class work. Sal- 
ary $60. Address 2505, Survey. 



Rill I FTIN<S • "Five-Cent Meals," 10c; "hood 
DULLLllNd. Values." 10c; "Free-Hand Cook- 
ing, ' 10c; "The Up-To-Date Home, Labor Saving Ap- 
pliances," 15c; "The Profession of Home-Making, 
Home Study, Domestic Science Courses, 100 pp. free, 
American School of Home Economics. 519 West 69th St. .Chicago 



130 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



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until recently, has prevailed throughout 
Russia, private charity has been on a 
scale surpassing that of most other Eu- 
ropean countries. Yet the city council 
of Moscow last year spent nearly a mil- 
lion dollars in public charity, divided as 
follows: Workhouse, $280,000; alms- 
house, $215,000; outdoor relief, $144,- 
000; children's home, $101,000; free 
tenements, $75,000; unclassified, $88,- 
000. 

There is every likelihood that in the 
future public work for social betterment 
in Moscow will receive a further stimu- 
lus from increased participation of wom- 
en in municipal work. According to a 
cable received by the Chicago Daily 
News, the Moscow League of Equal 
Rights for Women, in collaboration with 
representatives of working women and 
labor deputies, has issued a manifesto, in 
which other claims besides that for equal 
franchise stand out prominently. 

"Women must be promptly admitted 
to the ranks of factory inspectors, law- 
yers, notaries, and in general to all 
branches of the public service." They 
demand "the abolition of all discrimina- 
tive laws concerning the social evil that 
degrades the human dignity of women" 
— a protest more especially, it would 
seem, directed against vice segregation 
and the "yellow ticket," the symbol of 
police registration. Equal pay for equal 
work, measures for the protection of 
child workers, equal peasant rights un- 
der all future agrarian reforms, the ap- 
pointment of women commissioners, both 
in government and municipal depart- 
ments affecting the interests of women, 
are other parts of the program. 

A TEN-YEAR PROGRAM FOR 
THE INSANE 

SELDOM has a state faced the prob- 
lem of its insane so frankly as New 
York has just done in creating a Hos- 
pital Development Commission, which 
is to work out a comprehensive ten-year 
program and make a study of the proper 
care of the feebleminded. The commis- 
sion is composed of the state engineer, 
the chairman of the State Hospital Com- 
mission, the state architect, the chairmen 
of the Senate Finance Committee and 
Assembly Ways and Means Committee, 
two members to be appointed by the gov- 
ernor, and one legislator who must be a 
minority member of a financial commit- 
tee of the legislature and is to be named 
by the minority leaders of Senate and 
Assembly. 

The commission is to investigate the 
capacity of the present state hospital 
buildings ; to consider the future policy 
of the state in the care of the insane, 
and whether advisable to make it part 
custodial and part hospital ; to adopt a 
general plan of hospital development, 
taking into consideration proximity to 
centers of population, healthfulness and 
other matters ; to devise and adopt a plan 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5 , i 9 1 7 



131 



SOCIAL DIAGNOSIS 

By MARY E. RICHMOND 

For six years Miss Richmond has been studying and gath- 
ering material for this book. It represents not only the 
product of her long and varied experience in charity organ- 
ization work but also the best thought and practice in every 
form of case work. It is an exposition of the technique of 
social work with families and individuals. The case method 
is largely used, 458 case illustrations and citations from the ex- 
perience of social practitioners being included in its pages. 

Written primarily for persons who intend to make social work a profession, 
this textbook will also be indispensable to students of social conditions — 
teachers, judges, doctors, employment managers, clergymen, and all 
others who must make decisions affecting the welfare of individuals. 

Cloth; large octavo; 511 pp. Price, $2.00 net; postpaid, $2.10. 
Order from PUBLICATION DEPARTMENT, RUSSELL SAGE FOUNDATION - 130 East 22 Street, New York City 



not only for the normal increase of pa- 
tients during the next ten years, but for 
a moderate surplusage of accommoda- 
tions when the plan is completed. It 
is to estimate the probable cost of this 
plan in detail, considering each hospital 
site as an entity and submitting a plan 
for its development to a predetermined 
capacity. Each year it is to recommend 
to the legislature an expenditure equal 
to one-tenth of the cost of the entire 
plan. When investigating the proper 
care of the feebleminded "with the pur- 
pose of devising a plan for its solution," 
the personnel of the commission is 
slightly changed. 

Many facts concerning present over- 
crowding in hospitals for the insane, and 
the lack of a coordinated development 
of such hospitals, are already well 
known. The commission will have, 
however, an important opportunity to 
determine more definitely general pro- 
cedures and policies in relation to the 
type of buildings and the size to which 
various hospitals ought to be developed. 
Its recommendations, also, with regard 
to a definite program of expenditure, 
coming from a commission that includes 
authoritative members of the legislature 
on financial matters, are expected to 
carry great weight. It is understood that 
the commission will report to the legis- 
lature early in the session of 1918, but 
apparently the bill introduced and 



pushed by Senator Henry M. Sage pro- 
vides for its continuance until the ten- 
year program is completed. 

Appropriations totalling $1,297,724 
for new construction at state hospitals 
for the insane are provided in this bill 
and in the general appropriation bill, 
also signed by the governor. In addi- 
tion to these amounts, which are avail- 
able this year, the bills authorize con- 
tracts amounting to $1,636,745, making 
a total of $2,934,469 of appropriation 
and authorization for these hospitals. 
The appropriations for this year are the 
largest made by the state in several years 
and will go far toward relieving the 
present overcrowding of 6,000 patients. 
Hospitals in the metropolitan district, 
where overcrowding is greatest, get the 
largest amounts. 

For new construction at state insti- 
tutions for the feebleminded and epi- 
leptic, total appropriations of $614,500 
are made available this year and con- 
tracts for $529,600 are authorized. 
Letchworth Village gets the greatest 
share of these amounts. Four cottages 
are under construction there and eight 
new ones will be built from this year's 
funds. In all, 890 beds will be added 
to the state's provision for the feeble- 
minded. This resulted largely from an 
energetic campaign by the New York 
Committee on Feeblemindedness and the 
State Charities Aid Association. 



FOR NATIONALIZING THE 
NEIGHBORHOOD 

RINGING response to the call for 
real democracy among the nations 
was given by John Collier, of New York, 
in sounding the opening note of the sec- 
ond National Community Center Con- 
ference held last week at Chicago. It 
re-echoed in the varied discussions which 
filled almost every hour of five days, ex- 
cepting the intermissions planned to show 
the 300 delegates Chicago's great equip- 
ment for local community work. 

The 300 came from twenty-six states. 
They represented all forms of community 
centers and tributary agencies — schools, 
playground and recreation centers, settle- 
ments, boards of education, open forums 
and labor forums, many kinds of clubs, 
boy scouts and pioneers, and some 
churches, with many individual attend- 
ants — doctors, educators, ministers, so- 
cial workers and public officials. 

Much of the spirit and many of the 
distinctive features of the community 
center work itself, including folk singing 
and dancing, characterized the program, 
the heading of which described it as "a 
gathering up of forces, a revaluation of 
national ideals, a vision of the future." 
Wide range was given to the topics dis- 
cussed and the discussion of them. The 
changes rung on the dominant note of 
democracy varied as high ideals, funda- 
mental principles, insistent standards and 



132 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, 1917 



Recreation Equipment 

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multifarious details were dealt with. 
Perhaps the publicly-supported, equipped 
and controlled center work, done under 
the auspices of school boards, park and 
playground commissions and public wel- 
fare boards, with the active cooperation 
of local organizations, was most in evi- 
dence. But the volunteer workers and 
private agencies, such as the social 
settlements, the Immigrants' Protective 
League, the Civic Music Association, the 
labor union officials, people's institutes, 
open forums and educational institutions 
furnished their full share. 

One practical result of the conference, 
suggested by Mary K. Simkhovitch, of 
New York, is a clearing-house joint- 
committee for the exchange of informa- 
tion, suggestion and prompting in which 
it is hoped to bring into advisory rela- 
tion with each other the officials of the 
Community Center Conference, the 
Plaj^ground and Recreation Association, 
the National Federation of Settlements 
and the Open Forum Council, whose 
spheres of activity have many points of 
common interest. 

The conference became a permanent 
organization, with a general council and 
departmental and regional divisions, to 
give national scope to the promotion and 
standardizing of community center work. 

The Open Forum Council held its 
fourth annual meeting in connection with 
the National Community Center Con- 
ference. Its separate sessions were large- 
ly devoted to giving national scope and 
organization to the open forum move- 
ment. Under the leadership of George 
W. Coleman, of Boston, out of whose 
Sagamore Sociological Convention the 
Open Forum Council grew, the Chicago 
meeting was representative both in its 
membership, which came from widely 
scattered cities and states, and in the di- 
versity of the points of view freely ex- 
pressed by those whose community of in- 
terests was the promotion and safeguard- 
ing of a free democracy. 

The program wasted no time in as- 
serting the right to free thought and 
speech, but was planned to conserve the 
dynamics and illuminate the methods of 
the forum movement. Reports of the 
practical operation and valuable results 
of local open forums inspired all who 
heard them with the value of the move- 
ment. The next meeting will be held 
with the original forum at Cooper Union, 
New York city. 

THE WAY TOWARD A PEACE 
THAT SHALL LAST 

AMERICAN Relation to the World 
Conflict and the Coming Peace, 
the question discussed at the twenty-first 
meeting of the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science at Philadel- 
phia, was substituted several months ago 
for the less timely topic originally 
planned. In the words of W. H. Reeves, 
of the University of Pennsylvania, who 
has sent the Survey a report of the ses- 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5, igjy 



133 



sions, "the speakers represented all 
gradations of thought from the pacifist 
to the militarist. 

"Yet, although these words were used 
with freedom during the meetings, it was 
to be noted how very little significance 
might be attached to them, for certain it 
was that the ideas of some of those who 
called themselves militarists differed not 
at all from some of those who called 
themselves pacifists, while the reverse 
was equally true." 

The meetings were divided into six 
sessions, each forming a carefully laid 
step in the progress towards the final 
meeting at which the question was 
America's Participation in a League for 
the Maintenance of a Just and Durable 
Peace. 

The task of the speakers of the first 
session was really to interpret the recent 
historic events leading up to the entry of 
America into the war and if possible to 
crystallize public opinion on that event. 
Two clear-cut ideas were presented. 
One would see the cause of international 
hate as due to the conflicting; interests 
of governments. Autocratic government 
must ever have different aims and ideals 
from democratic government. There- 
fore, we may never expect peace until a 
democratic government supersedes the 
autocratic, imposed if necessary by an 
outside force. Only between similar 
governments can lasting agreements be 
made, because only between such can 
there be unanimity of thought. 

The other proposition was that inter- 
national hate is engendered by condi- 
tions more fundamental than by differ- 
ent ideals expressed by different forms of 
government. One people have indeed no 
means of knowing the type of govern- 
ment best suited to. the needs of another 
people. Hate arises not from different 
governments, but from unequal and con- 
flicting economic interests. Therefore, 
to attain international accord, it is not 
sufficient to change the outward form of 
a government, but we must replace hate 
with love, while this can be done only 
by removing the cause of hate — unequal 
economic opportunity. 

At the second meeting there was gen- 
eral agreement that America has an ob- 
ligation as the defender of international 
right, but the question of the concrete 
course of action by which that obliga- 
tion should be met was answered by no 
great unanimity. Various familiar meth- 
ods which America may use were gone 
over, but no scheme new in itself was 
devised. 

At the next two meetings, which both 
discussed a Just and Durable Peace, the 
two attitudes of militarism and pacifism 
were most clearly set each against the 
other. The former demanded a peace 
which would result from a fight to the 
finish and an imposition of the ideals of 
the conquerors upon the conquered. Nor 
was there any doubt as to who would be 



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1917 SUMMER SESSION, JUNE 20-JULY 27 

General Course for Social Workers 

Four Credit Courses: First Year— Methods in Social Work; Social Economics. 
Second Year— Principles of Case Work; Municipal Problems. 
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Visits of Inspection to the important social institutions in or near 
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Special Course for Playground Workers 

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Associates 

OF THE 

American-Scandinavian Foundation 

One object of this international organization is to bring all those who are 
interested in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, or the social experiments, inven- 
tions, literature, and art of these cpuntries, into close connection with reliable 
sources of information. To this end the Foundation publishes: 

THE AMERICAN-SCANDINAVIAN REVIEW, a handsome illustrated 
magazine, full of interesting information relative to Scandinavian subjects. 

SCANDINAVIAN CLASSICS, a series of finely-printed books, planned 
to include the greatest literary monuments, ancient and modern, of the North. 
Two volumes are published every year. The series now includes works of 
Strindberg, Bjornson, Holberg, Snorri, and others. 

SCANDINAVIAN MONOGRAPHS, a series of large works of a scholarly 
nature, including "The Voyages of the Norsemen to America." 

You are invited to become an Associate of the Foundation. It costs only 
$1 a year, and brings you regularly "The American-Scandinavian Review" free. 
Sustaining Associates, who pay $5 a year, receive in addition the two volumes 
of the "Scandinavian Classics" each year free. Application blanks may be 
obtained by writing to the Secretary of the American-Scandinavian Founda- 
tion, 25 West 45th Street, New York. 



the conqueror or as to what those ideals 
are or should be. This presentation of 
a method of obtaining peace had the ad- 
vantage of being definite and tangible. 

The idea put forth by the other group 
is more difficult to express concretely. 
Peace could not permanently be attained 
under existing conditions they held; a 
new international law is necessary, 
framed with the concurrence of all those 
affected by it and differing from the old 
international law in that there would be 
vested in some responsible body power 
to enforce the law. Those who heralded 
this view were somewhat inclined to 
overlook the present difficulties or at 
least to minimize them. True, many 
pacifists admitted freely the necessity for 
American participation in the present 
conflict, but they were unwilling to ad- 
mit that for the future any good could 
flow from the present system by which 



each nation is permitted to adjust its 
own international difficulties in its own 
peculiar way. 

What the definite terms of peace 
should be was discussed but briefly by 
any of the speakers, indeed most seemed 
studiously to avoid this question through- 
out. The most bellicose militarist sel- 
dom raised more than the general cry 
of "Germany shall repay," and even 
when a bolder speaker attempted to 
settle terms of peace or fix new boun- 
daries of nations his statements were re- 
ceived with no great seriousness by the 
audience. 

The fifth meeting considered the 
Rights of Small Nations. Viewed in 
a historical way it would seem that 
small nations have never enjoyed any 
extended rights. Even when their rights 
have been admitted by the great powers 
of earth, those same powers have failed 



134 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 5 , 1 9 1 7 



The Metropolitan 

Life Insurance Company 

has just closed its most prosperous year. 
By this is meant the most prosperous year, 
not alone for the corporation, but for the 
policy-holders, who have owned it since 
it became a mutual company. 

Notable progress was made in the re- 
duction of the expense of Industrial insur- 
ance. The ratio of Industrial insurance 
expenses to premium income is far lower 
than has ever been shown by any American 
or English industrial insurance company, 
and its lapse ratio is the lowest in its history. 

Some very interesting facts have been 
developed in its summary of the business. 

It paid a policy claim every 4 1 seconds of each 
business day of eight hours, during the year. 

Its average payments were $266.05 a minute 
of each business day of eight hours. 

It paid 70 1 claims per day on an average the 
year through. 

It issued or revived 8,304 policies a day on the 
average, amounting to $1,969,823 of insurance. 

Every day it paid to policy holders, or set aside 
as reserve, $376,827.40. 

Its assets increased on an average every day 
$220,509.26. 

On ^December 31, 1 9 1 6, its whole number of 
policies outstanding was 16,952,769 for the great 
total] of $3,482,431,996. 



to act as though these rights really 
existed. One speaker made very pointed 
reference to the treatment our own 
country has given to those South Amer- 
ican republics for which we profess to 
have high esteem. A new code of inter- 
national morals seems necessary in re- 
gard to small nations if we wish to pre- 
vent them from being exploited. 

The final session, toward which all 
the other meetings had worked as a 
climax, might have led to the belief that 
discussion of America's Participation in 
a League for the Maintenance of a Just 
and Durable Peace would have agreed 
on a league of nations as the logical way 
to prevent war. But such an arrange- 
ment would not prevent war, one speaker 
admitted, for such a league must be held 
together by treaties, and no treaty, how- 
ever well forged, can be anything but a 
weak link in a chain to bind the nations 
together. Treaties have been broken and 
treaties will be broken, for with our 
present international morality, the needs 
of a sovereign state always take prece- 
dence over any rules set forth in a paper 
treaty. Our own country has been 
scarcely more careful of her treaty obli- 
ations than other nations. 

An arbitration court will not be ef- 
fective, for no nation will submit to such 
a court any subject concerning her na- 
tional honor. A greater trust in God 
was urged by one, that our present-day 
soldiers may go forth for American 
ideals with the same trust in divine 
guidance as did our ancestors. We may 
never attain peace while we continually 
go armed against one another; only by 
universal disarmament may war be 
stopped, was the keynote of another. 
Neither convinced his audience. 

There was, however, Mr. Reeves re- 
ports, one note of hope for the future 
which was clear and practicable. It 
came as a historical sketch of the prog- 
ress of civilization. The speaker showed 
that individual interests have been con- 
solidated into communal interests and 
these in turn into still larger units. So 
a league of nations will not only prevent 
war, but will unify the individual in- 
terests of all its members; one step more 
in the process which civilization has 
made and is making. The duel, once 
considered indispensable because it con- 
cerned a point of "honor," is now dis- 
credited. So war, even in case of 
"national honor," may become equally 
discredited when the interests of the na- 
tion are merged into the larger world 
interest. 

"This may not satisfy the impatient 
reformer who demands a speedy panacea 
for all social ills," says Mr. Reeves, "but 
the student of world movements who 
knows that any progress is made only 
by slow and painful steps sees in this in- 
terpretation the possibility of arriving at 
last at the goal towards which he is will- 
ing to work long and patiently — the goal 
of universal peace." 



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THE GREAT SPRING DRIVE 

France, always suffering from a high death-rate from tuberculosis, has found her situation in- 
finitely worse from the cases among the soldiers and the deported civilians of the northern prov- 
inces. But she has turned on her foe and started a campaign of help and education, in which the 

poster shown above plays a part. 



Price 10 Cents 



May 12, 1917 





PAMPHLETS 





CIVICS AND RECREATION 

A Program of Political Democracy and Civic 
Effort. By H. S. Gilbertson, 381 Fourth ave- 
nue. New York city. 

Nation Building. By J. S. Woodsworth. Pub- 
licity Commissioner, Province of Manitoba, Win- 
nipeg, Man. 

The Home Defense League. By Henry Jay 
Case, secretary to the Police Commissioner, New 
York city. 

Property Exempt from Taxation in the Forty- 
eight States. By William E. Hannan. Uni- 
versity of the State of New York Bulletin, Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

First Steps in Community Center Development. 
By Clarence Arthur Perry. Price 10 cents. De- 
partment of Recreation, Russell Sage Founda- 
tion, 130 East 22 street, New York city. 

The Charter of the City of Dayton, Ohio. 
C. E. Rightor, director Dayton Bureau of Re- 
search. 

Report of the Recreation Conditions and Prob- 
lems of Galesburg, with Recommendations and 
Suggested System. By James Edward Rogers. 
Playground and Recreation Association of Amer- 
ica, 1 Madison avenue, New York city. 

Social Work in Dixie. By William T. Cross. 
Secretary and Treasurer National Conference of 
Charities and Corrections, 315 Plymouth Court, 
Chicago. Single copies free on request. 

Playground Facts. The Year Book of the Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of America. 
Price 50 cents. Play for America. By H. S. 
Braucher. Michigan and the Recreation Move- 
ment. By Hon. Woodbridge N. Ferris. Price 15 
cents. A Municipal Neighborhood Recreation 
Center. By Harold O. Berg. Price 15 cents. The 
State Work of the Public Athletic League of Bal- 
timore. By William H. Burdick. Price 5 cents. 
Parents Share in the Play of Their Children. 
Price 5 cents. Plan for the Organization of 
the Hunting, Fighting and Chasing Games for 
Grammar and High Schools. By George W. 
Ehler. Price 5 cents. A Pushmobile Contest 
on Playgrounds. By John Glasgow R 
Price 5 cents. The Soul and the Soil. By 
Alfred G. Arvold. Price 15 cents. The Com- 
munity Christmas Tree. By Grace Humphrey. 
Price 25 cents. Some Notes on the Construction 
and Administration of Swimming Pools. By 
Joseph E. Roycroft, M. D. Price 20 cents. How 
to Build and Keep a Tennis Court. By Paul B. 
Williams. Price 25 cents. Playground and 
Recreation Association of America, 1 Madison 
avenue, New York city. 

The Kincshichway. A report of the City Plan 
Commission, St. Louis, Mo. First Year's Work 
of the Institute for Public Service. Price 50 
cents. 51 Chambers street, New York city. 

CRIME 

New Haven Jail Investigation. By Dr. John 
E. Lane. County Jail of New Haven. By Dr. 
Hastings H. Hart. Russell Sage Foundation, ~ 
130 East 22 street, New York city. 

Social Justice and Legal Education. By Louis 
B. Wehle, Louisville, Ky. Reprint from the 
American Law Review. 

The Traumatic Neurosis: Nature and Manage- 
ment: Some Forensic Aspects. By Tom A. 
Williams, M. D. Reprint from the Journal of 
the American Institute of Criminal Lam and 
Criminology. Northwestern University Press, 
Chicago. 

Laws of the Various States Relating to 
Vagrancy. Michigan State Library, Legislative 
Reference Department, Lansing, Michigan. 

War and Criminal Anthropology. By Arthur 
MacDonald, House of Representatives, Washing- 
ton, D. C 

EDUCATION 

Education through Play and Games. Report 
Suggesting Games to be Used by Schools as 
Part of Our Educational System. Price 15 cents. 
Playground and Recreation Association of Amer- 
ica, 1 Madison avenue, New York city. 

Rural School Supervision. By Katherine M. 
Cook and A. C Monahan. Department of the 
Interior, Bureau of Education. Price 10 cents. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C 

Who's Who on Our Boards of Education. Re- 
print from School and Society. Scott Nearing, 
Toledo University, Ohio. 

Federal Aid to Vocational Education in Your 
State. Copies gratis, from H. E. Miles, Ch., 
Racine, Wis. 

Mental Status of Rural School Children. By 
E. H. Mullan. The Mental Status of Rural 
School Children of Porter County, Indiana. By 
Taliaferro Clark and W. L. Treadway. United 
States Public Health Service. Price 5 cents. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Report on the Work of the Bureau of Educa- 
tion for the Natives of Alaska, 1914-5. De- 



partment of the Interior, Bureau of Education. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Recent Movements in College and University 
Administration. By Samuel Paul Capen. De 
partment of the Interior, Bureau of Education. 
Pric< Government Printing Office, 

ton, D. C. 
noNAi Kdui 
Minn. United Slates Department o) Labor, 

i Labor Statistics. Price 65 
Government Printing Office, Washington. D C. 

Educational Control of the Prf.-School Period. 
By William L. Dealey, 872 Hope street. Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Argicui.tural and Rural Extension Schools in 
Ireland. By A. C. Monahan. Department of 
the Interior, Bureau of : Education. Price 1 5 
cents. Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Educative and Economic Possibilities of School- 
Directed Home Gardening in Richmond, In- 
diana. By J. L. Randall. Department of the 
Interior, Bureau of Education. Price 10 cents. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D C. 

HEALTH 

Hospital Survey of a Community. By Joseph 
J. Weber. State Charities Aid Association, 105 
East 22 street, New York city. 

Report of the 1915 Legislature Committee on 
Mental Deficiency and the Proposed Institu- 
tion i or the Care of Feebleminded and Epi- 
leptic Persons. Fred C Nelles, chairman 
Whittier State School, Cal. 

Framingham's Opportunity. To the People of 
Framingham, from the Community Health Sta- 
tion-, Winsonia building, Union avenue, Fiam 
ingnam, ; ( . 

Compulsory Health Insurance. By Magnus W. 
Alexander, West Lynn, Mass. 

Bright Eyes. How to Keep Them Shining. Na- 
tional Committee for the Prevention of Blind- 
ness, 130 East 22 street, New York city. 

Restore the Coroners. Check Dangerous Medi- 
cal Domination and Protect Public Right and 
Safety. By Charles M. Higgins, 271 Ninth 
street, Brooklyn. 

Facts and Fallacies of Compulsory Health In- 
surance. By Frederick L. Hoffman. Prudential 
Life Insurance Company, Newark. N. J. 

A Plea and a Plan for the Eradication of 
Malabia throughout -the Western Hemi- 
sphere. By Frederick L. Hbffman. Prudential 
Life Insurance Company, Newark, N. T. 

Outdoor Treatment for Defective Nutrition. 
By Edward F. Brown. New York Association 
for Improving the Condition of the Poor, 105 
East 22 street. New York city. 

Methods of Investigation in Social and Health 
Problems. By Donald B. Armstrong, Franz 
Schneider, Jr., Louis I. Dublin. Price 20 cents. 
Department of Survevs and Exhibits. Russell 
Sage Foundation, 130 East 22 street, New York 
citv. 

The Present Status of Birth Registration in 
American Cities and Its Relation to the In- 
fant Mortality Rate. By Louis I. Dublin, 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1 Madi- 
son avenue. New York city 

The Increasing Mortality After Age Forty-five 
— Some Causes and Explanations. The Appli- 
cation of the Statistical Method to Public Health 
Research. Louis I. Dublin. Metropolitan Life 
Insurance Company, 1 Madison avenue, New 
York city. 

Don't Die on Third. Bureau of Public Health 
Education of the Department of Health, New 
York citv. 

How to Conduct a Children's Health Confer- 
ence. Bv Frances Sage Bradley, M. D.. and 
Florence Brown Sherbon, M. D. United States 
Department of Labor, Children's Bureau. Price 
5 cents. Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Prostitution in Its Relation to the Army on 
the Mexican Border. By M. J. Exner. M. D. 
Price 5 cents. The American Social Hygiene 
Association. 105 West 40 street, New York city. 

Asphyxiation from Blast-Furnace Gas. By Fred- 
erick H. Willcox. Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Mines. Technical Paper 106. Price 
15 cents. Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Anthrax as an Occupational Disease. By John 
B. Andrews. United States Department of Labor, 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Price 25 cents. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 

Municipal Ordinances, Rules and Regulations 
Pertaining to Public Health. United States 
Public Health Service. Price 50 cents. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office. Washington, D. C. 

Life's Clinic. Bv Edith Houghton Hooker. Price 
25 cents. Association Press, 124 East 28 street, 
New York citv. 

The Epidemiology of Pertussis. By Paul Lut- 
linger, M. D. Bureau of Public Health Educa- 
tion, Department of Health, corner Centre and 
Walker streets. New York city. 

Problems Concerning the Accident and Health 
Insurance Business. By John T. Stone. The 
Insurance Society of New York, 84 William 
street, New York city. 

INDUSTRY 

Planning Public Expenditures to Compensate 

for Decreased Private Employment During 

Business Depressions. By John R. Shillady. 

15 cents, and postage. National Confer- 



ence of Charities and Corrections, 315 Plymouth 
Court, Chicago. 

Wages of Women in Men's Clothing and Rain- 
goat Factories in Massai hi setts. Minimum 
Wage Commission, Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts, 1 Beacon street, Boston. 

The Effects. of the Legal Minimum Wage for 
Women. By A. N. Holcombe. Massach 
Minimum Wage Commission, 1 Beacon street, 
Boston. 

The Personal Relation in Industry. B 

D. Rockefeller. Room 1409, 26 Broadway, New 
York city. 

The Longshoreman's Strike. A Brief Historical 
Sketch of the Strike Inaugurated on June 1, 
1916, in Pacific Coast Ports of the United 
States. Compiled and published by the Water- 
front Workers' Federation, 2940 16 street, San 
Francisco. 

Administration of Child Labor Laws. Part 2. 
Employment Certificate System, New York. By 
Helen L. Sumner and Ethel E. Hanks. United 
States Department of Labor, Children's Bureau. 
Price 20 cents. Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D. C. 

Workmen's Compensation Laws of the United 
States and Foreign Countries. United States 
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics. Price 75 cents. Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. 

INTERNATIONAL 

The American Plan, for the Settlement of 
Our Disputes with Germany and Great 
Britain. Why Not War? By William I. Hull. 
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. 

The Vision of a World Court. By William R. 
Vance. American Society for Judicial Settle- 
ment of International Disputes, Tunstall Smith, 
Assistant Secretary, The Preston, Baltimore, 
Md. 

A Statement on This War. By John Haynes 
Holmes. Price 10 cents. Free Religious Asso- 
ciation of America, 120 Boylston street, Boston. 

Preparation — For Peace or War. A Rational 
Scheme. By George W. Ehler. Price 30 cents. 
Playground and Recreation Association of Amer- 
ica, 1 Madison avenue, New York city. 

Official Documents Looking Toward Peace. 
American Association for International Concilia- 
tion. 407 West 117 street, New York city. 

The Peace of the Nations. By Carlton J. H. 
Haves, University of California, Berkeley. 

The 'National Crisis. By Felix Adler. New 
York Society for Ethical Culture, 2 West 64 
street, New York city. 

Scraps of Paper. German Proclamations in Bel- 
gium and France. Price 25 cents. George H. 
Doran Company, 38 West 32 street, New York 

LIVELIHOOD 

County Outdoor Relief in California. State 
Board of Charities and Corrections, 411 Call 
Building, San Francisco. 

Organized Love at Work. By Oscar Leonard. 
lewish Educational and Charitable Association. 
'901 Carr street, St. Louis. 

Report of the Increased Cost of Living for an 
. illed Laborer's Family in New York 
City. Prepared bv the Bureau of Personal 
Service, of the Board of Estimate and Appor- 
tionment, Municipal Building, New York city. 

An Apostle of Good Will. Founder's Day Ad- 
dress. By Robert R. Moton, Tuskegee Institute, 
Alabama. 

A Child Welfare Research Station. Bulletin 
of the State University, Iowa City, Iowa. 

Bread and Bread Making in the Home. By 
Caroline L. Hunt and Hannah L. Wessling. 
United States Department of Agriculture, Farm- 
ers' Bulletin 807. Price 5 cents. 

List of Books and Pamphlets on Child Wel- 
fare. Compiled by Elva L. Bascom and Doro- 
thy Reed Mendenhall, M. D. Price 6 cents a 
copy; 5 dollars a hundred. The Wisconsin 
Library Commission. Madison, Wis. 

\o\ Contributory Old Age Pensions and 
Health Insurance. .Report of the Special Com- 
mittee on Social Insurance, Boston Chamber of 
amerce, Mass. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Women in National Politics. Record of Wom- 
en's Committee, National Hughes Alliance, 
Room 705, 35 West 39 street, New York city. 

Statement of the Attitude of the Anti-Saloon 
League (New York) Respecting Certain Pro- 
posed Amendments to the Excise Law. Wil- 
liam H. Anderson. State Superintendent, 156 
Fifth avenue. New York city. 

An Open Letter Relating to the Home 
Guards." A Suggestion for Preparedness. By 
D. W. Jenkins, Tremonton, Box Elder County, 
Utah. „ T . 

What Is the Episcopal Church? By John 
Howard Melish, Church of the Holy Trinity, 
Brooklyn, New York. 

The Mind of the Farmer. By Ernest R. Groves, 
New Hampshire College, Durham. 

The Introductory Course in Economics. By 
Charles E. Persons, Washington University, St. 
Louis, Mo. tii-.u 

A Memorial for National Prohibition. With 
the Names of One Thousand Signers. Copies 
may be had of Professor Irving Fisher, Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. 



CONTENTS for MAY 12, 1917 The GIST of IT 



Volume XXXVIII, No. 6 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

In the Rookies' Playtime - - - - - 

Hours and Output - - - - - 

The Task of Civilian War Relief. IV 

From an Elevated Train, a Poem - 

COMMON WELFARE 

What Farmers Think of Boy Labor - 
"And They Did All Eat and Were Filled" 
The Economics of War Prohibition - 
Free Speech and Peaceable Assembly - 
To Save the Army from Venereal Disease - 
Trade Training for the Injured 
War-Time Training and Programs 
Practical Patriotism for Objectors 
Efficiency for the Army Chaplains 

SOCIAL LEGISLATION 

For the Children of Minnesota - - - - 

Prison Progress in New Jersey 
Health Measures Killed in Indiana 
Vermont State Government Reorganized 

New Health Administration for Ohio 
Minimum Wage Established in Arizona 

Gains and Losses in Michigan Session 

Centralized Control for New Hampshire 
Some Progress Reported in Iowa 
Reorganization of the Maine Prisons 



- BRUNO LASKER 137 

JOHN A. FITCH 138 

- 140 

J. M. BATCHEI.OR 141 



142 
142 
143 
144 
145 
145 
146 
146 
146 



W. W. HODSON 



JOHN M. AVERY 



147 
147 

148 

148 
148 



ELWIN L. PAGE 149 

B. P. M.. 149 

- 150 

- 150 

MARGARET H. BROWN 150 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc., Publishers 

ROBERT W. de FOREST, President 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Secretary FRANK TUCKER, Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

112 East 19 street, New York 2559 Michigan ave., Chicago 

PRICE 

Single copies of this issue, 10 cents. Cooperating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular subscriptions 
weekly edition $3 a year. Foreign postage $1.50 extra. Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscription once- 
a-month edition $2 a year. Foreign postage 60 cents extra. Canadian 35 cents. Changes of address 
should he mailed to us ten days in advance. In accordance with a growing practice, when payment 
check a receipt will be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1917, by Survey Associates, Inc. 
Entered as second-class matter March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the act 
of March 3, 1879. 



England Has Done It 

[ NDUSTRIAL peace was an absolute essential of war. 
Munitions, food, shipbuilding — every war-time activity de- 
pended on a regular output of the necessities of life. And 
output depended on the morale of the labor forces. How 
labor was given a hand in the management of industry may 
go down in history as one of the great achievements of these 
times. The story of it told by 

Arthur Gleason, in The Survey Next Week 



"SOLDIER BOYS" they are in fact as well 
as in song, with a hoy's eager zest for play 
and adventure. Secretary of War Baker has 
organized a committee in which repressive 
measures, against liquor and vice, will be 
supplemented by a positive program of 
recreation in charge of the great lay bodies 
in the recreation field — the playground men 
and the Y. M. C. A. Page 137. Chaplains 
who can plav baseball as well as preach are 
sought by the Federal Council of Churches. 
Pnge 147. And the Oregon social hygienists 
are out with a demand for keeping the new 
army free of venereal disease. Page 145. 



FRIENDS have organized to furnish patri- 
otic service for all conscientious objectors, 
whether or not thev .ire church members 
They urge that social work shall not be 
dropped for the new forms of emergencv 
work. Page 146. 



WAR CRIPPLES as well as the vic'ims of 
industrial accidents mav share in the new 
bureau for vocational re-education proposed 
hv the Massachusetts Board of Education. 
Page 145. 



FARMERS are cannv folk concerning their 
own share in the proposal to feed the world 
by putting school bovs at farm work. City 
boys, and particularly boys under 14, are 
not wanted, nor are girls. However much 
of a lark it might prove for the voungsters, 
it would not furnish the dependable labor 
that is needed. Page 142. 



FOOD, clothing and fuel for men and feed 
for beasts are set off as a clo«s hv them- 
selves — "necessaries" — in the administration 
food bill and made subiect to complete gov- 
ernment control. Planting, cultivating, shin- 
nine, milling, distributing, selling mav all 
be taken over bv Uncle Sam and bv him put 
in the capable hands of Mr. Hoover. Page 
142. 



PROHIBITION, under this nermissive hill, 
mav be established bv the President if he 
finds it necessarv. But the war-prohibitionists 
ar" out fir stopping the manufacture and 
sale of all liquor until peace comes and then 
— well, peace is a long way off. The econ- 
omic arguments advanced. Page 143. 



PRESIDENT WILSON and Attorney-Gen- 
eral Gregory asrree that the federal govern- 
ment has no policy of abridging democratic 
rights, such as free speech and assemhlv. 
Numerous arrests, however, have led to the 
organization of a defense league, to furnish 
lawvers to defend free-speech cases, and of 
a legal aid bureau to discover and investi- 
gate such cases. Paere 144. 



MINNESOTA enacted info law a child wel- 
fare program that comprises pretty much all 
of the recommendations of the state commis- 
sion which has been studying the subiect. 
Social legislation, won or lost, in various 
states. Page 147. 



DOWNRIGHT statistical evidence on the 
relation of hours of work to factory output 
is furnished by a shoe factory. The number 
of shoes per man per dav increased with a 
decrease in the working week from 55 hours 
to 52. Page 138. 



WHAT the widow needed wasn't so much 
money as a helning hand oyer th*" hard spits 
— sympathy and advice. That's friendly vis- 
iting. And friendly visiting is what the 
civilian relief workers will chiefly have to 
do. Page 140. 



TRAINING for civilian relief work is of- 
fered bv all the schools of philanthropy and 
by several charitable societies. Page 146. 



ECONOMIC PRIZES 

FOURTEENTH YEAR 

In order to arouse an interest in the study of topics relating to commerce and industry, and to 
stimulate those who have a college training to consider the problems of a business career, a committee 
composed of 

Professor J. Laurence Laughlin, University of Chicago, Chairman 
Professor J. B. Clark, Columbia University 
Professor Henry C. Adams, University of Michigan 
Hon. Theodore E. Burton, New York City, and 
Professor Edwin F. Gay, Harvard University 

has been enabled, through the generosity of Messrs. Hart, Schaffner & Marx of Chicago, to offer in 
1918 four prizes for the best studies in the economic field. 

In addition to the subjects printed below, a list of available subjects proposed in past years will be 
sent on application. Attention is expressly called to the rule that a competitor is not confined to topics 
proposed in the announcements of this committee, but any other subject chosen must first be ap- 
proved by it. 

1. The Economic and Social Effects of the Civil War. 

2. Commercial Treaties and the American Tariff. 

3. Methods of Changing Tariffs in Other Leading Nations. 

4. Recent Tendencies toward Tax Reforms Appearing in State Tax Commissions. 

5. The Meaning and Application of "Fair Valuation" as Used by Utility Commissions. 

6. The Working of the Adamson Eight-Hour Law. 

Class B includes only those who, at the time the papers are sent in, are undergraduates of any 
American college. Class A includes any other Americans without restriction ; the possession of a degree 
is not required of any contestant in this class, nor is any age limit set. 

A First Prize of One Thousand Dollars, and 
A Second Prize of Five Hundred Dollars 

are offered to contestants in Class A. 

A First Prize of Three Hundred Dollars, and 
A Second Prize of Two Hundred Dollars 

are offered to contestants in Class B. The committee reserves to itself the right to award the two 
prizes of $1,000 and $500 of Class A to undergraduates in Class B, if the merits of the papers demand 
it. The committee also reserves the privilege of dividing the prizes offered, if justice can be best ob- 
tained thereby. The winner of a prize shall not receive the amount designated until he has prepared 
his manuscript for the printer to the satisfaction of the committee. 

The ownership of the copyright of successful studies will vest in the donors, and it is expected that, without precluding 
the use of these papers as theses for higher degrees, they will cause them to be issued in some permanent form. 

Competitors are advised that the studies should be thorough, expressed in good English, and although not limited as 
to length, they should not be needlessly expanded. They should be inscribed with an assumed name, the class in which 
they are presented, and accompanied by a sealed envelope giving the real name and address of the competitor. No paper 
is eligible which shall have been printed or published in a form to disclose the identity of the author before the award shall 
have been made. If the competitor is in CLASS B, the sealed envelope should contain the name of the institution in which 
he is studying. The papers should be sent on or before June 1, 1918, to 

J. Laurence Laughlin, Esq. 

The University of Chicago 
Chicago, Illinois 



[ADVERTISEMENT] 








In the Rookies' Playtime 

Plans for the Recreation of Soldiers in Training 

By Bruno Lasker 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



~W"~W" "T*E often speak of our "soldier boys" with a pater- 

^ M / nal pride which would seem to indicate a care 

^Ll ^U for their welfare no less pronounced than that of 

T V parents who, in selecting the best schools for 

their children, in watching over the company they keep, and 

in providing them with the best opportunities for wholesome 

good fun, do everything in their power to hold off possible 

evil influences on their mental and moral development. Yet 

one of the most deplorable chapters in military history is 

that which reveals the unconcern with which great armies 

of young men have been exposed in the training camps and in 

the field to every kind of temptation. Perhaps equally great 

has been the unconcern for the welfare of the folks among 

whom, for the time being, their lot was cast. 

"The greatest evil to society," Dr. M. J. Exner concludes 
his report on prostitution in its relation to the army on the 
Mexican border, "results from the shattered ideals, lowered 
standards, sensualized minds and perverted practices which 
are brought into home life and society by these men who 
represent in large measure the cream of the young manhood 
of the nation." 

To Secretary of War Newton D. Baker belongs the credit 
of having first conceived the full responsibility of the nation 
to her "soldier boys" not only when on duty but also when 
on leave; and not only to the soldiers but also to the civilians 
among whom they settle for varying periods. A study of the 
experience of England and France, in this matter, and of the 
United States army on the border, convinced him that too 
much in the past has been left to chance and that new stand- 
ards are required in a field of operations which too often has 
been looked upon as inconsequential. As a first step, he ap- 
pointed to advise him a commission on training camp activities 
under the chairmanship of Raymond B. Fosdick, of the Rocke- 
feller Foundation, who recently studied conditions at the 
border. Associated with him are Joseph Lee, Boston, Play- 
ground and Recreation Association of America, Lee F. Han- 
mer, Recreation Department, Russell Sage Foundation, Dr. 
Joseph Raycroft, director of physical education, Princeton, 
Malcolm McBride, Cleveland, Charles P. Neill, former com- 



missioner of labor statistics, Maj. Palmer E. Pierce and 
Thomas J. Howells, Pittsburgh. 

While in some respects the plans of the committee have 
not as yet manured, the government has already, in an execu- 
tive order signed by President Wilson on April 27, given 
official recognition to the Y. M. C. A. "as a valuable adjunct 
and asset to the service." Emphasizing the efficacy of the 
services already rendered by the association in the past to the 
happiness, content and morale of the personnel, the order 
enjoins officers "to render the fullest practicable assistance 
and cooperation in the maintenance and extension of the 
association, both at permanent posts and stations and in camp 
and field." The President himself sent the association a cor- 
dial appreciation of its activities and influence. 

The Y. M. C. A. expects that the duties which it has under- 
taken will involve the erection of about two hundred build- 
ings in the army camps throughout the country, each to serve 
a brigade and to have a staff of five secretaries. In addition, 
the experience of the border has taught the need for a mobile 
force of secretaries, equipped with automobiles, to serve out- 
posts. Already valuable work is being done to bring cheer 
to the men who guard bridges and munition plants, taking to 
them books, writing materials and words of inspiration. One 
such unit often covers a considerable number of detachments 
and, as may be imagined, is received with delight by the men 
on their lonely posts of duty. 

In addition to the thirteen officers' training camps, which 
probably will become part of the general system of training 
camps later on and where the erection of Y. M. C. A. build- 
ings on permanent lines has already been commenced, there 
will probably be an immediate need for complete services 
in some twelve camps for the mobilization of the national 
guard and, when the draft bill becomes law, in camps accom- 
modating half a million recruits. It is not impossible that 
before the end of the summer the Y. M. C. A. will be charged 
with the responsibility for a million men in camps, not count- 
ing those in barracks, who also have to be provided with all 
the aid which the organization can give. To enlarge its work 
in keeping with such a task, the association has commenced to 

137 



138 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 12, 1917 



raise a fund of $3,000,000 for the present year. Among the 
larger gifts toward it so far received is one of $50,000 by the 
United States Steel Corporation. 

For the personnel, the association is able to draw upon the 
men who have acquired experience in this work and a thor- 
ough knowledge of all its requirements, other Y. M. C. A. 
secretaries and ministers, professional and business men, and 
upper class college students qualified for such service to whom, 
if necessary, a special training will be given before assignment 
to definite responsibilities. 

The Y. M. C. A. does not, however, possess a monopoly 
of recreational and religious activities in the training camps, 
though naturally the commanding officers prefer so far as 
possible to work only with one organization. Athletic activi- 
ties usually are in the charge of an officer who works in close 
cooperation with the association secretary in the organization 
of inter-company and inter-regimental events. The buildings 
of the Y. M. C. A. are, so far as ever practicable, placed at 
the disposal of denominations which desire to arrange for 
formal services ; and cordial relationships with the clergy and 
officers of these denominations have, in practically every case, 
been established. 

The educational work, in some of the camps, is likely to 
be of considerable scope and variety. In one camp, last year, 
no less than twenty subjects were being taught, ranging from 
the three R's to history and philosophy. This, of course, en- 
tails a close cooperation with local schoolmen upon which, 
on the strength of its past experience, the association has every 
right to count. What is entailed in providing wholesome 
recreation for an army may be illustrated by an item of 3,000 
checkerboards as part of the material that went to the Mexi- 
can border. Writing utensils, books, sometimes apparatus for 
the provision of ice water, entertainments and games of many 
kinds, especially moving pictures and pianos, are among the 
equipment which will be systematically distributed. 

A new type of monitor building, signifying further improve- 
ments upon the existing permanent camp buildings of the 
Y. M. C. A. (as illustrated in the Survey for November 25, 
1916) is being planned. It will provide for living quarters 
for the secretaries and a number of small study and confer- 
ence rooms at one end of the large assembly rooms, shut off 
from their noise and bustle. At the other end of the building 
there is a series of classrooms which can be thrown together to 
increase the capacity of the main hall. The moving picture 
apparatus is so located that it can be used to entertain either 
500 men in the assembly hall or, through an aperture in the 
wall, 5,000 outside. 



To formulate plans which will make the camp Y. M. C. A. 
a clearing house for every useful social and recreational effort 
which may be offered by other local and national organiza- 
tions, a war work council of 100 has been appointed of which 
William Sloane is chairman and J. S. Tichenor the general 
director. 

The other national organizations represented on Secretary 
Baker's advisory committee, and a number of others which 
have offered their whole-hearted cooperation, including the 
Y. W. C. A. and the W. C. T. U., will not only aid the 
Y. M. C. A. in this camp work, but will endeavor to mobilize 
the social forces in the centers near the training camps. The 
preliminary program, briefly, includes measures for 

( 1 ) control over excise conditions in and around the train- 
ing camps for the purpose of effectively preventing excessive 
opportunities for indulging in alcoholic drink and prostitution; 

(2) the provision of recreational facilities in the camp, 
already referred to ; and 

(3) the provision of recreational facilities outside the 
training camp for the twofold purpose of safeguarding soldiers 
from temptations when on leave and of preventing the degen- 
eration of social life in the neighborhood of the camps, which 
so easily results from the concentration of large numbers of 
more or less irresponsible young men around towns and. cities 
where their presence calls forth an enthusiasm often venting 
itself in undesirable and dangerous forms. 

This last named aim is perhaps the most far-reaching, as 
it is the most novel, since it will include an endeavor to stim- 
ulate natural family and group contact between the townsfolk 
and the soldiers. Instead of remaining strangers with no spe- 
cial concern for the well-being of the people (and especially 
the girls and women) among whom they seek relaxation from 
their duties, the men will be individually sought out by those 
who share with them some interest or are fellow members 
with them of some inter-local organization. Churches, lodges, 
trade unions, vocational, athletic, musical and other 
common interests will be brought in to play a part in this 
adjustment. 

In addition, the local authorities and private organizations 
which provide more promiscuous recreational opportunities 
will be aided and encouraged to adopt the best methods sug- 
gested by the experience of the competent national organiza- 
tions and their agents and, if necessary, in enlarging their 
activities under approved leadership. By these several means 
it is expected that the evils of intemperance and immorality 
so commonly and so unnecessarily associated with large en- 
campments can be greatly reduced if not altogether eliminated. 



Hours and Output 



Some War-Time Testimony in Favor of a Short Work-Day 

By John A. Fitch 



OF THE SURVEY STAFF 



Our whole experience tends to justify the shorter-hours movement. 
We are absolutely convinced that it is right for the community as a 
whole, because we feel sure it would increase the net productivity 
of society. 

THIS statement from an executive of a company em- 
ploying over 4,000 men in the manufacture of shoes 
and which five months ago reduced hours of labor, 
has a force and a significance that is unusual now 
that demands are being made for an extension of working 
hours as a war-time economy. 



Those who have given any attention to working hours in 
industrial plants know that long hours of labor are not eco- 
nomical either in peace or in war. One has only to investigate 
the experience of the Commonwealth Steel Company, of 
Granite City, 111., the Cleveland Hardware Company, J. H. 
Williams & Company, of Brooklyn, a firm in which the 
secretary of commerce, William C. Redfield, was for many 
years a partner, the Ford Motor Company, of Detroit, the 
steel industry of England, the building of ships for the United 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 12, 1 g 1 7 



139 



States navy — to mention only a few of the many examples 
that are available — to become convinced that a short work- 
day — even an eight-hour day, results in increased production. 

The letter published herewith adds to this volume of testi- 
mony and it is the more valuable because the experiment has 
been made in these very days of stress, which to the thought- 
less afford justification for a breakdown in labor standards. 
It is hard to escape from the inexorable logic of the facts 
as presented by the executive whose responsibility is for the 
maintenance of productive efficiency. 

Here is the letter, written last month : 

During the first week of December, 1916, our company voluntarily 
reduced the hours of labor in its entire system of factories from fifty- 
five hours per week to fifty-two hours per week. 

This change was put in effect at a time when the conditions in our 
factories were such as to furnish excellent data as to the result of 
such a reduction in hours on the production of a large number of 
employes. 

In the period before the change was made: 

1. We had built up production to what was regarded as approxi- 
mately maximum, each plant having reached a production in excess 
of any previous period. 

2. Each plant was laid out with the maximum number of machines 
in the space available. 

3. There was an employe on practically every machine in the 
system. 

4. Over 95 per cent of the productive payroll was on standardized 
piece work. 

5. All of the plants were running smoothly under a routing system 
in which delays due to lack of material were practically zero. 

6. No new factories were in process of organization. 

7. No material changes were being made in the character of the 
product. 

8. No new machinery or processes tending to increase per capita 
output materially were being installed; what few changes were being 
made would tend to increase slightly the productive difficulty of the 
product. 

9. Standard production load was such that "going out early" was 
almost unknown; here and there a few special departments were 
working overtime occasionally. 

Our system of factories may be divided into two general classes: 

1. Supply factories where material is cut or prepared and fed to 
the shoe factories. 

2. Seven shoe factories where the product is assembled. 

As the seven shoe factories are operated under a standard system, 
the conditions are comparable with those of sister ships in the navy. 
Production is routed into and through these factories in what we call 
"sheets," each sheet constituting a half-day's and eleven sheets a 
week's production. When the hours of labor were decreased in De- 
cember, 1916, it was decided to make no reduction in the standard 
sheet or half-day quota. The plan was to determine after trial what 
reduction, if any, would prove necessary as a result of the shorter 
hours. 

We have operated under the reduced hours for four months. It 
has been found unnecessary to reduce standard production; actual 
production has not decreased. The following table shows the 
changes made in standard production since the first week in De- 
cember: 

Factory Production changed 
Date Symbol From To Reason 

Mar. '17 MC 212 200 To offset increase in a 

difficult portion of pro- 
duction 
Apr. '17 MC 200 212 Former production re- 

sumed 
Mar. '17 ME 288 275 To facilitate improve- 

ment of product 
Mar. '17 ML 250 262 Factory gaining in act- 

ual production 
Feb. '17 MD 288 275 To offset an increase in 

more difficult part of 
product 
Dec. '16 MN 238 250 Increased production 

MP 175 175 No change 

MT 108 108 No change 



Under the production system in use any department falling behind 
standard production to such an extent as to be one-half day behind 
schedule would automatically cause what is called a "dropping of 
sheets" and a reduction in the standard production for the particular 
factory involved. This event has not occurred; in fact, the writer, 
who has been in general charge of the production system in this 
company for over ten years, believes that at no period in its history 
have we had so little trouble with the production system as during 
the winter of 1916 and 1917, this, too, in spite of the fact that we 
have had more difficulties arising from outside our plants than here- 
tofore, namely: 

1. Shortage of material. 

2. Railroad traffic disturbances, resulting in unexpected delays in 
materials. 

Our organization would regard the above data as ample to justify 
the general conclusion that we have lost no production as a result of 
shortening hours. To reduce it to an absolute certainty, however, we 
have taken from our actual records data for the two months pre- 
ceding and the months following the reduction in hours, namely: 

1. Actual number of employes on the payrolls. 

2. Actual production shipped. 

3. Comparison in the unit representing the productivity per em- 
ploye per working day. 

These figures cover the combined production of the seven shoe 
factories (sister assembling plants) and result as follows: 



Total number 

of employes 

3986 

4105 

4170 



Productive unit per 

employe per day 

based on pairs shipped 

8.91 

9.00 

9.02 



Period 
October and Nov. '16 
(Working 55 hours) 
Dec. '16 and Jan. '17 
(Working 52 hours) 
Feb. and Mar. '17 
(Working 52 hours) 

Notes: 

(a) Number of employes includes both productive and non-pro- 
ductive; non-productive payroll, however, is carefully standardized 
and changes in it during this period were infinitesimal. 

(b) Of productive payrolls 95 per cent plus is piece-work. 

(c) Employes classified by sex: Male, 60 per cent; female, 40 per 
cent (based on previous estimates, but percentages fluctuate only 
slightly) . 

(d) During the winter months there were several bad epidemics 
of colds and grippe, tending to increase production losses from 
absence. 

(e) A shortage of available labor made employment conditions 
difficult. 

The writer is firmly convinced from this and other similar ex- 
periments that long working hours are not onlv an economic loss to 
the community as a whole, but that there is ample evidence to in- 
dicate that even inside factory walls there is no net profit in running 
on a schedule much over eight and one-half hours per day. There 
are so many complex factors entering into the production of the 
individual employe and particularly into the production of employe 
groups that the old theory of proportional production per hour is 
absolutely untenable. 

Our experience has been that overtime work is decidedly unde- 
sirable as a method of increasing production. Our policy is to 
discourage it in all departments. Toward this end we have made it 
a rule for several years to pay 50 per cent extra for all piece-work 
done during overtime hours. We permit overtime work ordinarily 
only under the following conditions: 

1. To quicklv offset breaks in continuous production. 

2. Where only a small number of employes are affected. 

3. For short periods. 

To sum up, our whole experience tends to justify the shorter- 
hours movement. We are absolutely convinced that it is right for 
the community as a whole, because we feel sure it would increase 
the net productivity of society. We believe it is right for the indi- 
vidual factory unit because we have come to realize that even in 
an individual plant the real problem is to get the maximum amount 
of work done by a given thousand people, not in a day, in a week, 
or in a year, but in a lifetime. 



The Task of Civilian War Relief 

The fourth of a series of articles based upon a course of lectures upon civilian relief now be- 
ing delivered in New York with the sanction of the American Red Cross by Porter R. Lee of 
the staff of the New York School of Philanthropy. The articles are being written by Karl de 
Schweinitz of the New York Charity Organization Society 



IV 



PEOPLE have never been worth so much as now. 
The longer the war continues its wastage of human 
material the more valuable do men and women be- 
come — men and women, that is, who in ability, 
character and physique are sturdy and sound. Every person 
matters — and surely most of all the families of soldiers and 
sailors. To maintain their fitness is a national obligation. 

When such a family is found to be in need the civilian 
relief worker must do more than attempt to provide for its 
support. She must also think in terms of health, education 
and that indefinable element — character, standard of living, 
stamina — which we have in mind when we speak of a family 
as being of good stock. These things are vital in every 
household. To the family that is in distress they present 
themselves as complicated problems. In many respects, how- 
ever, they appear similarly to the family of a widow and to 
the wife and family of a soldier, for in both homes the ab- 
sence of the father is likely to be the immediate cause of 
need. 

The civilian relief worker will, therefore, find suggestive 
the experience of social workers in helping widows with chil- 
dren. To assist such families to maintain a decent standard 
of living it is essential to know the condition of the woman's 
health, her qualities as a mother, as a manager and as a wage- 
earner. It is necessary that the ability of the widow as a 
wage-earner be understood not because the social worker 
starts with the assumption that a widow should work. Prob- 
ably she ought not to work. Possibly her children will de- 
mand her full attention. On the other hand, it may be 
desirable that she do a day or more of work a week. For 
many women this offers a welcome break in the monotony 
of a tenement-house home. She may want to work. If she 
does work it is important that her capacity be known in 
advance. 

What are her own plans for her family? It would be 
disastrous indeed for the social worker to prepare to help a 
family without knowing what that family was trying to do 
to help itself. Whenever possible it is advisable to adopt 
the plans which the widow has thought out for herself. It 
is a means of stimulating self-reliance and of preserving 
in her the sense of responsibility for her own future. If two 
plans are equally good, the plan conceived by the family should 
be pursued. 

Although the man is absent he is still a part of the family. 
If he is dead, his illness and the circumstances of his death 
should be ascertained. Suppose he had died of tuberculosis, 
for example, would not that have a decided bearing upon 
what ought to be done for the health of the mother and 
children? Or suppose that an accident caused his death, 
would one not want to try to secure compensation for them? 
These problems in caring for the families of soldiers will be 
simpler than with the family of a widow, both because the 
causes of death are more restricted in number and because 
access to military records will be possible. 

The earning power of the man, his occupation and his 

140 



quality as a workman are one indication of the standard of 
living to which the family has been accustomed. Further- 
more, a knowledge of what sort of man he was and of what 
was his influence at home is essential if anything is to be 
done toward making up in some measure to the family the 
things which in his character as father he supplied. 

Social work builds for the future. Thus acquaintance with 
the health of the children must be had. Their records in 
school should be ascertained. Their individual character- 
istics should be understood and their aptitudes, their special 
talents, should be known. The social worker, in other words, 
must be prepared to give vocational guidance. She must have 
whatever background of information may be necessary to en- 
able her to help the children start life aright. 

How was the family supported before it came to the 
attention of the social worker? Means of support that have 
been valuable thus far may perhaps be continued in the future. 
Moreover, the manner in which the household has been main- 
tained may be an indication of the resourcefulness of the 
mother. Lastly, it is important to understand what, as Miss 
Richmond has phrased it, the family was at its best. The 
aim of the social worker is to lift the family that has fallen 
into misfortune up to a satisfactory standard of living. The 
question that interests her, therefore, is whether this means 
restoring the family to something it has known before or to 
an entirely new standard. If the first is true the task may be 
easier than if new things must be attempted. Under any 
circumstances, a knowledge of what the family was at its 
best will influence decidedly the procedure that is to be 
followed. 

Many of the things that ought to be known about the 
mother, the father, the children and the family as a whole 
will appear in the first interview which the social worker 
has with the woman. Often, also, through this first talk 
other means of acquiring an understanding of the situation 
will present themselves. In the article in the Survey for 
May 5 the value of consulting relatives, former employers, 
previous addresses, public records, school, church and social 
agencies was explained. As the social worker extends her 
acquaintance in this way she will find her appreciation of 
what the family is and what it can become increasing. 

To obtain this insight into the problems of the household 
one must be careful to avoid bias. One must weigh evidence. 
One must take into consideration the prejudices of those 
who offer information. 

Thus the relatives of a certain widow urged that the 
home be given up and that the children be sent to institutions. 
They said that the mother was a poor manager. They added 
that they would have nothing to do with her because she 
had not been grateful when they paid the expenses of her 
husband's funeral. They had even offered to take care of 
two of the children, but the mother did not want them to go 
because she did not wish them to be brought up as Protestants. 
These statements the social worker discounted, for she 
knew that the relatives were not of the same religious faith 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 12, ig 17 



141 



as the widow. Because of this, they were not kindly disposed 
toward her. The relatives were, however, correct when they 
said that the mother was careless about the regularity of the 
children's school attendance. The social worker herself had 
seen them at home when they ought to have been in the class- 
room. Few qualifications arc more necessary to the person 
who desires to work with families than this ability to weigh 
evidence, to consider the source of information and to with- 
hold judgment until the correct inference can be drawn. 

One must also be careful not to allow any rumor prejudicial 
to the character of the family to stand without investigation. 
People are unfortunately quick to allow themselves to be 
prejudiced by even the flimsiest sort of evidence against the 
integrity of a neighbor. Therefore, if a rumor exists it must 
be followed to its source. If untrue it can be stopped and if 
true one will know the facts and be able to act intelligently. 

A school teacher found that an article had disappeared from 
the schoolroom in such a way as to make it seem that it had 
been stolen. She wrote a letter to the mother of the girl 
whom the evidence apparently pronounced guilty. The 
mother did not answer the letter and accordingly the school 
teacher felt confirmed in her opinion. She told the story to 
a social worker, who had just been called upon to help the 
family. The straightforward and simple thing for the social 
worker to have done would have been to speak to the mother, 
but the school teacher in giving the information had asked 
that no use be made of it. 

Some years later, however, when the girl ran away to be 
married the story of the theft immediately suggested itself to 
the social worker. There is nothing necessarily wrong in an 
elopement, yet the unconfirmed story of the stolen article made 
the manner of the girl's marriage appear to be far more 
significant than it really was. 

Incidentally, this story illustrates the importance of not 
allowing oneself to be hampered in the use of information. 
The records of the civilian relief committee should be care- 
fully guarded. The affairs of the families which come under 
its care should be considered as confidential but, at the same 
time, the social worker should retain the right to use her 
knowledge whenever she believes that this use is important 
to the welfare of the family. 

It must not be inferred from this that the chief purpose 
of the social worker in visiting former employers, relatives and 
other persons connected with a family is to obtain information. 
Just as the social worker must understand the capacity of the 
family, so also she must learn what those who know the 
family can do to help it. And the help she seeks is not merely 



financial. Often she may not even need this. Always, no 
matter what other assistance she desires for the family, she 
is searching for the aid of personal influence. 

There are few people who are not stimulated to better 
things by example or by a desire to please someone whom 
they admire. It is much easier to try to make good if there 
is some particular person who is interested in seeing one make 
good. If there is no such person in the family acquaintance- 
ship and relationship, the social worker frequently tries to 
introduce someone to the family who can have this sort of 
influence. This someone is called a friendly visitor. 

Thus there was introduced to the widow who, as described 
above, was careless about the school attendance of her chil- 
dren, a woman of middle age, a sane, practical, level-headed 
woman, who had always done her own housework and had 
had a family of children all of whom were now grown. This 
woman soon won the friendship and confidence of the widow, 
and, where others had failed, readily persuaded her to keep her 
children in school. When housework began to seem like 
drudgery to the widow and her oldest son became unruly, it 
was the friendly visitor who from her own experience gave 
advice about the boy and encouragement about the house- 
keeping. She gave nothing else except some stockings and 
mittens for the children, which she knitted while spending 
an afternoon every now and then at the widow's home. Yet, 
although she contributed only her interest and her influence, 
so strong a friendship bound the two women that she became 
perhaps the most vital factor in the widow's life. The help? 
fulness of such a friendly visitor should be a valuable sug- 
gestion to the. civilian relief worker. 

Another form of influence not to be overlooked is that of 
the church. The widow just described became careless about 
her attendance at church and about the attendance of her 
children. The social worker wrote to the woman and urged 
that whatever one's religion was one ought to observe it. The 
woman was a Catholic. The social worker was in the employ 
of a non-sectarian organization and was herself a member of 
the Society of Friends, but she recognized the importance of 
the influence of church life in helping a family out of trouble. 

Here, too, the ordinary course of social work has its lesson 
for the civilian relief worker. If her object is to maintain 
the fitness of the families of the men who are fighting for the 
nation, she must understand fully all the problems affecting 
their lives, spiritual and moral as well as economic and social, 
and in providing for their physical needs she must not neg- 
lect those other things which though less tangible are more 
fundamental. 



FROM AN ELEVATED TRAIN 

By J. M. Batchelor 



A GLOOMY street in sunlight, nor does dark 
Disguise its dreariness; the windows stark 
Of wholesale houses, cavernous and bare, 
Show dust-smeared panes before the pallid glare 
Of cold lights high within. An endless row 
Of street-lamps, rising tall, wan brightness throw 
And heavy shadows, sharply angled, cast 
On faces that go by in throngs as fast 
As scattered bits of paper whirled away 
In swollen gutters on a rainy day. 



COM) 




WHAT FARMERS THINK OF 
BOY LABOR 

PROTECTIVE laws for children had 
been modified as a part of the gen- 
eral war program in only two states up 
to May 7, so far as the National Child 
Labor Committee was advised. In Iowa 
the governor has been given power to 
suspend the child labor law in case of 
emergency. In Pennsylvania the State 
Board of Education has issued a state- 
ment authorizing the withdrawal from 
school of children of twelve years or 
older to work on farms. In New York 
a bill giving the commissioner of educa- 
tion discretionary power to suspend the 
compulsory education law passed the 
Senate last week and is scheduled to 
come to a vote in the Assembly this 
week. In many other states similar ac- 
tion is being urged, but in many of them 
the legislatures having adjourned, there 
is no possibility of the repeal or sus- 
pension of the child labor laws. 

In order to get the viewpoint of the 
persons most concerned — after the chil- 
dren themselves — th